Essentials of Argument / Edition 3

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More About This Textbook


This concise argument text presents a broad range of rhetorical theory while providing the clear explanations and examples to make it accessible to an exceptionally wide range of students.

Essentials of Argument, 3e, contains ten chapters, each accompanied by class exercises and writing assignments. Students using this text will learn to identify topics of personal and social consequence, to read and form opinions of their own, to analyze a potential audience, and to write persuasive argument papers. Research methods are introduced early, instructing students how to locate, print, and evaluate online materials and avoid plagiarism. Appendices teach MLA and APA styles, and provide a synopsis of the major ideas about argument in unique Summary Charts.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205827022
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 11/25/2010
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 336
  • Sales rank: 104,553
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Table of Contents

PART I: Understanding Argument and Conducting Research

1 Recognizing Argument and Finding Issues

A Definition of Argument

Why Study Argument?

Recognizing Traditional and Consensual Argument

Evaluating Traditional and Consensual Argument

Distinguish between Ethical and Unethical Argument

What Is Your Personal Style of Argument?

Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best?

Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail?

Engaging with Issues

Review Questions


Chris Piper, "'A' is for 'Absent'"

A student argues against attendance policies in college that penalize students by lowering their grades for excessive absences.

2 The Rhetorical Situation: Understanding Audience and Context

Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Read an Argument

Use the Rhetorical Situation When You Write an Argument

Conducting An Audience Analysis

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 1: Rhetorical Situation

Worksheet 2: Audience Analysis


Charles M. Blow, "Welcome to the Club"

The author examines the issue of racial profiling, using facts and personal narrative

Prisna Virasin, "The Barbie Controversy"

This student issue proposal examines the controversy associated with Barbie dolls.

3 Learning More about Issues: Conducting Research

Begin with What You Know

Locating Sources for Research

Evaluate Sources and Select the Best

Create a Bibliography

Survey, Read, and Add Annotations to Your Bibliography

Develop a System for Taking and Organizing Your Notes

Avoid Plagarism

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 3: Research Plan

Worksheet 4: Research Evaluation


Angela A. Boatwright, "Human Cloaning: An Annotated Bibliography"

This is a student-written annotated bibliography about human cloning

4 Writing the Exploratory Paper

What Is an Exploratory Paper?

How Do You Write Now?

Prewriting Strategies

Writing the First Draft

Break through Writer's Block

Revise the Draft

How to Write an Exploratory Paper

Submitting Your Paper for Peer Review

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 5: Exploratory Paper


Jeff D. Opdyke, "Kids and Chores: All Work and No Pay?"

This author considers different perspectives on how to pay children for doing the chores

Prisna Virasin, "The Controversy behind Barbie"

This student-written exploratory paper explains different perspecitves on the Barbie doll controversy

PART II: Using Argument Theory for Reading and Writing

5 The Toulmin Model of Argument: Understanding the Parts

The Parts of an Argument according to the Toulmin Model

Value of the Toulmin model for Reading and Writing Argument

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments


Military Advertisement

Practice finding the claim, support, and warrants in an advertisement for joining the military.

Cartoon: The Price of Oranges

Use the Toulmin model to analyze a cartoon

Editorial: Brother, Can You Spare a Word?

This author argues that words and their connotations are important.

Use the Toulmin model to write an analysis

Mohamed T. Diaby Jr., "Toulmin Analysis of the Price of Oranges Cartoon"

This represents a student example of a Toulmin analysis of a cartoon

Richard D. Rieke and Malcolm O. Sillars, "American Value System"

The authors argue that individuals have value systems that can be categorized and, thus, help with an understanding of value warrants.

6 The Types of Claims: Establishing Purpose and Organization

Five Types of Claims

Mixed Claims

Claims and Argument in Real Life Situations

Value of the Claims and the Claim Questions for Reading and Writing Argument

Some Other Preliminary Questions to Help You Develop Your Claim

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 6: Claim Development


Peg Tyre, "Bringing Up Adolescents"

This author asks, When should adult children start paying their own way?

7 The Types of Proof: Supporting the Claim

The Traditional Categories of Proof

Types of Logical Proofs: Logos

Proofs that Build Credibility: Ethos

Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos

Value of the Proofs for Reading and Writing Argument

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated through Language and Style

How to Recognize Fallacies

Ethics and Morality in Argument

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 7: Proof and Language Development


Anna Quindlen, "Undocumented, Indispensable"

This essay addresses the state of illegal immigration and undocumented workers in the United States

Rush Limbaugh, "Sexual Harassment and the Feminist 'Front'"

This author gives his views on feminism and sexual harassment

8 Writing the Argument Analysis Paper: Review and Synthesis

Reading for the Argument Analysis Paper

Writing the Argument Analysis Paper

Rhetorical Situation for "A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen" and Martin Luther King Jr's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

Focus Topics to Help You Analyze the Letters


A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen

This letter, written by eight white clergymen in Alabama, prompted Martin Luther King Jr's famouse response

Martin Luther King Jr, "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

This is the letter King wrote in jail, justifying his participation in the civil rights movement. It is a classical argument.

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

PART III: Writing and Presenting Arguments

9 Analyzing and Creating Visual Argument

Recognizing Visual Argument

Why Visual Argument is Convincing: Eight Special Features

Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual Argument

Bias in Visual Argument

Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument

Add Visual Argument to Support Written Argument

Create Visual Arguments that Stand Alone

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 8: Visual Argument Development


Cartoon: Get Out!

A visual argument for analysis

Karen Hernandez, "Never Again"

A student explains and analyzes her visual argument.

Color Portfolio of Visual Arguments and Questions for Dicussion and Writing

Plate 1: Mexican Immigrants Crossing into the United States

Plate 2: Exploring an Issue Through Images: Walling Off Your Enemies: The Long View, 4 Images

Plate 3: Walling Off Your Enemies: The Long View, cont'd; 2 images

Plate 4: The Creation of Adam; Play Ball

Plate 5: Robot with Grappler Holding a Wounded Palestinian; Hands

Plate 6: American Soldiers; 2 images

Plate 7: People and Guns; 2 images

Plate 8: Two Student Examples of Visual Argument: Colalge and Installation

10 Writing the Rogerian Argument Paper

Achiviecing Common Ground in Rogerian Argument

Rogerian Argument as Strategy

Writing Rogerian Argument

Variations of Rogerian Argument

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rogerian Argument

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments


Edward O. Wilson, "The Future of LIfe"

The author describes how to find common ground between two groups who usually disagree

Eric Hartman, "Let Those Who Ride Decide!"

This student Rogerian argument explains the tensions between those who advocate wearing motorcycle helmets and those who resist such a ruling

Elizabeth Nabhan, "Dear Boss"

A student Rogerian argument written in letter form to her boss to try to improve her job-related duties and responsibilities

11 Writing the Researched Position Paper

Classical Organization of Arguments

Classical and Modern Organization

Use Organizational Patterns to Help You Think and Organize

Incorporate Ideas from your Exploratory Paper

How to Match Patterns and Cross-Reference Your Notes

Incorporating Research into Your First Draft

Make Revisions and Prepare the Final Copy

Review Questions

Class Activities and Writing Assignments

Worksheet 9: Invention

Appendix 1: How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles

How to Document Sources Using MLA Style

MLA: How to Cite Sources in the Body of the Text

MLA: How to Cite Sources in the Works Cited Page

Student Researched Position Paper in MLA Style

Prisna Virasin, "The Big Barbie Controversy"

A researched position paper in MLA style that claims Barbie is neither good nor bad, only a scapegoat.

How to Document Sources Using APA Style

APA: How to Cite Sources in the Body of the Text

APA: How to Cite Sources in the References Page

Student Researched Position Paper in APA Style

Darrell D. Greer, "Alaskan Wolf Management"

Appendix 2: Summary Charts

Trace: The Rhetorical Situation

The Toulmin Model

Types of Claims

Types of Proof and Tests of Validity

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