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Overview

More perspectives on argument than any other concise writing guide. Best-selling argument author Nancy V. Wood offers a concise presentation of how to write persuasively.

This efficient text provides instruction in reading, critical thinking, and writing about argumentative issues in a clear, student-friendly manner. Students will learn to identify topics of personal and social consequence, to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, to analyze a potential audience, and to write argument papers that express their individual view and perspective. Essentials of Argument, 2e, contains ten chapters, each accompanied by class exercises and writing assignments. Research methods are introduced early; students learn to locate, print, and evaluate online materials and avoid plagiarism. Appendices teach MLA and APA styles, summarize major ideas about argument, and provide a list of 100 potential topics for argument papers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131777514
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 2/7/2005
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.08 (h) x 0.66 (d)

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

PART I Understanding Argument and Conducting Research 1

1 Recognizing Argument and Finding Issues 3

2 The Rhetorical Situation: Understanding Audience and Context 27

3 Learning More about Issues: Research, Reading, Thinking, Writing 45

4 Writing the Exploratory Paper 76

PART II Using Argument Theory for Reading and Writing 101

5 The Toulmin Model of Argument: Understanding the Parts 103

6 The Types of Claims: Establishing Purpose and Organization 130

7 The Types of Proof: Supporting the Claim 148

8 Writing the Argument Analysis Paper: Review and Synthesis 176

PART III Writing and Presenting Arguments 199

9 Writing the Rogerian Argument Paper 201

10 Writing the Researched Position Paper 219

11 Creating Visual and Oral Arguments 237

Color Portfolio of Visual Arguments and Questions for Discussion and Writing

APPENDIX 1: How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles 265

APPENDIX 2: Summary Charts 319

APPENDIX 3: One Hundred Topics That Generate Issues 331

Contents

PART I Understanding Argument and Conducting Research 1

1 Recognizing Argument and Finding Issues 3

A Definition of Argument 4

Why Study Argument 5

Recognizing Traditional and Consensual Argument 6

Evaluating Traditional and Consensual Argument 8

Distinguish Between Ethical and Unethical Argument 9

What Is Your Personal Style of Argument? 10

Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best? 12

Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail? 15

Engaging with Issues 16

REVIEW QUESTIONS 21

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 21

ESSAY FOR ANALYSIS 21

CHRIS PIPER / “A” Is for “Absent” 24

A student argues against attendance policies in college that penalize students by lowering their grades for excessive absences.

2 The Rhetorical Situation: Understanding Audience and Context 27

Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Read an Argument 27

Example of an Analysis of a Rhetorical Situation From the Reader’s Point of View 27

Use the Rhetorical Situation When You Write an Argument 31

Conducting an Audience Analysis 35

Determine the Audience’s Initial Position and Consider How It Might Change 35

Analyze the Audience’s Discourse Community 36

Analyze and Adapt to a Familiar Audience 37

Construct an Unfamiliar Audience 37

REVIEW QUESTIONS 38

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 39

ESSAYS FOR ANALYSIS 39

BRENT STAPLES / Driving Down the Highway, Mourning the Death of American Radio 39

The author complains about modern commercial radio stations and says he is switching to CDs.

PRISNA VIRASIN / The Barbie Controversy 44

This student issue proposal examines the controversy associated with Barbie dolls.

3 Learning More about Issues: Research, Reading, Thinking, Writing 45

Why Integrate Reading, Thinking, and Writing? 46

Strategies That Combine Reading, Thinking, and Writing 47

Locating Sources for Research 50

Evaluate Both Print and Online Sources 55

Create a Bibliography 59

Using a Computer 65

Using Note Cards 67

Survey, Read, and Add Annotations to Your Bibliography 62

Develop a System for Taking and Organizing Your Notes 65

Using a Computer 65

Using Note Cards 67

Avoid Plagiarism 68

REVIEW QUESTIONS 70

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 71

ESSAY FOR ANALYSIS 72

ANGELA A. BOATWRIGHT / Human Cloning: An Annotated Bibliography

This is a student-written annotated bibliography about human cloning.

4 Writing the Exploratory Paper 76

How Do You Write Now? 76

Prewriting Strategies 77

Get Organized to Write 77

Analyze the Assignment and Allocate Time 78

Identify an Issue and Do Some Reading and Writing 79

Keep a Journal, Notebook, or Folder of Ideas 80

Make an Extended List or Outline to Guide Your Writing 80

Writing the First Draft 81

Break Through Writer’s Block 82

Revise the Draft 82

Look at Your Draft as a Whole 82

Ask Revision Questions to Help You Locate Other Problems 83

Check for Final Errors, Add or Adjust the Title, and Type or Print Your Paper 87

Organize Your Own Process for Reading, Thinking, and Writing About Issues 87

The Exploratory Paper 87

How to Write an Exploratory Paper 89

Submitting Your Paper for Peer Review 92

REVIEW QUESTIONS 92

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 93

ESSAYS FOR ANALYSIS 93

JEFF D. OPDYKE / Kids and Chores: All Work and No Pay? 93

This author considers different perspectives on how to pay children for doing the chores.

PRISNA VIRASIN / The Controversy behind Barbie 96

This student-written exploratory paper explains different perspectives on the Barbie doll controversy.

PART II Using Argument Theory for Reading and Writing 101

5 The Toulmin Model of Argument: Understanding the Parts 103

The Parts of an Argument according to the Toulmin Model 103

Claim 106

Support 108

Warrants 111

Backing 114

Rebuttal 114

Qualifiers 115

Value of the Toulmin Model for Reading and Writing Argument 116

REVIEW QUESTIONS 117

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 117

ESSAYS FOR ANALYSIS 120

Military Advertisement 118

Practice finding the claim, support, and warrants in an advertisement for joining the military.

Cartoon: “The Price of Oranges” 119

Use the Toulmin model to analyze a cartoon.

Virginia Heffernan “Calling Blue: And on That Farm He Had a Cellphone” 120

Use the Toulmin model to analyze Review.

MOHAMED T. DIABY JR. / Toulmin Analysis of The Price of Oranges Cartoon 121

This represents a student example of a Toulmin analysis of a cartoon.

RICHARD D. RIEKE ANDMALCOLM O. SILLARS / American Value Systems 123

The authors argue that individuals have value systems that can be categorized and characterized and, thus, help with an understanding of value warrants.

6 The Types of Claims: Establishing Purpose and Organization 130

Five Types of Claims 130

Claims of Fact 131

Claims of Definition 132

Claims of Cause 133

Claims of Value 135

Claims of Policy 137

Mixed Claims 138

Claims and Argument in Real Life 139

Value of the Claims and the Claim Questions for Reading and Writing Argument 140

Some Other Preliminary Questions to Help You Develop Your Claim 141

REVIEW QUESTIONS 142

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 143

ESSAY FOR ANALYSIS 143

PEG TYRE / Bringing Up Adultolescents 143

This author asks, When should adult children start paying their own way?

7 The Types of Proof: Supporting the Claim 148

The Traditional Categories of Proof 148

Types of Logical Proof: Logos 150

A Mnemonic Device 150

Argument from Sign 151

Argument from Induction 151

Argument from Cause 152

Argument from Deduction 153

Argument from Historical, Literal, or Figurative Analogy 153

Argument from Definition 154

Argument from Statistics 155

Proof That Builds Credibility: Ethos 155

Argument from Authority 156

Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos 156

Motivational Proofs 157

Value Proofs 157

A Mnemonic Device 157

How to Recognize Fallacies 158

Fallacies in Logic 159

Fallacies That Affect Character or Ethos 161

Emotional Fallacies 161

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated through Language and Style 162

Language That Appeals to Logic 162

Language That Develops Ethos 163

Language That Appeals to Emotion 164

Ethics and Morality in Argument 166

Value of the Proofs for Reading and Writing Argument 168

REVIEW QUESTIONS 169

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 169

ESSAY FOR ANALYSIS 169

ANNA QUINDLEN / Undocumented, Indispensable 169

This essay addresses the issue of illegal immigration and undocumented workers in the United States.

RUSH LIMBAUGH / Sexual Harassment and the Feminist “Front” 172

This author gives his views on feminism and sexual harassment.

8 Writing the Argument Analysis Paper: Review and Synthesis 176

Reading for the Argument Analysis Paper 176

Writing the Argument Analysis Paper 177

Rhetorical Situation for “A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen” and Martin

Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” 178

Focus Topics to Help You Analyze the Letters 180

LETTERS FOR ANALYSIS 181

A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen

This letter, written by eight white clergymen in Alabama, prompted Martin Luther King Jr’s famous response.

Martin Luther King Jr./ Letter from Birmingham Jail 179

This is the letter King wrote in jail, justifying his participation in the civil rights movement.

REVIEW QUESTIONS 197

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 197

PART III Writing and Presenting Arguments 199

9 Writing the Rogerian Argument Paper 201

Achieving Common Ground in Rogerian Argument 203

Rogerian Argument as Strategy 204

Writing Rogerian Argument 206

Variations of Rogerian Argument 207

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rogerian Argument 209

REVIEW QUESTIONS 210

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 210

ESSAYS FOR ANALYSIS 210

EDWARD O. WILSON / The Future of Life 210

The author describes how to find common ground between two groups who usually disagree.

ERIC HARTMAN / Let Those Who Ride Decide! 213

This student Rogerian argument explains the tensions between those who advocate wearing motorcycle helmets and those who resist such a ruling.

ELIZABETH NABHAN / Dear Boss 216

A student Rogerian argument written in letter form to her boss to try to improve her job-related duties and responsibilities.

10 Writing the Researched Position Paper 219

Classical Organization of Arguments 219

The Six Parts of Classical Organization 220

Classical and Modern Organization 220

Use Organizational Patterns to Help You Think and Organize 221

Claim with Reasons (or Reasons Followed by Claim) 222

Cause and Effect (or Effect and Cause) 222

Applied Criteria 222

Problem—Solution 222

Chronology or Narrative 223

Deduction 223

Induction 223

Compare and Contrast 224

Incorporate Ideas from Your Exploratory Paper 224

How to Match Patterns and Support to Claims 224

Outline Your Paper and Cross-Reference Your Notes 225

Incorporating Research into Your First Draft 228

Clearly Identify Words and Ideas from Outside Sources to Avoid Plagiarism 230

Document Your Sources 231

Make Revisions and Prepare the Final Copy 232

REVIEW QUESTIONS 233

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 233

11 Creating Visual and Oral Arguments 237

Recognizing Visual and Oral Argument 237

Why Visual Argument Is Convincing: Eight Special Features 238

Why Oral Argument Is Convincing: Four Special Features 245

Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual and Oral Argument 247

Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument 248

Add Visual Argument to Support Written and Oral Argument 250

Create Visual Arguments That Stand Alone 254

REVIEW QUESTIONS 256

CLASS ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 257

VISUAL AND ORAL ARGUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS

EduGene Cloning Kit 258

A stand-alone visual argument that invites various interpretations.

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. / “I Have a Dream” 261

This classic speech was given in Washington, D.C., during the civil rights movement.

Color Portfolio of Visual Arguments and Questions for Discussion and Writing

Plate 1: The West Bank Barrier Built by Israel

Plate 2: Mexican Immigrants Crossing into the United States

Plate 3: Bringing Up Adultolescents

Plate 4: The Creation of Adam

Plate 5: Play Ball

Plate 6: Robot with Grappler Holding a Wounded Palestinian

Plate 7: Hands

Plate 8: Tree Near El Paso, Texas

Plate 9: Mountains of Rubbish Spread Cholera in Angola

Plate 10: Collage (student example of visual argument)

Appendix 1: How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles 265

How to Document Sources Using MLA Style 267

MLA: How to Cite Sources in the Body of the Text 267

MLA: How to Cite Sources in the Works Cited Page 273

Student Researched Position Paper in MLA Style 282

PRISNA VIRASIN / The Big Barbie Controversy 282

A researched position paper in MLA style that claims Barbie is neither good nor bad, only a scapegoat.

Questions on the Researched Position Paper, MLA Style 293

How to Document Sources Using APA Style 295

APA: How to Cite Sources in the Body of the Text 295

APA: How to Cite Sources in the References Page 299

Student Researched Position Paper in APA Style 308

DARRELL D. GREER / Alaskan Wolf Management 308

A researched position paper in APA style that argues in favor of exterminating wolves to preserve the caribou and moose herds.

Questions on the Researched Position Paper, APA Style 318

Appendix 2: Summary Charts 319

The Rhetorical Situation 320

The Toulmin Model 321

Types of Claims 322

Types of Proof and Tests of Validity 324

Appendix 3: One Hundred Topics That Generate Issues 331

Credits 334

Index 335

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