Essentials of Organization Theory and Design / Edition 2

Essentials of Organization Theory and Design / Edition 2

by Richard L. Daft

ISBN-10: 032402097X

ISBN-13: 9780324020977

Pub. Date: 08/01/1900

Publisher: Cengage Learning

This streamlined version of Daft's market-leading Organizational Theory & Design presents the most recent thinking about organizations in a way that is interesting and enjoyable. Throughout the book, new concepts and models are integrated with lots of detailed examples to illustrate how companies are coping in the rapidly-changing, highly-competitive, international


This streamlined version of Daft's market-leading Organizational Theory & Design presents the most recent thinking about organizations in a way that is interesting and enjoyable. Throughout the book, new concepts and models are integrated with lots of detailed examples to illustrate how companies are coping in the rapidly-changing, highly-competitive, international environment. Without sacrificing content, this book is perfect for shorter organizational theory courses or for instructors who use their own cases and material.

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Cengage Learning
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Table of Contents

Part 1Introduction to Organizations1
Chapter 1Organizations and Organization Theory2
Organization Theory in Action4
Purpose of This Chapter5
What Is an Organization?5
Importance of Organizations6
Organizations as Systems7
Open Systems7
Organizational Configuration8
Dimensions of Organization Design9
Structural Dimensions9
Contextual Dimensions10
The Evolution of Organization Theory and Design12
Contingency Theory14
The Role of Organization Theory and Design14
The Value of Organization Theory14
Levels of Analysis14
Discussion Questions16
Part 2Organizational Purpose and Structural Design19
Chapter 2Strategy, Organization Design, and Effectiveness20
Purpose of This Chapter21
Organizational Purpose21
Operative Goals21
Organizational Strategies and Design23
Porter's Competitive Strategies23
How Strategies Affect Organization Design25
Other Factors Affecting Organization Design25
Organizational Effectiveness26
Contingency Effectiveness Approaches27
Goal Approach28
Resource-Based Approach29
Internal Process Approach29
Stakeholder Approach30
Discussion Questions31
Chapter 3Fundamentals of Organization Structure33
Purpose of This Chapter34
Organization Structure34
Information-Processing Perspective on Structure35
Vertical Linkages36
Horizontal Linkages37
Organization Design Alternatives39
Defined Work Activities39
Reporting Relationships40
Departmental Grouping Options40
Functional, Divisional, and Geographical Designs40
Functional Structure40
Functional Structure with Horizontal Linkages42
Divisional Structure42
Geographical Structure44
Matrix Structure45
Conditions for the Matrix45
Strengths and Weaknesses47
Applications of Structural Design48
Structural Contingencies48
Symptoms of Structural Deficiency49
Discussion Questions49
Part 3Open System Design Elements51
Chapter 4The External Environment52
Purpose of This Chapter53
The Environmental Domain53
Task Environment54
General Environment55
International Context56
Environmental Uncertainty57
Simple-Complex Dimension58
Stable-Unstable Dimension58
Adapting to Environmental Uncertainty60
Positions and Departments60
Buffering and Boundary Spanning60
Differentiation and Integration61
Organic Versus Mechanistic Management Processes63
Planning and Forecasting64
Resource Dependence64
Controlling Environmental Resources65
Establishing Interorganizational Linkages65
Controlling the Environmental Domain67
Organization-Environment Integrative Framework68
Discussion Questions69
Chapter 5Manufacturing and Service Technologies73
Purpose of This Chapter74
Organization-Level Manufacturing Technology74
Manufacturing Firms75
Computer Integrated Manufacturing78
Organization-Level Service Technology81
Service Firms81
Designing the Service Organization83
Departmental Technology84
Department Design86
Workflow Interdependence Among Departments87
Structural Priority89
Structural Implications90
Impact of Technology on Job Design91
Job Design91
Sociotechnical Systems92
Discussion Questions92
Part 4Internal Design Elements97
Chapter 6Organization Size, Life Cycle, and Control98
Purpose of This Chapter99
Organization Size: Is Bigger Better?99
Pressures for Growth99
Large Versus Small100
Organizational Life Cycle101
Stages of Life Cycle Development101
Organizational Characteristics During the Life Cycle103
Organizational Bureaucracy and Control104
What is Bureaucracy?105
Size and Structural Control105
Bureaucracy in a Changing World107
Dynamic Control Systems108
Bureaucratic Control108
Market Control110
Clan Control110
Discussion Questions111
Chapter 7Organizational Culture and Ethical Values115
Purpose of This Chapter116
Organizational Culture116
What Is Culture?116
Emergence and Purpose of Culture116
Interpreting Culture117
Organizational Design and Culture120
The Adaptability/Entrepreneurial Culture120
The Mission Culture121
The Clan Culture122
The Bureaucratic Culture122
Culture Strength and Organizational Subcultures122
Ethical Values in Organizations123
Sources of Ethical Values in Organizations124
Personal Ethics124
Organizational Culture125
Organizational Systems126
External Stakeholders126
Shaping Culture and Ethics Through Structure and Systems127
Discussion Questions129
Chapter 8Innovation and Change133
Purpose of This Chapter134
The Strategic Role of Change134
Strategic Types of Change134
Elements for Successful Change136
Technology Change137
The Ambidextrous Approach138
Techniques for Encouraging Technology Change138
New Products and Services141
New Product Success Rate141
Reasons for New Product Success142
Horizontal Linkage Model142
Achieving Competitive Advantage with Rapid Product Innovation143
Strategy and Structure Change144
The Dual-Core Approach145
Culture Change146
Total Quality Management147
Organization Development148
OD Culture Change Interventions148
Strategies for Implementing Change149
Barriers to Change149
Techniques for Implementation150
Discussion Questions152
Part 5Managing Dynamic Processes157
Chapter 9Decision-Making Processes159
Purpose of This Chapter159
Individual Decision Making160
Rational Approach160
Bounded Rationality Perspective162
Organizational Decision Making164
Management Science Approach164
Carnegie Model165
Incremental Decision Process Model166
Garbage Can Model169
Special Decision Circumstances172
High-Velocity Environments172
Decision Mistakes and Learning172
Escalating Commitment173
Discussion Questions174
Chapter 10Conflict, Power, and Politics177
Purpose of This Chapter178
What Is Intergroup Conflict?178
Why Conflict Exists179
Individual Versus Organizational Power181
Power Versus Authority181
Vertical Sources of Power182
Horizontal Sources of Power184
Strategic Contingencies184
Power Sources185
Political Processes in Organizations187
When Is Political Activity Used?188
Using Power, Politics, and Collaboration189
Tactics for Increasing Power189
Political Tactics for Using Power190
Tactics for Enhancing Collaboration191
Discussion Questions193
Name Index203
Corporate Name Index208
Subject Index210

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