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Overview

Essential C++ for Engineers and Scientists zeros in on the key elements of good programming and C++, using a multitude of interesting and appropriate engineering and scientific examples. This book covers the features of C++ needed for writing engineering programs, including many features of object-oriented programming. Early on, the book makes some simplifying assumptions that allow the use of C++ topics without lengthy explanation, and then later discusses the intricacies of the features. Readers will come away with the confidence needed to solve problems with C++. This book covers the essential features of C++, including control structures, one-dimensional and multidimensional arrays, and file manipulation. It contains over 80 engineering and scientific examples and programming projects drawn from interesting areas such as solar heating, environmentally sound power production, water conservation, automated manufacturing, and pipeline and power grid modeling. The new edition includes material on member operators and more coverage of member functions, as well as expanded coverage of files. Two new case studies demonstrate full algorithm development. All code has been updated to comply with ANSI C++ Standard. An appendix on C is also included for readers who want to use this language. This book is especially appropriate for engineers (but also for scientists, mathematicians, etc.) with no prior programming experience looking for an introduction to C++, focusing on the features of the language that can be applied to their industry.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201741254
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 10/28/2001
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 560
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Essential C++ for Engineers and Scientists, Second edition, teaches the essentials of problem solving and programming using a subset of C++ as the implementation language. It includes many practical examples from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. The text can be used for a first course in programming: It assumes no prior knowledge of computers or programming.

Although somewhat abbreviated, the C++ coverage in this book includes the features useful in typical engineering and scientific programs, and it demonstrates these features as they are actually used, not in isolation. Language topics are presented in an order common in teaching other languages: first the basic control structures (sequence, selection, and repetition), input/output operations, expression evaluation, and library functions, and then defining and calling the user's own functions. Next, the fundamental construct of an object-oriented C++ program, the class, is presented. After the chapter on classes, the text builds on the notion of object orientation while continuing the standard subject matter of an introductory programming course for engineers and scientists: arrays and strings, multidimensional arrays, a review of file manipulation, and an introduction to selected numerical methods.

When C++ offers multiple ways of accomplishing the same goal, the text usually selects just one and uses it consistently. For example, it teaches the use of references for output parameters and limits coverage of pointers to array parameters and to dynamically allocated arrays. Changes in the New Edition

Throughout the text, all programming examples have been updated toconform to standard C++ use of namespaces. We have improved the book in many other ways as well:

  • Integrated introduction to input/output file use with loop coverage
  • Added presentation of structs
  • Added smaller scale first example of classes
  • Added member operators while retaining friend operators
  • Expanded coverage of dynamically allocated arrays, both one- and two-dimensional
  • Integrated standard string class into data type coverage beginning in Chapter 2 (retained Cstring basics in array chapter)
  • Expanded numerical methods coverage by adding a case study on the use of augmented matrices to solve systems of linear equations
  • Added case studies using decision structures for finch classification and file use for database representation
  • Included more examples of reference parameters
  • Expanded input error recovery coverage
  • Added 50% more programming projects
  • Created new appendices in response to reviewer requests:
    • Introduction to C programming language
    • Laboratory-style introductions to two C++ integrated development environments—Microsoft Visual C++ and Borland C++ Builder
Flexible Ordering of Topics

Professors who prefer to present topics in an order different from the one in the textbook should check the dependencies shown in Table P.1 (in preface). Several sections of the text are completely optional, with no subsequent dependencies: Recursive Functions (5.6), Class Reuse (6.7), and Heap-Dynamic Array Allocation (7.6, 8.4). Figure P.1 (in preface) lists several different possible orderings of topics. What About NO Objects?

A careful study of Fig. P.1 (in preface) shows that if you prefer not to cover objects at all, you can still present all other language topics except multidimensional arrays and dynamic array allocation. We have chosen to show function parameters that are multidimensional arrays only in the context of an object representation. This choice stems from our conviction that such a representation is simpler, since students can pass matrices as input and output parameters in exactly the same way as they pass simpler objects. Software Engineering Concepts

This text presents many aspects of software engineering. Early chapters on control structures take a process-oriented approach to analysis and design and demonstrate algorithm development through stepwise refinement of pseudo-code. These chapters also include sections on tracing and debugging code. Chapter 5 introduces procedural abstraction through user-defined functions, and Chapter 6's introduction of classes is interwoven with examples of the object-oriented design process first described in Chapter 1.

The book emphasizes early on the need for a consistent, readable coding style, and its examples demonstrate such a style throughout. The inside back cover of the text shows examples of most C++ constructs. In addition to serving as a quick reference to where these constructs are discussed in the book, this table can be used as a standard for style of indentation, bracket use, and naming conventions. Pedagogical Features

This textbook uses a rich array of pedagogical features with which to engage the student.

Definitions of Important Terms. Important terms are defined in the margins of the text.

End-of-Section Review Questions. Most sections are followed by a set of questions that check the student's understanding of the material covered. Some questions call for the analysis and tracing of program fragments; others ask the student to write or to modify some code. Answers to the odd-numbered questions are in the Answers section; answers to the even-numbered questions are included in the on-line Instructor's Manual.

Programming Projects. Each chapter concludes with a set of programming projects. Answers to selected projects appear in the on-line Instructor's Manual, so instructors also have the option of distributing all or part of a solution and asking the students to complete, extend, or improve the solution.

Examples and Case Studies. The book contains a wide variety of examples and case studies specially selected to give the student glimpses of important science and engineering applications of computing. They are usually complete programs, functions, or class definitions rather than incomplete fragments.

Code and Input Highlighting. Many programming examples use shading to draw the student's eye to sections of the code that demonstrate the current topic of interest. Additionally, all examples of program runs shade user-entered input to distinguish it from computer-generated output.

Pitfalls and Chapter Reviews. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of common programming errors, followed by a summary of important points in the chapter, and a table of new C++ constructs.

Comprehensive Index. Every textbook has an index, but this book's index is truly a pedagogical feature. Constructed by hand, the index includes terms, concepts, and examples from all chapters and appendixes. Appendixes and Supplements

Reference tables of C++ operator precedence and C++ constructs appear on the inside covers of the book. Appendix A compares C++ to its parent language, C; Appendix B gives selected run-time functions available in standard libraries; and Appendix C summarizes selected I/O facilities. Appendix D is a reference for the standard string class; Appendix E is a reference of C++ operators; and Appendix F is a list of ANSI C++ keywords. Appendixes G and H introduce popular C++ integrated development environments and Appendix I lists the ASCII and EBCDIC character sets.

The Instructor's Manual includes suggestions for teaching each chapter, two quizzes for each chapter, a bank of exam questions, solutions to even-numbered review questions, and solutions to selected programming projects. It is accessible by qualified instructors only. Please contact your sales representative through the World Wide Web.

The example program code is available online at http://www.aw.com/cssupport (follow the links from there). Within the text, the programs that can be downloaded from this website are marked with a "www" icon. Acknowledgments

Many people assisted in the development of this book. I am very grateful for the numerous examples and programming exercises contributed by Joan C. Horvath of Takeoff Technologies. I especially thank my University of Wyoming colleagues who have so graciously answered my questions. From Computer Science, they include Allyson J. Anderson (who prepared much of the answer key and the Instructor's Manual), John F. Ellis (who suggested the finch classification case study), Michael J. Magee, and John H. Rowland; from Geography, Lawrence M. Ostresh; from Mathematics, G. Eric Moorhouse; and from Mechanical Engineering, Dennis N. Coon and Donald A. Smith.

The reviewers of this manuscript were enormously helpful in suggesting improvements and in finding errors. They include:

Hyder A. Ali, California State University at Northridge
Christopher T. Alvin, University of Wisconsin at Madison
Todd Arbogast, University of Texas at Austin
Tom Bullock, University of Florida
Stephen B. Dobrow, Farleigh Dickinson University
Martin Granier, Western Washington University
Tom Hill, University at Buffalo
Jacob Y. Kazakia, Lehigh University
Andrew Kinley, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Dr. JoAnn B. Koskol, Widener University
Donna L. Occhifinto, County College of Morris
S. D. Rajan, Arizona State University
Robert A. Rouse, Washington University St. Louis
Chi N. Thai, University of Georgia
Anthony Trippe, Rochester Institute of Technology
Tom Walker, Virginia Tech
Dr. David T. Young, Louisiana State University

I am grateful for the ongoing support of the Addison-Wesley team in this endeavor: Computer Science Executive Editor Susan Hartman Sullivan was responsible for initiating the new edition, Galia Shokry was the editorial assistant, Patty Mahtani supervised the design and production of the book, and Michael Hirsch developed the marketing campaign. Trillium Project Management and Publishers' Design and Production Services, Inc. coordinated the conversion of the manuscript to a finished book.

J.R.H.

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Table of Contents

(Each chapter ends with a “Chapter Review.”)

Preface.

1. Computers: Revolutionary Machines with a Simple Design.

Computer Components.

Computer Software.

Object-Oriented Programming.

Computing for Engineers and Scientists.

2. Basic Elements of a C++ Program.

Simple C++ Program.

Statement Execution.

Input/Output Operations.

Data Types.

Arithmetic Expressions.

Additional Operators.

Namespaces.

Software Designer Beware.

3. Control Structures.

Three Essential Structures.

Conditions.

Selection and Repetition.

Nested and Multiple-Alternative Selection Structures.

The switch Statement for Multiple Alternatives.

Problem Solving with Decisions.

Software Designer Beware.

4. Repetition Structures.

Loop Form and the while Statement.

Interactive and Batch Processing.

The for Statement.

Operators That Change Their Operands.

Input Errors.

The do-while Loop.

Problem Solving with Loops.

Software Designer Beware.

5. User-Defined Functions.

Single-Result Functions.

void Functions.

Functions with Output Parameters.

Overloaded Functions.

Introduction to Scope of Names.

Recursive Functions (Optional).

Problem Solving with User-Defined Functions.

Software Designer Beware.

6. Data Structures and Classes of Objects.

Structure Types.

A Simple Class.

Analysis and Design of Classes.

Implementation of a Design as a Class.

Accessors and Constructor Functions for Type Conversion.

Class Reuse (Optional).

Software Designer Beware.

7. Arrays and Strings.

Arrays for List Storage.

Sequential Access of Array Elements.

Using Whole Arrays as Parameters.

Strings Revisited.

Classes with Array Components.

Dynamically Allocated Array Components.

Software Designer Beware.

8. Multidemensional Arrays.

Creating and Using Multidemensional Arrays.

Matrix Operations.

Linear Systems.

Dynamic Allocation of Two-Dimensional Array Components.

Software Designer Beware.

9. Input and Output Streams.

Text Files.

Stream Error Detection.

Formatting Text Output.

Searching a Database.

Software Designer Beware.

10. Introduction to Numerical Methods.

Finding Roots of Functions.

Fundamental Statistics.

Numerical Differentiation.

Numerical Integration.

Solving First-Order Differential Equations.

Software Designer Beware.

Appendix A. C, Parent Language of C++.

Appendix B. Selected C++ Standard Functions/Macros.

Appendix C. Selected C++ Input/Output Facilities.

Appendix D. Selected Facilities Provided by Class string.

Appendix E. C++ Operators.

Appendix F. C++ Keywords.

Appendix G. Microsoft Visual C++ Integrated Development Environment, An Introduction.

Appendix H. Borland C++ Builder Integrated Development Environment, An Introduction.

Appendix I. Character Sets.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Essential C++ for Engineers and Scientists, Second edition, teaches the essentials of problem solving and programming using a subset of C++ as the implementation language. It includes many practical examples from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. The text can be used for a first course in programming: It assumes no prior knowledge of computers or programming.

Although somewhat abbreviated, the C++ coverage in this book includes the features useful in typical engineering and scientific programs, and it demonstrates these features as they are actually used, not in isolation. Language topics are presented in an order common in teaching other languages: first the basic control structures (sequence, selection, and repetition), input/output operations, expression evaluation, and library functions, and then defining and calling the user's own functions. Next, the fundamental construct of an object-oriented C++ program, the class, is presented. After the chapter on classes, the text builds on the notion of object orientation while continuing the standard subject matter of an introductory programming course for engineers and scientists: arrays and strings, multidimensional arrays, a review of file manipulation, and an introduction to selected numerical methods.

When C++ offers multiple ways of accomplishing the same goal, the text usually selects just one and uses it consistently. For example, it teaches the use of references for output parameters and limits coverage of pointers to array parameters and to dynamically allocated arrays.

Changes in the New Edition

Throughout the text, all programming examples have been updated to conform to standard C++ use of namespaces. We have improved the book in many other ways as well:

  • Integrated introduction to input/output file use with loop coverage
  • Added presentation of structs
  • Added smaller scale first example of classes
  • Added member operators while retaining friend operators
  • Expanded coverage of dynamically allocated arrays, both one- and two-dimensional
  • Integrated standard string class into data type coverage beginning in Chapter 2 (retained Cstring basics in array chapter)
  • Expanded numerical methods coverage by adding a case study on the use of augmented matrices to solve systems of linear equations
  • Added case studies using decision structures for finch classification and file use for database representation
  • Included more examples of reference parameters
  • Expanded input error recovery coverage
  • Added 50% more programming projects
  • Created new appendices in response to reviewer requests:
    • Introduction to C programming language
    • Laboratory-style introductions to two C++ integrated development environments—Microsoft Visual C++ and Borland C++ Builder

Flexible Ordering of Topics

Professors who prefer to present topics in an order different from the one in the textbook should check the dependencies shown in Table P.1 (in preface). Several sections of the text are completely optional, with no subsequent dependencies: Recursive Functions (5.6), Class Reuse (6.7), and Heap-Dynamic Array Allocation (7.6, 8.4). Figure P.1 (in preface) lists several different possible orderings of topics.

What About NO Objects?

A careful study of Fig. P.1 (in preface) shows that if you prefer not to cover objects at all, you can still present all other language topics except multidimensional arrays and dynamic array allocation. We have chosen to show function parameters that are multidimensional arrays only in the context of an object representation. This choice stems from our conviction that such a representation is simpler, since students can pass matrices as input and output parameters in exactly the same way as they pass simpler objects.

Software Engineering Concepts

This text presents many aspects of software engineering. Early chapters on control structures take a process-oriented approach to analysis and design and demonstrate algorithm development through stepwise refinement of pseudo-code. These chapters also include sections on tracing and debugging code. Chapter 5 introduces procedural abstraction through user-defined functions, and Chapter 6's introduction of classes is interwoven with examples of the object-oriented design process first described in Chapter 1.

The book emphasizes early on the need for a consistent, readable coding style, and its examples demonstrate such a style throughout. The inside back cover of the text shows examples of most C++ constructs. In addition to serving as a quick reference to where these constructs are discussed in the book, this table can be used as a standard for style of indentation, bracket use, and naming conventions.

Pedagogical Features

This textbook uses a rich array of pedagogical features with which to engage the student.

Definitions of Important Terms. Important terms are defined in the margins of the text.

End-of-Section Review Questions. Most sections are followed by a set of questions that check the student's understanding of the material covered. Some questions call for the analysis and tracing of program fragments; others ask the student to write or to modify some code. Answers to the odd-numbered questions are in the Answers section; answers to the even-numbered questions are included in the on-line Instructor's Manual.

Programming Projects. Each chapter concludes with a set of programming projects. Answers to selected projects appear in the on-line Instructor's Manual, so instructors also have the option of distributing all or part of a solution and asking the students to complete, extend, or improve the solution.

Examples and Case Studies. The book contains a wide variety of examples and case studies specially selected to give the student glimpses of important science and engineering applications of computing. They are usually complete programs, functions, or class definitions rather than incomplete fragments.

Code and Input Highlighting. Many programming examples use shading to draw the student's eye to sections of the code that demonstrate the current topic of interest. Additionally, all examples of program runs shade user-entered input to distinguish it from computer-generated output.

Pitfalls and Chapter Reviews. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of common programming errors, followed by a summary of important points in the chapter, and a table of new C++ constructs.

Comprehensive Index. Every textbook has an index, but this book's index is truly a pedagogical feature. Constructed by hand, the index includes terms, concepts, and examples from all chapters and appendixes.

Appendixes and Supplements

Reference tables of C++ operator precedence and C++ constructs appear on the inside covers of the book. Appendix A compares C++ to its parent language, C; Appendix B gives selected run-time functions available in standard libraries; and Appendix C summarizes selected I/O facilities. Appendix D is a reference for the standard string class; Appendix E is a reference of C++ operators; and Appendix F is a list of ANSI C++ keywords. Appendixes G and H introduce popular C++ integrated development environments and Appendix I lists the ASCII and EBCDIC character sets.

The Instructor's Manual includes suggestions for teaching each chapter, two quizzes for each chapter, a bank of exam questions, solutions to even-numbered review questions, and solutions to selected programming projects. It is accessible by qualified instructors only. Please contact your sales representative through the World Wide Web.

The example program code is available online at http://www.aw.com/cssupport (follow the links from there). Within the text, the programs that can be downloaded from this website are marked with a "www" icon.

Acknowledgments

Many people assisted in the development of this book. I am very grateful for the numerous examples and programming exercises contributed by Joan C. Horvath of Takeoff Technologies. I especially thank my University of Wyoming colleagues who have so graciously answered my questions. From Computer Science, they include Allyson J. Anderson (who prepared much of the answer key and the Instructor's Manual), John F. Ellis (who suggested the finch classification case study), Michael J. Magee, and John H. Rowland; from Geography, Lawrence M. Ostresh; from Mathematics, G. Eric Moorhouse; and from Mechanical Engineering, Dennis N. Coon and Donald A. Smith.

The reviewers of this manuscript were enormously helpful in suggesting improvements and in finding errors. They include:

Hyder A. Ali, California State University at Northridge
Christopher T. Alvin, University of Wisconsin at Madison
Todd Arbogast, University of Texas at Austin
Tom Bullock, University of Florida
Stephen B. Dobrow, Farleigh Dickinson University
Martin Granier, Western Washington University
Tom Hill, University at Buffalo
Jacob Y. Kazakia, Lehigh University
Andrew Kinley, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Dr. JoAnn B. Koskol, Widener University
Donna L. Occhifinto, County College of Morris
S. D. Rajan, Arizona State University
Robert A. Rouse, Washington University St. Louis
Chi N. Thai, University of Georgia
Anthony Trippe, Rochester Institute of Technology
Tom Walker, Virginia Tech
Dr. David T. Young, Louisiana State University

I am grateful for the ongoing support of the Addison-Wesley team in this endeavor: Computer Science Executive Editor Susan Hartman Sullivan was responsible for initiating the new edition, Galia Shokry was the editorial assistant, Patty Mahtani supervised the design and production of the book, and Michael Hirsch developed the marketing campaign. Trillium Project Management and Publishers' Design and Production Services, Inc. coordinated the conversion of the manuscript to a finished book.

J.R.H.

Read More Show Less

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