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Overview

Essential Environmental Science provides a non-quantitative approach that is based on principles, critical thinking and the big questions that are driving the field today. It offers a condensed look at the field, covering topics in way that will help readers answer the "big questions." It eliminates more detailed or advanced topics to make the material more accessible while also placing the focus on today's important issues.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471704119
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/5/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.79 (h) x 0.61 (d)

Meet the Author

Edward A. Keller was chair of the Environmental Studies andHydrologic Sciences Programs from 1993 to 1997 and is Professor ofEarth Science at the University of California, Santa Barbara, wherehe teaches earth surface processes, environmental geology,environmental science, river processes, and engineering geology,.Prior to joining the faculty at Santa Barbara, he taughtgeomorphology, environmental studies, and earth science at theUniversity of North Carolina, Charlotte. He was the 1982-1983Hartley Visiting Professor at the University of Southampton, aVisiting Fellow in 2000 at Emmanuel College of CambridgeUniversity, England, and Recipient of the Easterbrook DistinguishedScientist award from the Geological Society of America in 2004.Professor Keller has focused his research efforts into three areas:studies of Quaternary stratigraphy and tectonics as they relate toearthquakes, active folding, and mountain building process;hydrologic process and wildfire in the chaparral environment ofSouthern California; and physical habitat requirements for theendangered Southern California steelhead trout. He is the recipientof various water Resources Research Center grants to study fluvialprocesses and U.S. Geological Survey and Southern CaliforniaEarthquake center grants to study earthquake hazards.
Professor Keller has published numerous papers and is the author ofthe textbooks Environmental Geology, Introduction to EnvironmentalGeology and (with Nicholas Pinter) Active Tectonics(Prentice-Hall). He holds bachelor's degrees in both geology andmathematics from California State University, Fresno; an M.S. ingeology from the University of California; and a Ph.D. in geologyfrom Purdue University.

Daniel B. Botkin is President of The Center for the Studyof Environment, and Professor Emertius of Ecology, Evolution, andMarine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, where hehas been on the faculty since 1978, serving as chairman of theEnvironmental Studies Program from 1978 to 1985. For more thanthree decades, Professor Botkin has been active in the applicationof ecological science to environmental management. Trained inphysics and biology, Professor Botkin is a leader in theapplication of advanced technology to the study of the environment.He was one of the pioneers in doing research on possible ecologicaleffects of global warming, starting this work in the late 1960s,and continuing to the present.
The originator of widely used forest gap-models, he has conductedresearch on endangered species, characteristics of naturalwilderness areas. His recent research includes studies of thebowhead whales, an endangered species hunted actively by Yankeewhalers in the 19th century, important since ancient times to theEskimos, and one of the longest-lived species, with individualsknown to live 120 years.
During his career, Professor botkin has advised the World Bankabout tropical forests, biological diversity, and sustainability;the Rockefeller Foundation about global environmental issues; thegovernment of Taiwan about approaches to solving environmentalproblems; and the state of California on the environmental effectsof water diversion on Mono Lake. He served s the primary advisor tothe National Geographic Society for its centennial edition map on"the Endangered Earth. "He directed a study for the states ofOregon and California concerning salmon and their forestedhabitats. He has published many articles and books aboutenvironmental issues. His books include: Beyond the StoneyMountains: Nature in the American West from Lewis and Clark toToday (Oxford University Press), Strange Encounters: Adventures ofa renegade Naturalist (Penguin/Tarcher), The Blue Planet (Wiley),Our Natural History: The Lessons of Lewis and Clark (OxfordUniversity Press),Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the 21stCentury (Oxford University Press), and Forest Dynamics: AnEcological Model (Oxford University Press).

Professor Botkin was on the faculty of the Yale School ofForestry and Environmental Studies (1968-1974) and was a member ofthe staff of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine BiologicalLaboratory, Woods Hole, MA (1975-1977). He received a B.A. from theUniversity of Rochester, an M.A. from the University of Wisconsin,and a Ph.D. from Rutgers University. He is the winner of theMitchell International Prize for Sustainable development and theFernow Prize for International Forestry, and he has been elected tothe California Environmental Hall of Fame recently he wasawarded the Astor Lectureship of Oxford University, GreatBritain.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Fundamental Issues in Environmental Science.

Big Question: Why is Science Necessary to SolveEnvironmental Problems?

Case Study: Easter Island.

1.1 Fundamental Principles.

1.2 Human Population: The Basic Environmental Problem.

1.3 Sustainability.

Earth's Carrying Capacity.

1.4 A Global Perspective.

1.5 Cities Affect the Environment.

1.6 People and Nature.

1.7 Science and Values.

1.8 Solving Many Environmental Problems Involves Systems andRates of Change.

Environmental Unity.

Changes and Equilibriums in Systems.

Biota: Biosphere and Sustaining Life Characteristics ofEnvironmental Systems That Make Solving Environmental ProblemsHarder.

1.9 The Precautionary Principle: When in Doubt, Play ItSafe.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think? 

Pulling It All Together.

Chapter 2. Human Population Growth.

Big Question: Why is it the Underlying EnvironmentalProblem?

Case Study: How the Great Tsunami of 2004 Affected theHuman Population.

2.1 How Populations Change Over Time: Basic Concepts ofPopulation Dynamics.

The Prophecy of Malthus.

2.2 Population Growth.

How Many People Have Lived on Earth?

2.3 The Logistic Growth Curve.

2.4 Other Clues to How Our Population May Change.

Age Structure.

The Demographic Transition.

Human Death Rates and the Rise of Industrial Societies.

Longevity and Its Effect on Population Growth.

Life Expectancy.

2.5 Limiting Factors.

The Quality of Life and the Human Carrying Capacity ofEarth.

2.6 How Can We Achieve Zero Population Growth?

2.7 How Many People Can Earth Support?

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 3. Biogeochemical Cycles.

Big Question: Why Are Biogeochemical Cycles Essential toLong Term Life on Earth?

Case Study: Lake Washington.

3.1 How Chemicals Cycle.

Biogeochemical Cycles.

Chemical Reactions.

3.2 Environmental Questions and Biogeochemical Cycles.

Biological Questions.

Geologic Questions.

Atmospheric Questions.

Hydrologic Questions.

3.3 Biogeochemical Cycles and Life: Limiting Factors.

3.4 General Concepts Central to Biogeochemical Cycles.

3.5 The Geologic Cycle.

The Tectonic Cycle.

The Hydrologic Cycle.

The Rock Cycle.

3.6 Biogeochemical Cycling in Ecosystems.

Ecosystem Cycles of a Metal and a Nonmetal.

Chemical Cycling and the "Balance of Nature".

3.7 Some Major Global Chemical Cycles.

The Carbon Cycle.

The Missing Carbon Sink.

The Nitrogen Cycle.

The Phosphorus Cycle.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 4. Ecosystems.

Big Question: What is Necessary to Sustain Life onEarth?

Case Study: The Acorn Connection.

4.1 How Populations Change Over Time and Interact with EachOther.

4.2 Professions and Places: The Ecological Niche and theHabitat.

Measuring Niches.

4.3 The Competitive Exclusion Principle.

4.4 How Species Coexist.

4.5 Symbiosis.

4.6 The Community Effect.

4.7 The Ecosystem: Sustaining Life on Earth.

4.8 Basic Characteristics of Ecosystems.

4.9 Food Webs.

4.10 Ecosystem Energy Flow.

Life and the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Producing New Organic Matter.

Practical Implication I: Human Domination of Ecosystems.

Practical Implication II: Ecosystem Management.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 5. Biological Diversity.

Big Question: Can We Save Endangered Species and KeepBiological Diversity High?

Case Study: The Shrinking Mississippi Delta.

5.1 What is Biological Diversity?

5.2 Biological Evolution.

Mutation.

Natural Selection.

Migration.

Genetic Drift.

Biological Evolution in Action Today: Mosquitoes and the MalariaParasite.

5.3 Ecology.

5.4 Basic Concepts of Biological Diversity.

5.5 The Number of Species on Earth.

5.6 Why Are There Many Species in Some Places and Not inOthers?

5.7 What Can We Do to Save Endangered Species?

5.8 Why Save Endangered Species?

5.9 How a Species Becomes Endangered and Extinct.

5.10 Causes of Mass Extinction.

5.11 How People Cause Extinctions and Affect BiologicalDiversity.

5.12 The Good News: The Status of Some Species Has Improved.

5.13 Can a Species Be Too Abundant? If So, What Should WeDo?

5.14 The Kirkland's Warbler and Environmental Change.

5.15 Ecological Islands and Endangered Species.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think? 

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 6. Restoration Ecology.

Big Question: Can We Restore Damaged Ecosystems?

Case Study: Restoring a Ponderosa Forest.

6.1 Restoration Ecology.

6.2 How Nature Restores Itself.

Patterns in Succession.

Dune Succession.

Bog Succession.

Old-Field Succession.

General Patterns of Succession.

6.3 During Succession, Does One Species Prepare the Way forAnother?

Life-History Differences.

Chronic Patchiness.

Other Changes During Succession.

6.4 Can Nature Ever Be Constant?

6.5 Examples of Restoration.

Steps in Ecological Restoration: Planning.

Prairie Restoration.

Restoration of the Florida Everglades.

Restoration of California's Channel Islands and Their StrangeIsland Foxes.

Restoring Land Damaged by Lead Mines in England.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 7. Forests and Wildlife.

Big Question: Can We Have Them and Use Them Too?

Case Study: Trying to Save a Small Owl FromExtinction.

7.1 Keeping Our Living Resources Alive.

7.2 Modern Conflicts Over Forestland and Forest Resources.

7.3 A Modern Forester's View of a Forest.

The Famous Hubbard Brook Experiment.

7.4 Clear-Cutting That Really Did Not Work: The Sad Story ofMichigan's Stump Barrens.

7.5 Are There Other Ways to Harvest Trees.

7.6 International Aspects of Forestry.

7.7 Plantation Forestry.

7.8 Are the World's Forests Shrinking, Growing, or Neither?

7.9 Indirect Deforestation.

7.10 Traditional Wildlife Management.

Bison on the Range and Then Mostly Off the Range.

Pribilof Island Reindeer.

7.11 Improved Approaches to Wildlife Management.

Time Series and Historical Range of Variation.

Age Structure as Useful Information.

7.12 Managing Two or More Species at a Time: Do PredatorsMatter?

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 8. Environmental Health, Pollution andToxicology.

Big Question: Why Are Even Tiny Amounts of Pollutants aMajor Concern?

Case Study: Demasculinization and Feminization of Frogsin the Environment.

8.1 Some Basics.

Terminology.

How We Measure the Amount of Pollution.

8.2 Categories of Pollutants.

Infectious Agents.

Toxic Heavy Metals.

Toxic Pathways.

Mercury and Minimata Japan.

Lead and the Urban Environment.

Organic Compounds.

Hormonally Active Agents.

Thermal Pollution.

Particulates.

Electromagnetic Fields.

Noise Pollution.

Voluntary Exposure.

8.3 General Effects of Pollutants.

Dose and Response.

Threshold Effects.

Ecological Gradients.

Tolerance.

Acute and Chronic Effects.

8.4 Risk Assessment and Risk Management.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 9. Agriculture and Environment.

Big Question: Can We Feed the World Without Destroyingthe Environment?

Case Study: Clean-Water Farms.

9.1 How Agriculture Changes the Environment.

9.2 Dust Bowls and Our Eroding Soils.

9.3 Where Eroded Soil Goes.

9.4 Making Soils Sustainable.

9.5 Farm Pests.

9.6 How Much Pesticide Do We Release Into the Environment? AndWhere Does It Go?

9.7 The Search for a Magic Bullet.

DDT.

9.8 Ecological Approaches to Pest Control.

Integrated Pest Management.

9.9 Hybrids and Genetic Modification: Creating Better Crops.

Biotech Comes to the Farm.

Bioteching New Hybrids.

The Terminator Gene.

Transfer of Genes from One Form of Life to Another.

9.10 Grazing on Rangelands: An Environmental Benefit orProblem?

Traditional and Industrialized Use of Grazing Lands andRangelands.

The Geography of Agricultural Animals.

How Many Grazing Animals Can the Land Support.

9.11 Organic Farming.

9.12 Deserts: What Are They and What Causes Them?

Preventing Desertification.

9.13 Does Farming Change the Biosphere?

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?  

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 10. Energy and Environment.

Big Question: Can We Assure a Sustainable Supply ofEnergy?

Case Study: Winds of Change in Iowa.

10.1 World Energy Supply and Use.

10.2 Energy and Work.

10.3 Types of Fuels.

10.4 Petroleum Products: Oil and Natural Gas.

Oil.

Natural Gas.

10.5 Coal.

10.6 The Environmental Effects of Extracting, Delivering, andBurning Coal.

Strip Mining.

Underground Mining.

The Trouble With Coal.

10.7 Environmental Effects of Extracting, Delivering, and UsingPetroleum Products.

10.8 Three Basic Alternatives to Fossil Fuels: Solar,Geothermal, and Nuclear Energy.

10.9 Solar Energy: Two Types.

Passive Solar Energy.

Active Solar Energy Systems.

Environmental Effects of Using Solar Energy.

The Future of Solar Energy.

Alternative Energy Sources: Bavaria Lights the Way.

10.10 Wind Power.

10.11 Water Power.

Water Power and the Environment.

Tidal Power: Another Kind of Water Power.

10.12 Biomass Energy.

Sources of Biomass Energy.

Biomass Energy and the Environment.

10.13 Geothermal Energy.

10.14 Nuclear Energy.

Nonbreeder Reactors: Fission Reactors.

Breeder Reactors.

Fusion Reactors.

10.15 Environmental Problems of Nuclear Power.

Three Mile Island: A Cooling Failure Leads to a Meltdown.

Chernobyl.

Some Facts You Should Know About Radioactivity.

10.16 How Are We Dealing with These Problems Today?

Radiation and Health.

Radioactive-Waste Management.

10.17 Energy: Storing It, Transporting It, Conserving It.

Storing Energy.

Transporting Energy.

Conserving Energy by Using It More Efficiently.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 11. Water and Environment.

Big Question: Can We Maintain Our Water Resources forFuture Generations?

Case Study: The Colorado River: Water ResourcesManagement, Water Pollution, and the Environment.

11.1 Water.

A Brief Global Perspective.

Water Sources.

Desalination.

11.2 Water Supply.

11.3 Off-Stream and In-Stream Use.

Transport of Water.

Some Trends in Water Use.

11.4 Water Conservation.

Agricultural Use.

Domestic Use.

Industry and Manufacturing Use.

Perception and Water Use.

11.5 Sustainability and Water Management.

Sustainable Water Use.

Water Management and the Environment.

11.6 Wetlands.

Preserving and Restoring Wetlands.

11.7 Dams and the Environment.

11.8 Channelization and the Environment.

Kissimmee River, Florida: A Case Study of Problems withChannelization.

11.9 Flooding.

Urbanization and Flooding.

11.10 Global Water Shortage Linked to Food Supply.

11.11 Water Pollution.

11.12 Sources of Pollution.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).

Waterborne Disease.

Fecal Coliform Bacteria.

Nutrients.

Eutrophication.

Oil.

Sediment.

Acid Mine Drainage.

11.13 Surface Water Pollution.

11.14 Groundwater Pollution.

Principles of Groundwater Pollution: An Example.

Another Example: Long Island, New York.

11.15 Water Treatment.

11.16 Wastewater Treatment.

Septic-Tank Disposal Systems.

Treatment Plants.

Boston Harbor: Cleaning up a National Treasure.

Land Application of Wastewater: An Old Practice MadeCleaner.

Reuse of Treated Wastewater.

11.7 Water Pollution and Environmental Law.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 12. Oceans and Environment.

Big Question: Can We Learn to Manage the Oceans'Resources?

Case Study: Shrimp, Mangroves, and Pickup Trucks.

12.1 Lots of Fish in the Sea: World Fish Production.

12.2 The World's Fisheries Are in Trouble: The Decline of FishPopulations.

12.3 An Ocean is Many Habitats and Ecosystems.

12.4 Ocean Currents.

12.5 Where Are the Fish?

12.6 Salmon, Anchovies, and Upwellins.

12.7 Coral Reefs: A Special Problem.

12.8 We Pollute the Oceans Too, Which Gets Fish in Trouble.

Plastics in the Ocean.

12.9 Can We Make Ocean Fisheries Sustainable?

Marine Sanctuaries.

Aquaculture and Mariculture.

12.10 Conservation of Whales and Other Marine Mammals.

Dolphins and Other Small Whales.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 13. Earth's Atmosphere and Climate.

Big Question: Global Warming is Happening: What Part DoWe Play?

Case Study: Global Warming and the Polar Bears of HudsonBay.

13.1 Is the Global Temperature Rising?

13.2 What Causes Climate Change of Any Sort, and What Is MakingIt Get Warmer?

Variation in the Sun's Energy May Be One Reason for ClimateChanges.

Milankovich Cycles Are Another Possible Explanation.

Volcanoes Can Alter Climate.

Dust from Our Own Activities Also Cools the Climate.

Variations in Ocean Currents May Affect the Climate.

El Niño: A Special Climate Phenomenon Linked to OceanCurrents.

13.3 What Is the Greenhouse Effect, and How Does It Warm Earth'sSurface?

13.4 Greenhouse Gases Are Increasing, and We Are Part of theReason.

Carbon Dioxide.

Methane.

Chlorofluorocarbons.

Nitrous Oxide.

Ozone.

13.5 Would It Really Be So Serious if Earth Warmed Up a Bit?

What Will Be the Effects of a Rising Sea Level?

How Will Global Warming Affect the World's Climate?

Agriculture.

Lowering of Water Tables and Reservoirs Could Cause SeriousShortages.

Biological and Ecological Changes.

Migration of Species Can Spread Diseases.

Endangered Species.

13.6 Can We Do Anything to Slow the Temperature Rise?

What Has Been Done So Far to Mitigate Global Warming?

13.7 Can We Do Anything to Alleviate the Effects of GlobalWarming?

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 14. Air Pollution and Environment.

Big Question: Why is Air Pollution in Cities Still Such aBig Problem?

Case Study: An Olympic Success Story.

14.1 A Brief History of Air Pollution.

14.2 General Effects of Air Pollution.

14.3 Primary and Secondary Pollutants, Natural and Human.

14.4 Major Air Pollutants: Where Do They Come From and What DoThey Do?

Sulfur Dioxide.

Nitrogen Oxides.

Carbon Monoxide (CO).

Ozone.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

Particulate Matter.

Hydrogen Sulfide.

Hydrogen Fluoride.

Other Hazardous Gases.

Lead.

14.5 Urban Air Pollution.

Reducing Urban Air Pollution At Its Source.

Automobiles.

14.6 Acid Rain.

Control of Acid Rain.

14.7 Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere.

Reducing Ozone Depletion: An Environmental Success Story.

14.8 Indoor Air Pollution.

Sources and Concentrations of Indoor Air Pollution.

Sick Buildings.

Symptoms of Indoor Air Pollution.

Two Particularly Important Indoor Pollutants.

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

14.9 Air Pollution Legislation, Standards, and Index of AirQuality.

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Air Quality Index (AQI).

14.10 The Cost of Reducing Air Pollution.

14.11 What Lies Ahead for Air Pollution?

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 15. Minerals and Environment.

Big Question: Is It Possible to Use Nonrenewable MineralResources Sustainably?

Case Study: Fossil Trace Golf Club, a Story of SuccessfulMine Reclamation.

15.1 The Importance of Minerals to Society.

15.2 How Mineral Deposits Are Formed.

Distribution of Mineral Resources.

Plate Boundaries.

Igneous Processes.

Sedimentary Processes.

Biological Processes.

Weathering Processes.

15.3 Resources and Reserves.

15.4 Use and Availability of Mineral Resources.

Availability of Mineral Resources.

Mineral Consumption.

U.S. Supply of Minerals.

15.5 Impacts of Mineral Development.

Environmental Impacts.

Social Impacts.

15.6 Minimizing Environmental Impacts of MineralDevelopment.

Recycling.

15.7 Minerals and Sustainability.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 16. Waste Management.

Big Question: Is Zero Waste Possible?

Case Study: New York City's Zero Waste Campaign.

16.1 What Is This Waste We Are Talking About?

Composition of Solid Waste.

16.2 Early Concepts of Waste Disposal.

16.3 Modern Trends.

16.4 Integrated Waste Management.

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

Markets for Recycled Products.

Recycling Human Waste.

16.5 Materials Management.

16.6 Solid-Waste Management.

On-Site Disposal.

Composting.

Incineration.

Open Dumps.

Municipal Solid Waste.

16.7 Hazardous Waste.

16.8 Hazardous-Waste Legislation.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, andLiability Act (CERCLA).

Other Legislation.

16.9 Hazardous-Waste Management: Land Disposal.

Secure Landfill.

Land Application: Microbial Breakdown.

Surface Impoundment.

Deep-Well Disposal.

Summary of Land Disposal Methods.

16.10 Alternatives to Land Disposal of Hazardous Waste.

16.11 Pollution Prevention.

Case History: Waste Disposal at a Cheese Company.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 17. Natural Hazards.

Big Question: Why are More of Them Becoming Disasters andCatastrophes?

Case Study: La Conchita Landslide, 2005.

17.1 Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes.

Taking a Historical Point of View.

Fundamental Concepts Related to Natural Hazards.

Nature Can Play a Dual Role, Performing Natural ServiceFunctions and Posing Hazards.

17.2 Natural Hazards Are Predictable.

17.3 Linkages Between Hazards and Between the Physical andBiological Environments.

17.4 Hazards That Used to Produce Disasters Now ProduceCatastrophes.

Land Transformation and Natural Hazards.

Hurricane Katrina: One of the Worst Natural Catastrophes in U.S.History.

17.5 Risk from Hazards Can Be Estimated?

17.6 Adverse Effects of Hazards Can Be Minimized.

Active vs. Reactive Response.

Impact and Recovery from Disasters and Catastrophes.

Perceiving, Avoiding, and Adjusting to Hazards.

17.7 What Does the Future Hold with Respect to Disasters andCatastrophes?

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 18. Environmental Economics.

Big Question: Can We Put a Price on Scenic Beauty,Endangered Species, and the Quality of Life?

Case Study: We Can Easily Find Out the Price of Salmon OnThe Table, But What Is the Economic Value of Salmon Swimming In aRiver?

18.1 Some Environmental Dollar Values.

18.2 The Environment as a Commons.

18.3 Low Growth Rate and Therefore Low Profit as a Factor inExploitation.

18.4 Externalities: Costs that Don’t Show Up in the PriceTag.

18.5 Natural Capital, Environmental Intangibles, and EcosystemServices.

Valuing the Beauty of Nature.

18.6 How is the Future Valued?

18.7 Risk-Benefit Analysis.

Acceptability of Risks and Costs.

18.8 Global Issues: Who Bears the Cost?

18.9 Environmental Policy Instruments.

Pollution Control and the Law of Diminishing Returns.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

Chapter 19. Planning for a Sustainable Future.

Big Question: Can We Plan and Achieve a SustainableEnvironment?

19.1 The Ideal Sustainable Environment.

19.2 The Process of Planning a Future.

19.3 In Planning a Nation’s Landscapes, How Big ShouldWildlands Be?

19.4 Our Need for Nature in an Increasingly UrbanEnvironment.

The City Park.

The Ecological Capital of Brazil: How a City TransformedItself.

19.5 Regional Planning: The Tennessee Valley Authority.

19.6 Environment and Law: A Horse, a Gun, and a Plan.

Three Stages in the History of Federal Legislation Pertaining toLand and Natural Resources.

19.7 Skiing at Mineral King Raised a Question: Does PrivateEnterprise Belong On Public Lands?

19.8 How You Can Play a Role in Legal Processes.

19.9 International Environmental Law and Diplomacy.

19.10 The Challenge to Students of the Environment.

Return to the Big Question.

Summary.

Key Terms.

Getting It Straight.

What Do You Think?

Pulling It All Together.

Further Reading.

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