The Essential Guide to Telecommunications / Edition 4

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications / Edition 4

by Annabel Z. Dodd

Praise for The Essential Guide to Telecommunications

"From starting entrepreneurs to industry veterans, employees from all kinds of network communications companies have found this primer to be an excellent reference book and interesting reading...the best way to keep current on evolving technology."
—Carol J. Meier,

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Praise for The Essential Guide to Telecommunications

"From starting entrepreneurs to industry veterans, employees from all kinds of network communications companies have found this primer to be an excellent reference book and interesting reading...the best way to keep current on evolving technology."
—Carol J. Meier, Executive Director, Massachusetts Network Communications Council

"With jargon-free definitions, clear schematic drawings, and its steady narrative drive, The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is a reassuring testament to the human ability to comprehend and communicate at some fundamental level even the most bewildering technology."
—David Warsh, Editor, Economic

"I find this book very useful for my graduate students in business and economics to become familiar with an up-to-date explanation of modern telecommunications."
—Jerry Hausman, McDonald Professor of Economics, MIT

"Annabel Dodd has distilled down the essential elements of digital communications and cogently translated the technobabble of the telecommunications revolution. This fine new edition of her book explains how Internet Protocol-based broadband networks will affect consumers, companies, and communities as the inexorable march of digital technologies continues...."
—Congressman Edward J. Markey, Ranking Member Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade and Consumer Protection

"Annabel Dodd's Guide is an excellent source of technical information that's understandable to people who never studied engineering. I use it regularly."
—Jon Van, technology reporter, The Chicago Tribune

"The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is probably one of the most useful and well-written books on our telecom bookshelf. Annabel Z. Dodd does a great job in capturing a snapshot of the current telecom industry. Even those with little or no technical training should be able to understand the text. This is the perfect book for salespeople who want to learn more about the products and services they are selling, or for those who just want to keep up to date on the latest in telecom technology."
—William Van Hefner, President, Vantek Communications, Inc.

"As a technology management consultant, I am often required to have hands-on knowledge on a wide range of technology topics. Whenever I need quick and accurate information on telecommunications technology, I turn to The Essential Guide to Telecommunications. I find it to be a very valuable reference."
—Lumas Kendrick, Jr., Kendrick Technology Associates

"The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is a fine guide to the field, readable by anyone, useful to everyone. As a first guide to the field, as a reference, and as a commentary on the history and strategy of telecommunications, it is simply superb."
—Andrew Allentuck, Review Editor, Globetechnology, THE GLOBE AND MAIL, Toronto

"People who enjoy a straightforward view of the ever-changing world of high technology will like this book. I did."
—William Sherry, Product Specialist, Messaging & Mobility Applications, Avaya

"Ms. Dodd continues to provide an excellent and thorough text on the telecommunications industry. As in her previous editions, she presents a good balance of technical- and business-related information that is readily understandable by anyone with an interest in this key component of today's business environment. In her new edition, she has captured many of the recent changes in this dynamic field that will affect every company in the years ahead. I strongly recommend her book to anyone who wants a better understanding of telecommunications"
—Joe McGrath, Vice President, Information Technologies, Sepracor Inc.

"After reading The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, I regret that there is not an Oscar given to authors. ANI, DNIS, ILEC, MMDS—Are you familiar with all of these terms? If you are, then you move to the front of the class. If you are not, then you're among 90 percent of the population that might just be missing out on some of the latest technological advancements that can significantly impact your business and increase your bottom line. It pays to read Dodd's book and gain an insight in this fast-changing field."
—Brad Tuttle, Chief Operating Officer, ITV Direct Inc.

"This book is an excellent resource to understand the technologies used in the data and telecommunications industry. Dodd brings together the descriptions, standards, and history to not only answer "what" but also "why." In particular, those new to the industry will appreciate the clear language and broad scope."
—Brent D. Stewart, Course Director, Global Knowledge

"I have used this book in my classes on Internet and telecommunications policy for years, and each edition is always the best and most thorough explanation of these complex topics. And I always tell my students to keep this book handy as a basic reference on issues that will undoubtedly be part of their careers in the future."
—Gary Chapman, LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin

The fully updated nontechnical telecom guide for business people and other professionals

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is the world's #1 nontechnical guide to telecommunications. Writing in plain English, leading telecom consultant Annabel Dodd has completely updated this fourth edition to reflect the vast changes in the industry. Dodd explores the new competitive forces, critical industry issues, and important technologies that impact network security, reliability, and the pace of innovation.

  • How mergers and acquisitions are reshaping the industry

  • High-speed Internet from cable and DSL to "last-mile fiber"

  • Phone systems and networks: VoIP, PBXs, the PSTN, MPLS, and more

  • Wireless: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WiMAX, 3G mobile networks, and beyond

  • RFID, sensor networks, personal area networks, and other emerging technologies

  • Converged applications, from multimedia messaging to video-on-demand

  • Globalization's growing impact on the industry

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Product Details

Prentice Hall
Publication date:
Essential Guide Series
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Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
6.99(w) x 9.17(h) x 1.24(d)

Table of Contents



About the Author


1. Basic Concepts.

The Transition to Digital

Analog Signals-Slower, More Prone to Errors

Digital Signals

Adding Meaning to Signals-Codes and Bits

A Byte = A Character

Baud Rate Versus Bits per Second-Electrical Signal Rates Versus Amount of Information Sent

Codes-Adding Meaning to Bits

Measuring Speed and Capacity

Broadband Service-Multiple Data Streams

Improving Utilization-Compression and Multiplexing

Compression-Shrinking Data to Send More Information

Multiplexing-Let's Share

Interoperability-Protocols and Architectures

Protocols-A Common Set of Rules

Architectures-How Devices Fit Together in a Network

Types of Networks-LANs, MANs, and WANs

LANs-Local Area Networks

LAN and WAN Devices-Higher Speeds, Lower Prices

Home LANs-Sharing High-Speed Internet Access

MANs-Metropolitan Area Networks . . . Links Within Cities

WANs-Wide Area Networks . . . Links Between Cities

Higher Speed Services for LAN Traffic

Carrier and Internet Service Provider Networks


2. VoIP Systems, Circuit Switched PBXs and Cabling.

Telephone Systems-Voice over IP, PBXs, and Centrex Systems

What Is a Private Branch Exchange (PBX)?

IP PBXs for the Enterprise

Impetus for Change

Architecture of IP-Based Systems . . . How the Pieces Fit Together

Voice Quality and Security

Barriers to Acceptance of Voice over IP

Endpoints-IP Telephones Connected to Layer 2 Switches

PBX Trunks-Switch-to-Switch Connectivity

Demarcation-The Location at Which Telcos Wire Trunks

Circuit Switched PBXs-Proprietary Platforms

Centrex-Telephone Company Supplied Service

IP Centrex-Phone Companies Hosting Voice Over IP

Direct Inward Dialing-Bypassing the Operator for Incoming Calls

Key Systems-Multi-featured for Smaller Organizations

Hybrid PBX/Key Systems

Wireless Options for PBXs

Advanced Applications for Telephone Systems

Call Accounting-Billing Internal Departments

Call Detail Recording for Carriers-Generating Data for Billing

Voice Mail-Storing and Retrieving Messages

Voice Mail Components

Unified Messaging Integration of Voice Mail, Fax Mail, and E-mail

Unified Messaging Systems on the LAN

Multi-application Platforms in Carrier Networks

Speech Recognition


3. Industry Overview.

The Bell System after the 1984 Divestiture

Divestiture of the Bell System from AT&T in 1984

The Decline of AT&T

Independent Telephone Companies- Mostly in Rural Areas

The Emergence of Local Competition Prior to 1996

Competitive Access Providers (CAPs) to Bypass Access Fees

Uneven Competition for Local Telephone Service Throughout the U.S.

The Critical Nature of Facilities

Factors Leading to Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996

Wireless Services for Local Exchange Service-Spectrum Auctions

The Telecommunications Act of 1996

Universal Service Fund-Affordability and Availability

Post Telecommunications Act of 1996 Developments

FCC Rulings, Legal Challenges, and Progress Toward Deregulation

FCC Enforcement of Access to Local Networks after Bells Gain In-Region Long Distance

Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996

State of the Industry . . . Key Segments

Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) Post-1996 Mergers

Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs)



Wholesale Carriers-Carrier-to-Carrier Sales

CLECs-A Dwindling Industry Segment

CLECs-Local, Data, and Long Distance Services

Pending Purchase of AT&T and MCI-The Impact of Consolidation

Shrinking Numbers of Competitors-Financial Turmoil

What Went Wrong?

Intermodal Competition-Cable TV, Wireless, and Utilities

Cable TV Multiple Service Operators (MSOs)-Wired to the Max

Mobile Wireless Services

Utilities-The Third Pipe

Regulatory Issues

Unbundled Network Elements (UNEs)-Competitors Leasing Parts of RBOCs' Networks

The Impact of Higher Leasing Rates

Regulating Cable Modems-Cable, Information, or Telecommunications Services?

Voice Over IP-Regulatory Issues

Access Fees-A Shift in Balance Between Local and Long Distance Costs


4. VoIP, the Public Switched Telephone Network, and Signaling.

Convergence in Public Networks

Circuit Switching-Network Inefficiencies and Convergence

Impediments to Adoption-Training, Embedded Assets, User Adoption, and Fear of the Unknown

VoIP Networks-Putting the Pieces Together

Softswitches-Standards-Based Platforms for Call Control

Media Gateways (Border Elements)-Switching and Interoperability Between Networks

Peer-to-Peer Music, Instant Messaging, Online Games, and VoIP

Outsourcing-The Role of IP

Voice Over Broadband for Residential Consumers

Voice Over IP Service in Homes

Customer Acquisition-Agents, Retail Outlets, and

Document Sharing and Online Webconferencing

Webconferencing to Share Documents

The Public Switched Telephone Network

Switched Services-Local and Long Distance Calling

Attributes of Real-Time Switching Services

Store-and-Forward Switching-Nonsimultaneous Sending and Receiving

"The Last Mile" or Access Networks

End and Tandem Central Offices

Wireless Local Loop-Low Customer Acceptance

Broadband Over Power Lines-Telephone Signals Over the Same Fiber that Carries Electricity

Carrier Hotels-Interconnecting Carriers and Providing Secure Space for Equipment

Interconnections Between Carriers-Transport

Signaling-The Glue that Holds the PSTN Together

Overview of Signaling-Uniform Signaling Developed by AT&T

Signaling System 7-Links Between Carriers

SS7 Components

5. VPNs and Specialized Network Services.

Virtual Private Networks-Remote Access and Interoffice Connections

Rationale for Virtual Private Networks Between Offices

Productivity Away from the Office-VPNs for Remote Access

Virtual Private Network Technology

Security-Firewalls, Protection Against Viruses, and Other Attacks

Frame Relay-A Shared Wide Area Network Service

Access to Frame Relay-56 Kilobits to T-3

Frame Relay to Access Other Networks

Frame Relay Service-Permanent Virtual Circuits and Committed Information Rate

Voice on Frame Relay-Instead of Private Lines

Dedicated, Private Lines

Dedicated Services-Wide and Metropolitan Area Networks

Network Topologies-How Sites Are Connected

T-1-24 Paths and T-3-672 Paths Over One Telephone Circuit

T-1: 1,544,000bps; E-1: 2,048,000bps Speeds

T-3, J-3, and E-3-North America, Japan, and the Rest of the World

A Fat Pipe for Data-Unchannelized T-1

T-1 Inefficiencies-Time Slots Running on Empty

CSU/DSUs-Digital Modems: Testing and Clocking

ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network

Basic Rate Interface ISDN-Higher Usage in Europe and Japan Than the United States

Primary Rate Interface ISDN-23 Bearer and One Signaling Channel

NT1s and TAs: Modem-Like Devices for ISDN

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)-An Interim Technology or a Vehicle for Video and IP?

The DSL Marketplace

Business Class DSL-Static IP Addresses

DSLAMs-Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers

Television Over DSL Service-ADSL2+ and VDSL2

DSL-No Truck Roll; Self Service

Gigabit Ethernet

Ethernet Sales Channels

Challenges to Wider Deployment

Multiplexers Equipped with Reconfigurable Optical Add and Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs)

Ethernet Enterprise Service-Internet, VPN Access, and Private Lines

ATM-Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATM's Speed Is Due to Three Characteristics

DSLAMs and ATM-Oversubscription

Mapping IP and Ethernet Traffic onto ATM

Elements of an ATM Network

SONET-Synchronous Optical Network

Optical Carrier (OC): North American; Synchronous Transport Mode (STM): International

SONET Rings-For Greater Reliability

Second Generation-Next Generation SONET

SONET with Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Capability

Third Generation SONET-Connectivity to Ethernet

SONET Offerings for Enterprises




6. Entertainment, Cable TV, and Last-Mile Fiber Systems.

Cable Multiple System Operators (MSOs)

Cable TV Architecture-Upgrades, Capacity, Speed, and Reliability

Cable TV Offerings

Set-Top Boxes-Interfaces to Satellite TV and Cable TV

Direct Broadcast Satellite TV-Reaching Customers Wirelessly

Broadcast, Over-the-Air Television

Towers-Terrestrial Wireless Transmissions

Affiliates-Transmitting Programming to Consumers

Digital Television-Less Spectrum Used, Improved Quality

Digital Cable TV-Lower Resolution Than HDTV

Digital TV Standards Worldwide

Digital Delivery-Entertainment over the Internet

U.S. Postal Mail with E-commerce for Movie Delivery

Digital Radio-Subscription Versus Advertising Support

HD Radio--High Definition Radio

Passive Optical Networking

PONs-Fiber to the Premises, Curb, Basement, or Neighborhood; FTTx

Passive Optical Network Standards

7. The Internet.

The Evolution of the Internet

UNIX, Telnet, and File Transfer Protocol

World Wide Web-Based on the Client Server Model

Internet Advisory Boards

Peering-To Exchange Data Between Carriers

ISPs: With Software Platforms for Enhanced Offerings

Hosting-Outsourcing Web Pages

Messaging and the Growth of Spam

Multimedia Attachments-Photographs, Movies, and PowerPoint

E-mail Formatted in HTML-Another Vehicle for the Spread of Viruses

Spam-Clogging Inboxes with Junk Mail

Interactivity Tools: Usenet, Chat, Mailing Lists, and Blogging

Internet Addresses

Registries-Management of Entire Top-Level Domains

Registrars-Assigning Domain Names to Organizations

Thirteen Root Servers Worldwide-The Basis for Internet Routing

Assignments of Numeric IP Addresses to ISPs and Carriers

Public and Private IP Addresses

Portals, Search Engines, and E-commerce

Portals-The Door to the Internet

Search Engines-Vehicles for Advertising Revenue

Electronic Commerce

Advertising on the Web-Instant Access to Offers

Popular E-commerce Sites

Privacy Concerns, Commerce, and National Security

Freedom of Speech, Access to Information, and Protection of Children

Intranets and Extranets

Intranets-Web Technology for Corporate Access

Extranets-Web Access for Customers, Partners, and Vendors


8. Mobile Services.

The Development of Cellular Networks

Cellular, Wireless, Cordless, and Mobile

Precellular Mobile Networks

First Generation Analog Cellular-Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)

Second Generation Digital Mobile Air Interfaces

Spectrum and Rights to Airwaves


Ranges of Frequency-Spectrum Blocks

Spectrum Caps-Limiting the Amount of Spectrum Per Carrier


Implication of Spectrum Ranges

Spectrum for Higher-Speed 3G Services

Unlicensed Spectrum for 802.11 and WiMAX

Multiband Versus Multimode

Mobile Carriers

The United States




The Structure of Second Generation Digital Mobile Networks

A Cell Site-Connections Between Customers and Mobile Networks

Switching and Signaling

Coverage Gaps-Rural Locales, Inside Buildings, and Congested Metropolitan Areas

Number Portability-Wireless to Wireless and Wireline to Wireless

Roaming Using Mobile Devices in Other Networks

Push-to-Talk-Mobile Walkie-Talkie Service

Enhanced 911

The Criticality of Mobile Networks-Emergency Preparedness

Evolving to Third Generation Packet Networks

Comparing Third Generation Technologies

The Transition to WCDMA-GPRS and Then EDGE

WCDMA-Wideband Code Division Multiplexing

The Evolution to CDMA2000 1X (Voice and Data) and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Data Optimized-High Data Rate)

3G Compatible Handsets-Multimode Capabilities for Roaming

The Path to IP Converged 3G Networks

802.20: IP Mobile Broadband Wireless Access-MobileFi

Mobile Networks for Video-Using Incompatible Technologies

Mobile Commerce, Enhanced Services, and Operating Systems

The Battle for Operating System Dominance

Camera Phones

Ring-Back Tones-Mobile Music Instead of Ringing

Mobile Commerce-Mobile Devices to Make Purchases

The IP Multimedia System and Interoperable Multimedia

3G Applications for Enterprises

Specialized Mobile Radio-Slow-Speed Packet Data and Push-to-Talk

Specialized Mobile Radio-Packetized Data Networks for Two-Way E-mail and Field Services

Satellites and Paging

Satellite Networks

Satellite Telephones-For Emergencies and Remote Areas

VSAT Service-Small Satellite Dishes

Paging Services

9. Wi-Fi, Wireless Broadband, Sensor Networks, and Personal Area Networks.

802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

The Terms 802.11, WLAN, and Wi-Fi

The Criticality of Standards

The Main Standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

802.11n-Improving Range (Area Covered), Capacity, and Data Rates

WLAN Infrastructure: Access Points and Switches

In Enterprises

Hotspots-Wi-Fi Inside Public Places

In Homes-To Avoid Running Cables

Wi-Fi Networks for Voice Over IP (VoIP)

Managing Security on WLANs

Compared to 3G: Mobility, Coverage, and Data Rates

Broadband Wireless Access

WiMAX: Broadband Access, Based on 802.16

Adapting 3G for Wireless Broadband Access: UMTS TDD and WCDMA

Personal Area Networks (PANs)


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Ultra-Wideband-High-Speed, Short Distance Links

Sensor Networks-The 802.15.4 Standard

ZigBee-A Protocol For Sensor Networks





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