The Essential World History / Edition 7

The Essential World History / Edition 7

by William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel

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ISBN-10: 113360658X

ISBN-13: 9781133606581

Pub. Date: 12/31/2012

Publisher: Cengage Learning

Your journey begins with Duiker and Spielvogel's The Essential World History-covering the major events in human history, from the earliest recorded times to today's history-making developments. Enrich that journey using free online study tools that reinforce your understanding: maps, simulations, flashcards, helpful tutorial quizzes, and more. It's the extra support


Your journey begins with Duiker and Spielvogel's The Essential World History-covering the major events in human history, from the earliest recorded times to today's history-making developments. Enrich that journey using free online study tools that reinforce your understanding: maps, simulations, flashcards, helpful tutorial quizzes, and more. It's the extra support you need to succeed in world history!

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Cengage Learning
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Older Edition
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8.00(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Chronologies     xx
Maps     xxi
Preface     xxiii
Acknowledgments     xxviii
A Note to Students About Languages and the Dating of Time     xxx
Themes for Understanding World History     xxxi
The First Civilizations and the Rise of Empires (Prehistory to 500 C.E.)     1
The First Civilizations: The Peoples of Western Asia and Egypt     2
The First Humans     3
The Hunter-Gatherers of the Paleolithic Age     3
The Neolithic Revolution, c. 10,000-4000 B.C.E.     4
The Emergence of Civilization     6
Civilization in Mesopotamia     7
The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia     7
Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia     8
The Culture of Mesopotamia     9
Egyptian Civilization: "The Gift of the Nile"     12
The Importance of Geography     12
The Importance of Religion     13
The Course of Egyptian History: The Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms     13
Society and Daily Life in Ancient Egypt     15
The Culture of Egypt: Art and Writing     16
New Centers of Civilization     16
The Role of Nomadic Peoples     16
The Phoenicians     17
The "Children of Israel"     18
The Rise of New Empires     20
The Assyrian Empire     20
The Persian Empire     21
Conclusion     23
Chapter Notes     24
Suggested Reading     24
Ancient India     16
Background to the Emergence of Civilization in India     27
Harappan Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma     28
Political and Social Structures     28
Harappan Culture     29
The Arrival of the Aryans     30
The Early Aryans     30
The Mauryan Empire     31
Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India     32
The Economy     34
Escaping the Wheel of Life: The Religious World of Ancient India     35
Hinduism     35
Buddhism: The Middle Path     37
The Reign of Asoka and the End of the Mauryan Empire     40
The Exuberant World of Indian Culture     41
Literature     41
Architecture and Sculpture     41
Science     43
Conclusion     44
Chapter Notes     44
Suggested Reading     45
China in Antiquity      46
The Dawn of Chinese Civilization     47
Land and People     47
The Shang Dynasty     47
The Zhou Dynasty     49
Political Structures     49
Economy and Society     50
The Hundred Schools of Ancient Philosophy     52
The Rise of the Chinese Empire: The Qin and the Han     55
The Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.E.)     56
The Glorious Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.-221 C.E.)     58
Daily Life in Ancient China     61
The Humble Estate: Women in Ancient China     62
Chinese Culture     63
Metalwork and Sculpture     63
Language and Literature     64
Conclusion     65
Chapter Notes     66
Suggested Reading     66
The Civilization of the Greeks     68
Early Greece     69
Minoan Crete     69
The Mycenaeans     70
The Greeks in a Dark Age (c. 1100-c. 750 B.C.E.)     71
Homer     71
The Greek City-States (c. 750-c. 500 B.C.E.)     71
The Polis     72
Colonization and the Rise of Tyrants     73
Sparta     74
Athens      75
The High Point of Greek Civilization: Classical Greece     76
The Challenge of Persia     76
The Growth of an Athenian Empire in the Age of Pericles     76
The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline of the Greek States     77
The Culture of Classical Greece     77
Greek Religion     80
Daily Life in Classical Athens     81
The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander     82
Alexander the Great     82
The Legacy of Alexander     83
The Hellenistic Kingdoms     84
Culture in the Hellenistic World     85
A Golden Age of Science     86
Philosophy     86
Conclusion     87
Chapter Notes     88
Suggested Reading     88
The World of the Romans     89
The Emergence of Rome     90
Early Rome     91
The Roman Republic     91
The Roman Conquest of Italy     91
The Roman State     92
The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133 B.C.E.)     93
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic (133-31 B.C.E.)     95
Growing Unrest and a New Role for the Roman Army      95
The Collapse of the Republic     95
Augustus and the Early Empire (31 B.C.E.-180 C.E.)     97
The Early Empire (14-180)     97
Culture and Society in the Roman World     99
Roman Literature     99
Roman Art     100
Roman Law     100
The Roman Family     100
Slaves and Their Masters     101
Imperial Rome     101
Crisis and the Late Empire     103
The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine     103
The End of the Western Roman Empire     104
Transformation of the Roman World: The Development of Christianity     104
The Religious World of the Romans     104
The Jewish Background     104
The Rise of Christianity     105
The Triumph of Christianity     106
Comparison of the Roman and Han Empires     107
Conclusion     108
Chapter Notes     108
Suggested Reading     109
Reflection: The First Civilizations and the Rise of Empires     110
New Patterns of Civilization     114
The New World     116
The First Americans     117
Early Civilizations in Central America      117
Teotihuacan: America's First Metropolis     118
The Mysterious Maya     118
The Aztecs     123
The First Civilizations in South America     127
Moche     127
The Inca     128
Stateless Societies in the New World     130
Conclusion     133
Chapter Notes     134
Suggested Reading     134
Islam and Byzantium     135
The Rise of Islam     136
The Role of Muhammad     136
The Teachings of Muhammad     137
The Arab Empire and Its Successors     139
Creation of an Empire     139
Succession Problems and the Rise of the Umayyads     140
The Abbasids     141
The Seljuk Turks     143
The Crusades     143
The Mongols     144
Islamic Civilization     145
The Wealth of Araby: Trade and Cities in the Middle East     146
Islamic Society     146
The Culture of Islam     146
The Byzantine Empire     150
The Reign of Justinian (527-565)     150
From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire     153
The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization      154
New Challenges to the Byzantine Empire     155
Impact of the Crusades     156
Conclusion     156
Chapter Notes     157
Suggested Reading     157
Early Civilizations in Africa     159
The Land     160
The Emergence of Civilization     160
Kush     161
Axum, Son of Saba     162
The Sahara and Its Environs     162
East Africa     164
Southern Africa     164
The Coming of Islam     164
African Religious Beliefs Before Islam     165
The Arabs in North Africa     165
The Kingdom of Ethiopia: A Christian Island in a Muslim Sea     166
East Africa: The Land of Zanj     167
The States of West Africa     168
States and Stateless Societies in Southern Africa     170
Zimbabwe     171
African Society     172
Urban Life     172
Village Life     173
The Role of Women     173
Slavery     173
African Culture     174
Painting and Sculpture     174
Music     175
Architecture      175
Literature     177
Conclusion     178
Chapter Notes     178
Suggested Reading     179
The Expansion of Civilization in Southern Asia     180
India from the Mauryas to the Mughals     181
The Kushan Kingdom: Sitting Astride the Silk Road     181
The Gupta Dynasty     182
Buddhism at Bay     183
Islam on the March     185
Economy and Daily Life     189
The Wonder of Indian Culture     191
The Golden Region: Early Southeast Asia     193
Paddy Fields and Spices: The States of Southeast Asia     193
Daily Life     195
World of the Spirits: Religious Belief     196
Conclusion     198
Chapter Notes     199
Suggested Reading     200
From the Tang to the Mongols: The Flowering of Traditional China     201
China After the Han     202
China Reunified: The Sui, the Tang, and the Song     203
Political Structures: The Triumph of Confucianism     205
Economy and Society     206
Explosion in Central Asia: The Mongol Empire     211
Mongol Rule in China     212
In Search of the Way     214
The Rise and Decline of Buddhism and Daoism     214
Neo-Confucianism: The Investigation of Things     215
The Apogee of Chinese Culture     216
Literature     217
Art     218
Conclusion     219
Chapter Notes     220
Suggested Reading     221
The East Asian Rimlands: Early Japan, Korea, and Vietnam     222
Japan: Land of the Rising Sun     223
A Gift from the Gods: Prehistoric Japan     224
The Rise of that Japanese State     224
Economic and Social Structures     228
In Search of the Pure Land: Religion in Early Japan     230
Sources of Traditional Japanese Culture     231
Japan and the Chinese Model     233
Korea: Bridge to the East     234
The Three Kingdoms     235
Unification     235
Under the Mongols     235
Vietnam: The Smaller Dragon     236
The Rise of Great Viet     237
Society and Family Life     238
Conclusion     239
Chapter Notes     240
Suggested Reading     240
The Making of Europe in the Middle Ages      242
Transformation of the Roman World     243
The New Germanic Kingdoms     243
The Role of the Christian Church     243
Charlemagne and the Carolingians     245
The World of Lords and Vassals     246
Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries     246
The Development of Fief-Holding     246
The Nobility of the Middle Ages     247
Evolution of the European Kingdoms     247
England in the High Middle Ages     247
Growth of the French Kingdom     248
The Lands of the Holy Roman Empire     249
The Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe     249
The World of Peasants and Townspeople     250
The New Agriculture     251
The Manorial System     252
Daily Life of the Peasantry     252
The Revival of Trade     252
The Growth of Cities     253
Christianity and Medieval Civilization     255
The Papal Monarchy     255
New Religious Orders and New Spiritual Ideals     256
The Culture of the High Middle Ages     257
The Rise of Universities     257
The Development of Scholasticism     257
The Gothic Cathedral     258
The Expansion of Medieval Europe: The Crusades     258
The First Crusades     258
The Later Crusades     260
The Late Middle Ages: A Time of Troubles in Europe     260
The Black Death     260
Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval     261
Political Instability     261
The Decline of the Church     263
Conclusion     264
Chapter Notes     264
Suggested Reading     265
Reflection: New Patterns of Civilization     266
The Emergence of New World Patterns (1400-1800)     270
Renewal, Reform, and State Building in Europe     272
The Renaissance     273
Renaissance Society     273
The Intellectual Renaissance     275
The Artistic Renaissance     275
The State in the Renaissance     276
The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century     279
Prelude to Reformation     279
Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany     280
The Spread of the Protestant Reformation     280
The Catholic Reformation     282
Europe in Crisis, 1560-1650     282
Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century     282
Economic and Social Crises: Witchcraft Mania     283
Seventeenth-Century Crises     285
The Practice of Absolutism     285
France Under Louis XIV     285
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe     287
England and the Emergence of Constitutional Monarchy     288
Revolution and Civil War     288
Restoration and a Glorious Revolution     289
European Culture     289
Art: The Baroque     289
A Golden Age of Literature in England     290
The Scientific Revolution     291
Conclusion     293
Chapter Notes     294
Suggested Reading     294
New Encounters: The Creation of a World Market     296
An Age of Exploration and Expansion     297
Islam and the Spice Trade     297
A New Player: Europe     297
The Portuguese Maritime Empire     300
Voyages to the "New World"     302
Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World     303
The Impact of European Expansion     303
New Rivals     304
Africa in Transition     305
The Slave Trade      307
Political and Social Structures in a Changing Continent     310
Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade     311
The Arrival of the West     311
State and Society in Precolonial Southeast Asia     312
Conclusion     315
Chapter Notes     316
Suggested Reading     316
The Muslim Empires     318
The Ottoman Empire     319
Expansion of the Empire     320
The Nature of Turkish Rule     322
Religion and Society in the Ottoman World     323
The Ottomans in Decline     324
Ottoman Art     324
The Safavids     325
Safavid Politics and Society     327
Safavid Art and Literature     328
The Grandeur of the Mughals     329
The Mughal Dynasty: A "Gunpowder Empire"?     330
Akbar and Indo-Muslim Civilization     331
Twilight of the Mughals     331
The Impact of Western Power in India     333
Society and Culture Under the Mughals     335
Conclusion     337
Chapter Notes     338
Suggested Reading     339
The East Asian World     340
China at Its Apex      341
From the Ming to the Qing     341
The Greatness of the Qing     344
Changing China     347
Daily Life in Qing China     348
Cultural Developments     349
Tokugawa Japan     351
The Three Great Unifiers     351
Opening to the West     352
The Tokugawa "Great Peace"     354
Life in the Village     356
Tokugawa Culture     356
Korea: The Hermit Kingdom     357
Conclusion     359
Chapter Notes     360
Suggested Reading     360
The West on the Eve of a New World Order     362
The Enlightenment     363
The Path to Enlightenment     363
The Philosophes and Their Ideas     363
Culture in an Enlightened Age     365
Economic Changes and the Social Order     366
New Economic Patterns     366
European Society in the Eighteenth Century     368
Changing Patterns of War: Global Confrontation     368
The Seven Years' War: A Global Conflict     368
Colonial Empires and Revolution in the Western Hemisphere     369
The Society of Latin America      369
British North America     370
Toward a New Political Order: Enlightened Absolutism     372
Prussia     372
The Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs     372
Russia Under Catherine the Great     372
The French Revolution     374
Background to the French Revolution     374
From Estates-General to National Assembly     375
Destruction of the Old Regime     376
Radical Revolution     377
Reaction and the Directory     379
The Age of Napoleon     379
Domestic Policies     380
Napoleon's Empire and the European Response     380
Conclusion     383
Chapter Notes     384
Suggested Reading     384
Reflection: The Emergence of New World Patterns (1400-1800)     386
Modern Patterns of World History (1800-1945)     390
The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800-1870     392
The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact     393
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain     393
The Spread of Industrialization     395
Limiting the Spread of Industrialization     396
Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution      396
Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism     397
Forces for Change     398
Independence and the Development of the National State in Latin America     401
Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question     402
National Unification and the National State, 1848-1871     403
The Unification of Italy     404
The Unification of Germany     404
Nationalism and Reform: Great Britain, France, the Austrian Empire, and Russia     405
The Growth of the United States     407
The Emergence of a Canadian Nation     408
Cultural Life: Romanticism and Realism     408
The Characteristics of Romanticism     408
A New Age of Science     409
Realism in Literature and Art     410
Conclusion     410
Chapter Notes     412
Suggested Reading     412
The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World     413
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity     414
New Products and New Patterns     414
Toward a World Economy     415
The Spread of Industrialization     415
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities     416
Organizing the Working Classes      417
The Emergence of Mass Society     418
The New Urban Environment     418
The Social Structure of Mass Society     419
The Experiences of Women     419
Education in an Age of Mass Society     422
Leisure in an Age of Mass Society     423
The National State     424
Tradition and Change in Latin America     424
The Rise of the United States     424
The Growth of Canada     425
Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy     426
Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order     426
International Rivalries and the Winds of War     427
Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments     428
A New Physics     429
Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis     429
The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism     429
The Culture of Modernity     430
Conclusion     432
Chapter Notes     433
Suggested Reading     433
The High Tide of Imperialism     434
The Spread of Colonial Rule     435
"Opportunity in the Orient": The Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia      436
Empire Building in Africa     437
The Colonial System     443
The Philosophy of Colonialism     443
Colonialism in Action     444
The Emergence of Anticolonialism     451
Traditional Resistance: A Precursor to Nationalism     452
Conclusion     453
Chapter Notes     454
Suggested Reading     454
Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge     456
The Decline of the Manchus     457
Opium and Rebellion     457
The Climax of Imperialism in China     459
The Collapse of the Old Order     462
Chinese Society in Transition     465
Daily Life     466
A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan     467
An End to Isolation     468
The Meiji Restoration     468
Joining the Imperialist Club     472
Japanese Culture in Transition     472
The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above     473
Conclusion     474
Chapter Notes     475
Suggested Reading     475
The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution     477
The Road to World War I      478
Nationalism and Internal Dissent     478
Militarism     478
The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914     479
The Great War     480
1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate     480
1916-1917: The Great Slaughter     481
The Widening of the War     483
The Home Front: The Impact of Total War     485
War and Revolution     486
The Russian Revolution     486
The Last Year of the War     489
The Peace Settlement     489
The Futile Search for Stability     491
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security     491
The Great Depression     492
The Democratic States     493
Socialism in Soviet Russia     495
In Pursuit of a New Reality: Cultural and Intellectual Trends     495
Nightmares and New Visions     495
Probing the Unconscious     496
Conclusion     496
Chapter Notes     497
Suggested Reading     497
Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Africa, Asia, and Latin America from 1919 to 1939     499
The Rise of Nationalism     500
Modern Nationalism     500
Gandhi and the Indian National Congress     501
The Nationalist Revolt in the Middle East     502
Nationalism and Revolution in Asia and Africa     505
Revolution in China     507
Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy: The New Culture Movement     508
The Nanjing Republic     509
"Down with Confucius and Sons": Economic, Social, and Cultural Change in Republican China     511
Japan Between the Wars     512
Experiment in Democracy     512
A Zaibatsu Economy     513
Shidehara Diplomacy     514
Nationalism and Dictatorship in Latin America     514
The Economy and the United States     514
The Move to Authoritarianism     516
Latin American Culture     517
Conclusion     517
Chapter Notes     518
Suggested Reading     518
The Crisis Deepens: World War II     520
Retreat from Democracy: Dictatorial Regimes     521
The Birth of Fascism     521
Hitler and Nazi Germany     522
The Stalinist Era in the Soviet Union     525
The Rise of Militarism in Japan     525
The Path to War     525
The Path to War in Europe     525
The Path to War in Asia     526
Toward a Global Civilization? The World Since 1945     546
In the Grip of the Cold War: The Breakdown of the Yalta System     548
The Collapse of the Grand Alliance     549
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan     550
Europe Divided     551
Cold War in Asia     554
The Chinese Civil War     554
The Korean War     555
Conflict in Indochina     557
From Confrontation to Coexistence     559
Khrushchev and the Era of Peaceful Coexistence     559
The Cuban Missile Crisis     560
The Sino-Soviet Dispute     561
The Second Indochina War     561
An Era of Equivalence     563
An End to Detente?     564
Countering the Evil Empire     564
Conclusion     565
Chapter Notes     566
Suggested Reading     566
Brave New World: Communism on Trial     568
The Postwar Soviet Union     569
From Stalin to Khrushchev     569
The Brezhnev Years (1964-1982)     571
Ferment in Eastern Europe     571
Culture and Society in the Soviet Bloc     574
The Disintegration of the Soviet Empire     575
The Gorbachev Era     576
The New Russia: From Empire to Nation     577
Eastern Europe: From Satellites to Sovereign Nations     577
The East Is Red: China Under Communism     579
New Democracy     579
The Transition to Socialism     579
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution     579
From Mao to Deng     581
Incident at Tiananmen Square     581
A New Era?     581
"Serve the People": Chinese Society Under Communism     582
Economics in Command     582
Social Changes     585
China's Changing Culture     585
Conclusion     587
Chapter Notes     587
Suggested Reading     588
Europe and the Western Hemisphere Since 1945     589
Recovery and Renewal in Europe     590
Western Europe: The Triumph of Democracy     590
Western Europe: The Move Toward Unity     592
Eastern Europe After Communism     593
Emergence of the Superpower: The United States     595
American Politics and Society Through the Vietnam Era     595
The Shift Rightward After 1973      596
The Development of Canada     596
Latin America Since 1945     597
The Threat of Marxist Revolutions: The Example of Cuba     598
Nationalism and the Military: The Example of Argentina     599
The Mexican Way     600
Society and Culture in the Western World     600
The Emergence of a New Society     600
The Permissive Society     601
Women in the Postwar World     601
The Growth of Terrorism     603
The Environment and the Green Movements     605
Trends in Art and Literature     605
Advances in Science and Technology     606
The Explosion of Popular Culture     606
Conclusion     607
Chapter Notes     608
Suggested Reading     608
Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East     610
Uhuru: The Struggle for Independence     611
The Colonial Legacy     611
The Rise of Nationalism     611
The Era of Independence     613
Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa     613
Dream and Reality: Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa     613
Continuity and Change in Modern African Societies      616
African Women     616
African Culture     617
Crescent of Conflict     619
The Question of Palestine     620
Nasser and Pan-Arabism     621
The Arab-Israeli Dispute     621
Revolution in Iran     623
Crisis in the Gulf     624
Conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq     625
Politics in the Contemporary Middle East     625
The Economics of Oil     625
The Islamic Revival     627
Women and Islam     628
Literature and Art     628
Conclusion     630
Chapter Notes     630
Suggested Reading     631
Toward the Pacific Century?     632
South Asia     633
The End of the British Raj     633
Independent India     633
The Land of the Pure: Pakistan Since Independence     635
Poverty and Pluralism in South Asia     636
South Asian Art and Literature Since Independence     638
Southeast Asia     639
The Era of Independent States     639
Regional Conflict and Cooperation: The Rise of ASEAN     642
Daily Life: Town and Country in Contemporary Southeast Asia     642
A Region in Flux     643
East Asia     644
The Japanese Miracle: The Transformation of Modern Japan     644
The Little Tigers     647
On the Margins of Asia: Postwar Australia and New Zealand     650
Conclusion     650
Chapter Notes     652
Suggested Reading     652
Reflection: Toward a Global Civilization? The World Since 1945     654
Glossary     659
Pronunciation Guide     670
Credits     675
Index     680

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