Essential Oils and Waxes

Overview

Given the growing importance of essential oils and waxes, this volume deals with the analysis of a broad spectrum of these compounds from many plant origins. Commercial oils such as olive oil are analysed as are trees such as eucalyptus, mentha, cedar and juniper. In addition, analysis of spices, seasoning, seaweeds, perfumes, liquors and atmospheric monoterpene hydrocarbons are to be found in this book. The volatiles of flower and pollen may be of importance in attraction of bees and other insects to certain ...
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Overview

Given the growing importance of essential oils and waxes, this volume deals with the analysis of a broad spectrum of these compounds from many plant origins. Commercial oils such as olive oil are analysed as are trees such as eucalyptus, mentha, cedar and juniper. In addition, analysis of spices, seasoning, seaweeds, perfumes, liquors and atmospheric monoterpene hydrocarbons are to be found in this book. The volatiles of flower and pollen may be of importance in attraction of bees and other insects to certain plants for pollination purposes; this topic is also discussed. Waxes, both in the soil and as leaf components are analysed and presented in such a way making this book valuable to scientists with varying interests worldwide.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642840258
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/27/2011
  • Series: Molecular Methods of Plant Analysis Series , #12
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 337
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Olive Oil Analysis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Quality Tests of Olive Oil-Determination of Acidity and Oxidation.- 2.1 Acidity.- 2.2 Oxidation.- 3 Sensory Evaluation of Olive Oil.- 4 Determination of Certain Constituents of Olive Oil.- 4.1 Chlorophyll Determination.- 4.2 Determination of Phenols.- 5 Moisture Determination.- 5.1 Moisture Determination by Infrared Balance.- 6 Determination of Soap Content.- 7 Olive Oil Adulteration — Adulteration and Genuineness Tests.- 7.1 Methods and Techniques of Detecting Adulteration.- 7.2 Adulteration Tests Based on Color Formation.- 7.3 Adulteration Tests Based on Residue or Clouding Formation.- 7.4 Detection of Oil Adulteration by a UV Lamp.- 7.5 Detection of Olive Oil Purity by Infrared Spectrophotometry.- References.- Analysis of Essential Oils of Tea.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Isolation of Essential Oils.- 2.1 Steam Distillation Under Reduced Pressure (SDR).- 2.2 Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction (SDE).- 2.3 Head Space Gas Analysis.- 3 Separation and Identification of Essential Oil Components from Tea.- 3.1 Gas Chromatography.- 3.2 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).- 3.3 Gas Chromatography-Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry (GC-IR-MS).- 4 Components of the Essential Oil.- 4.1 Comparison of the Main Components in Various Teas.- 4.2 Specific Components of the Essential Oils.- 5 Pattern Analyses of Gas Chromatograms.- References.- Special Methods for the Essential Oils of the Genus Thymus.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Plant Material.- 3 Extraction.- 4 Analytical Methodology.- 4.1 Qualitative Analysis.- 4.2 Quantitative Analysis.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- Chemical Races Within the Genus Mentha. L..- 1 Introduction.- 2 Biosynthesis of Mentha Essential Oils.- 3 Chemical Races.- 3.1 Oils Rich in Acyclic Compounds.- 3.2 Oils Rich in 2-Substituted Compounds.- 3.3 Oils Rich in 3-Substituted Compounds.- 4 Conclusions.- References.- Special Methods for the Essential Oil of Ginger.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Description and Use.- 1.2 Chemical Composition.- 1.3 Isolation, Separation and Quality Evaluation of Ginger Oil..- 2 Traditional Methods of Extraction, Separation, and Control.- 2.1 Traditional Isolation Methods.- 2.2 Traditional Separation Methods.- 2.3 Traditional Quality Control.- 3 Modern Methods of Extraction, Separation, and Identification.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Modern Methods of Isolation.- 3.3 Modern Methods of Separation.- 3.4 Modern Methods of Identification.- References.- GC-MS (EI, DCI, NCI, SIM) SPECMA Bank Analysis of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Garlic Essential Oils.- 1 A Short Survey of the Chemistry of Garlic.- 2 Analytical Methods Used for Identification of Sulfur Compounds in Garlic Essential Oil.- 2.1 GC-MS (EI, PCI, NCI) of Garlic Essential Oils.- 2.2 Kováts Indices as Filters and Their Properties.- 2.3 The SPECMA Bank.- 3 GC-MS Analyses of Two Garlic Essential Oils Originating from France (Provence) and Mexico.- 3.1 Analyses and Composition.- 3.2 Mechanisms of Formation of Sulfide Derivatives.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- Analysis of Juniper and Other Forest Tree Oil.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sample Collection.- 2.1 Sampling.- 2.2 Sample Sizes.- 2.3 Diurnal, Seasonal, and Ontogenetic Variation.- 3 Oil Extraction.- 4 Chemical Analysis.- 4.1 Gas Chromatography.- 5 Component Identification.- 5.1 GC/MC Computer Searches.- 6 Applications of Terpenoid Data.- 6.1 Analyses of Hybridization and Introgression.- 6.2 Studies of Geographic Variation.- 6.3 Taxon Level Differences and Evolutionary Studies.- References.- Cedar Wood Oil — Analyses and Properties.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sample Collection.- 3 Oil Extraction.- 4 Chemical Analysis.- 4.1 Gas Chromatography.- 5 Identification.- 5.1 GC/MS.- 6 Properties.- 6.1 Antimicrobial Activities.- 6.2 Insecticidal Activities.- 6.3 Termiticidal Activities.- References.- Analysis of Croton Oil by Reversed-Phase Overpressure-Layer Chromatography.- 1 Introduction — Overpressure-Layer Chromatography as a Separatory Technique.- 2 Phorbol Ester Constituents of Croton Oil.- 3 Separation of the Phorbol Esters of Croton Oil.- 3.1 Two-Dimensional Thin Layer Chromatography.- 3.2 Reversed-Phase Overpressure Layer Chromatography.- 4 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- Rotation Locular Countercurrent Chromatography Analysis of Croton Oil.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Croton Oil, the Seed Oil of Croton tiglium.- 3 RLCC Analysis of Croton Oil.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Experimental Details and Discussion.- 4 Summary and Conclusion.- References.- Oils and Waxes of Eucalypts Vacuum Distillation Methodl for Essential Oils.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Chemical Composition of Eucalyptus Oils and Waxes.- 3 Methods of Analyses of Eucalyptus Waxes.- 4 Methods of Analysis of Eucalyptus Oils.- 5 Vacuum Distillation Method for Essential Oils.- 5.1 Preparation of Leaf Powder.- 5.2 Distillation.- 5.3 Notes.- References.- Analysis of Epicuticular Waxes.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Extraction of Epicuticular Wax.- 3 Fractionation of Wax Components.- 3.1 Column Chromatography.- 3.2 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC).- 4 Analysis of Wax Components.- 4.1 Analysis of Hydrocarbon by Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC).- 4.2 Analysis of Wax Esters.- 4.3 Analysis of Free Alcohols and Fatty Acids.- 4.4 Analysis of Aldehydes.- 4.5 Analysis of—-Diketones.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- Analysis of Flower and Pollen Volatiles.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Flower Volatile Chemistry.- 3 Overview of Methodology.- 3.1 Volatile Collection.- 3.2 Volatile Analysis.- 3.3 Cautionary Notes.- 4 Details of Collection Methods.- 4.1 Extraction and Distillation.- 4.2 Headspace Cold-Trapping.- 4.3 Direct Headspace Sampling.- 4.4 Headspace Sorption.- 4.5 Passive Sorption.- References.- Bioactivities of Diterpenoids from Marine Algae.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Antimicrobial Activity.- 2.1 Background.- 2.2 Description of the Methods.- 2.3 Antimicrobial Diterpenoids from Seaweeds.- 3 Antialgal Activity.- 3.1 Background.- 3.2 Description of the Method.- 3.3 Antialgal Diterpenoids from Seaweeds.- 4 Cytotoxic Activity and Other Related Activities.- 4.1 Background.- 4.2 Description of the Methods.- 4.3 Cytotoxic and Antimitotic Diterpenoids from Seaweeds.- 5 Ichthyotoxicity and Other Defensive Bioactivities.- 5.1 Background.- 5.2 Description of the Methods.- 5.3 Ichthyotoxic and Other Defensive Diterpenoids from Seaweeds.- 6 Molluscicidal Activity.- 6.1 Background.- 6.2 Description of the Methods.- 6.3 Molluscicidal Diterpenoids from Seaweeds.- 7 Other Bioactivity Data on Diterpenoids from Seaweeds.- 8 Concluding Remarks.- References.- Determination of Waxes Causing Water Repellency in Sandy Soils.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Assessment of Water Repellency of Soils.- 2.1 Molarity of the Ethanol Droplet (MED) Method.- 2.2 Capillary Rise Technique.- 2.3 Other Test Methods.- 3 Extraction of Water-Repellent Waxes.- 4 Significance and Conclusions.- References.- Analysis of Monoterpene Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sampling and Concentration.- 2.1 Adsorption Method.- 2.2 Grab Sampling.- 3 GC, GC/MS Method.- 3.1 Packed GC/MS (SIM).- 3.2 Capillary GC (FID).- 3.3 Capillary GC/MS.- 4 Calibration.- 5 Features of Atmospheric Monoterpenes.- References.- Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Essential (Volatile) Oils.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Extraction of Plant Volatile Oil.- 3 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Volatile Oils.- 3.1 Antibacterial Testing.- 3.2 Antifungal Testing.- 4 Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oils.- 5 Future Developments in Volatile Oils.- References.- Organization of Rapid Analysis of Lipids in Many Individual Plants.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Analyses for Total Lipid Content.- 3 Analyses for Fatty Acid Composition.- 4 Analyses for Glyceride Structure.- 5 Analyses for Other Lipid Constituents.- 6 Analyses for Lipoxygenase.- References.
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