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Essentials of Logic / Edition 2

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Overview

Rendered from the 11th Edition of Copi/Cohen, Introduction to Logic, the most respected introductory logic book on the market, this concise version presents a simplified yet rigorous introduction to the study of logic. It covers all major topics and approaches, using a three-part organization that outlines specific topics under logic and language, deduction, and induction. For individuals intrigued by the formal study of logic.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132380348
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/28/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 464
  • Sales rank: 861,170
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

CHAPTER 1 Basic Logical Concepts

1.1 What Logic Is

1.2 Propositions and Sentences

1.3 Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions

1.4 Arguments and Explanations

1.5 Recognizing Arguments

A. Premise- and Conclusion-Indicators

B. Arguments in Context

C. Premises Not in Declarative Form

D. Unstated Propositions

1.6 Deduction and Validity

1.7 Validity and Truth

1.8 Induction and Probability

1.9 Analyzing Arguments

A. Paraphrasing

B. Diagramming Arguments

C. Interwoven Arguments

1.10 Complex Argumentative Passages

Essentials of Chapter 1

CHAPTER 2 Informal Fallacies

2.1 What Is a Fallacy?

2.2 Fallacies of Relevance

R1. Argument from Ignorance (argumentum ad ignoratiam)

R2. Appeal to Illegitimate Authority (argumentum ad verecundiam)

R3. Argument Against the Person (Personal Attack, argumentum ad hominem)

R4. Appeal to Emotion (Mob Appeal, argumentum ad populum)

R5. Appeal to Pity (argumentum ad misericordiam)

R6. Appeal to Force (argumentum ad baculum)

R7. Irrelevant Conclusion (ignoratio elenchi; non sequitur)

2.3 Fallacies of Presumption

P1. Complex Question

P2. False Cause (post hoc, ergo propter hoc; non causa pro causa)

P3. Begging the Question (petitio principii)

P4. Accident

P5. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

P6. Suppressed Evidence

P7. False Dichotomy

2.4 Fallacies of Ambiguity

A1. Equivocation

A2.Amphiboly

A3. Accent

A4. Composition

A5. Division

Essentials of Chapter 2

CHAPTER 3 Categorical Propositions

3.1 Categorical Logic

3.2 Categorical Propositions and Classes

3.3 Symbolism and Venn Diagrams for Categorical Propositions

3.4 Distribution

3.5 Existential Import

3.6 The Aristotelian Square of Opposition and Immediate Inferences

A. Contradictories

B. Contraries

C. Subcontraries

D. Subalternation

3.7 The Boolean Square of Opposition

3.8 Logical Equivalence and Immediate Inferences

A. Conversion

B. Obversion

C. Contraposition

Essentials of Chapter 3

CHAPTER 4 Categorical Syllogisms

4.1 Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms

A. Major, Minor, and Middle Terms

B. Mood

C. Figure

4.2 The Nature of Syllogistic Arguments

4.3 Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms

4.4 Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies

Essentials of Chapter 4

CHAPTER 5 Arguments in Ordinary Language

5.1 Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language

5.2 Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argument

5.3 Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form

A. Singular Propositions

B. Categorical Propositions with Adjectives or Adjectival Phrases as Predicates

C. Categorical Propositions with Verbs Other Than the Standard Form Copula To Be

D. Categorical Propositions in Nonstandard Order

E. Categorical Propositions with Nonstandard Quantifiers

F. Exclusive Propositions

G. Propositions Without Quantifiers

H.Propositions Not in Standard Form that Have Logically Equivalent Standard Form Alternatives

I. Exceptive Propositions

J. More Complex Quantifiers

5.4 Uniform Translation

5.5 Enthymemes

Essentials of Chapter 5

CHAPTER 6 Symbolic Logic

6.1 The Symbolic Language of Modern Logic

6.2 Symbolese 101: The Language of Propositional Logic

A. Negation

B. Conjunction

C. Disjunction

D. Material Implication (Material Conditionality)

E. Biconditionals (Material Equivalence)

F. Grouping Indicators

6.3 Truth Tables as Tools for Analyzing Compound Propositions

6.4 Tautologous, Contradictory, and Contingent Statement Forms

6.5 Truth Tables as a Test for the Validity of Arguments

A.Some Common Valid Argument Forms

B. Some Common Invalid Argument Forms

C. More Complex Arguments

6.6 Incomplete and Reverse Truth Tables

A. Incomplete Truth Tables

B. Reverse Truth Tables

6.7 Arguments, Conditionals, and Tautologies

Essentials of Chapter 6

CHAPTER 7 The Method of Deduction

7.1 Natural Deduction Versus Truth Tables

7.2 Formal Proofs of Validity

7.3 The Rule of Replacement (1)

7.4 The Rule of Replacement (2)

7.5 Conditional Proof

7.6 Indirect Proof

Essentials of Chapter 7

CHAPTER 8 Quantification Theory

8.1 When Propositional Logic Is Not Enough

8.2 Symbolese 102: The Language of Quantificational Logic

A. Singular Propositions, Subjects, and Predicates

B. Universal and Particular Propositions

C. And Sometimes the Statements Are More Complex

8.3 Proving Validity

8.4 Conditional and Indirect Proof

8.5 Proving Invalidity

Essentials of Chapter 8

CHAPTER 9 Induction

9.1 Introduction to Induction

9.2 Arguments by Analogy

9.3 Appraising Arguments by Analogy

9.4 Explanations and Hypotheses

9.5 Arguments to the Best Explanation

Essentials of Chapter 9

Appendix: Truth Trees

A.1 Propositional Logic

A.2 Quantificational Logic

Essentials of the Appendix

Solutions to the Odd-Numbered Problems

Glossary/Index

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Introduction

In a republican nation,
whose citizens are to be led by reason and persuasion
and not by force, the art of reasoning becomes of the first importance.
— Thomas Jefferson


Since the publication of the first edition in 1949, Irving M. Copi's Introduction to Logic has served thousands of instructors and students in both teaching and studying the fundamentals of classical and modern logic. In response to numerous instructors' requests for a truly concise introductory logic text for use in their courses, Prentice Hall is proud to present Essentials of Logic. Redacted from Copi & Cohen's Introduction to Logic, Eleventh Edition, this new concise edition provides a reliable, rigorous treatment of logic concepts as in the comprehensive version, but in a manner and style that is simpler, leaner, and with numerous aids for students to ensure their comprehension of the material. Virtually all of the topics covered in the Eleventh Edition find expression within Essentials of Logic. We are confident that the material covered and explication presented in Essentials of Logic will satisfy the needs of many instructors of logic who are seeking a more circumscribed treatment of logic for their students.

Features of Essentials of Logic

Chapter/section reduction and coverage. The number of chapters has been reduced from 14 to 9, and the number of sections within chapters has been reduced from 85 to 62. Most topics from Introduction to Logic were retained and many were merged in this text.

Exercise sets. The exercise sets include over 800 exercises, including new, simpler exercises for this concise version,coupled with a generous selection of exercises from the Introduction to Logic. Together, the exercises offer students an extensive array of problems with levels of difficulty that move from simpler to more complex in order to help students learn how to apply what they've learned at first more easily, so that they have the confidence to tackle more demanding problems as they progress through the exercise sets.

Increased use of charts, tables, and illustrated examples. In addition to new exercises, there are new charts, tables, and illustrated examples included in this concise edition. Former president Richard M. Nixon's appeal to authority during a news conference during Watergate is highlighted in Chapter 2's treatment of fallacies. A celebrity actor's likeness is used to explain the act of equivocation. A famous civil defense film's narration demonstrates propagandistic appeals better than any hypothetical illustration ever could! And a special flowchart, developed by Professor Dan Plage of James Madison University, helps walk students through the application of the six rules of validity for categorical syllogisms. These and other pedagogic aids help increase student comprehension, and enjoyment, of this challenging subject of logic.

Instructor supplements. Accompanying Essentials of Logic for instructors are a solutions manual and an instructor's manual with sample test questions. The test questions are also available in a computerized test manager program to aid in the preparation of tests for students.

Student supplements. There are two print supplements for students. These include a study guide and a new lecture notebook called LogicNotes. This new notebook provides all relevant section headings in Essentials of Logic with space for students to take notes, during their reading of the text and/or during lectures with their instructor on the material in the text.

There is also a revision of Prentice Hall's groundbreaking logic tutorial, eLogic! This tutorial is now available exclusively on CD-ROM, and includes over 500 of the exercises in Essentials of Logic for students to work electronically. Together with the exercises from the text, eLogic includes the tools students need to solve logic problems. Students can work problems, including diagramming arguments, creating Venn diagrams, constructing truth tables, and building proofs, and students receive constant feedback to guide them through solutions. Students can submit their work via email or hardcopy to their instructors, together with a Log Book showing how well they did. The following walkthrough provides an initial introduction to what awaits students in their use of eLogic!

  • After students enter their own username and email address, they will decide which exercises they need to work by locating the appropriate chapter, and entering into the appropriate section where the exercises reside.
  • Numerous navigation links are always available on the main screen, including help and access to the Log Book, where students can see which exercises they've worked on and how well they've done!
  • NOTE that students can always refresh their understanding on how to use eLogic through the help link!
  • Students select exercises by chapter section, and have ready at their command all necessary toolkits to solve logic problemsincluding diagramming arguments, Venn diagrams, truth tables, proof checkers, and a symbolic notation editor. Additionally, rules and a glossary are available for student reference.
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