Essentials of Organization Theory and Design / Edition 2

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This streamlined version of Daft's market-leading Organizational Theory & Design presents the most recent thinking about organizations in a way that is interesting and enjoyable. Throughout the book, new concepts and models are integrated with lots of detailed examples to illustrate how companies are coping in the rapidly-changing, highly-competitive, international environment. Without sacrificing content, this book is perfect for shorter organizational theory courses or for instructors who use their own cases and material.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780324020977
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 8/1/1900
  • Edition description: 2ND
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 224

Meet the Author

Richard L. Daft, PhD, the Brownlee O. Currey, Jr. Professor of Management in the Owen Graduate School of Management at Vanderbilt University. Professor Daft specializes in the study of organization theory and leadership. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and has served on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly and Journal of Management Education. He was the Associate Editor-in-Chief of Organization Science and associate editor of Administrative Science Quarterly. Professor Daft has authored or co-authored 12 books as well as dozens of scholarly articles, papers, and chapters. His work has been published in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management, Accounting Organizations and Society, MIS Quarterly, and many others. Professor Daft is currently completing a new book, THE EXECUTIVE AND THE ELEPHANT. An active teacher and consultant, Dr. Daft has taught management, leadership, organizational change, organizational theory, and organizational behavior. He has served as associate dean and managed a start-up enterprise. A well-known management consultant, he has assisted numerous well-know organizations, including the American Banking Association, Bridgestone, the National Transportation Research Board, Nortel, TVA, Pratt & Whitney, State Farm Insurance, Tenneco, United States Air Force, Central Parking System, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

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Table of Contents

Preface vii
Part 1 Introduction to Organizations 1
Chapter 1 Organizations and Organization Theory 2
Organization Theory in Action 4
Topics 4
Purpose of This Chapter 5
What Is an Organization? 5
Definition 5
Importance of Organizations 6
Organizations as Systems 7
Open Systems 7
Organizational Configuration 8
Dimensions of Organization Design 9
Structural Dimensions 9
Contextual Dimensions 10
The Evolution of Organization Theory and Design 12
History 12
Contingency Theory 14
The Role of Organization Theory and Design 14
The Value of Organization Theory 14
Levels of Analysis 14
Discussion Questions 16
Notes 16
Part 2 Organizational Purpose and Structural Design 19
Chapter 2 Strategy, Organization Design, and Effectiveness 20
Purpose of This Chapter 21
Organizational Purpose 21
Mission 21
Operative Goals 21
Organizational Strategies and Design 23
Porter's Competitive Strategies 23
How Strategies Affect Organization Design 25
Other Factors Affecting Organization Design 25
Organizational Effectiveness 26
Contingency Effectiveness Approaches 27
Goal Approach 28
Resource-Based Approach 29
Internal Process Approach 29
Stakeholder Approach 30
Discussion Questions 31
Notes 31
Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Organization Structure 33
Purpose of This Chapter 34
Organization Structure 34
Information-Processing Perspective on Structure 35
Vertical Linkages 36
Horizontal Linkages 37
Organization Design Alternatives 39
Defined Work Activities 39
Reporting Relationships 40
Departmental Grouping Options 40
Functional, Divisional, and Geographical Designs 40
Functional Structure 40
Functional Structure with Horizontal Linkages 42
Divisional Structure 42
Geographical Structure 44
Matrix Structure 45
Conditions for the Matrix 45
Strengths and Weaknesses 47
Applications of Structural Design 48
Structural Contingencies 48
Symptoms of Structural Deficiency 49
Discussion Questions 49
Notes 49
Part 3 Open System Design Elements 51
Chapter 4 The External Environment 52
Purpose of This Chapter 53
The Environmental Domain 53
Task Environment 54
General Environment 55
International Context 56
Environmental Uncertainty 57
Simple-Complex Dimension 58
Stable-Unstable Dimension 58
Framework 58
Adapting to Environmental Uncertainty 60
Positions and Departments 60
Buffering and Boundary Spanning 60
Differentiation and Integration 61
Organic Versus Mechanistic Management Processes 63
Planning and Forecasting 64
Resource Dependence 64
Controlling Environmental Resources 65
Establishing Interorganizational Linkages 65
Controlling the Environmental Domain 67
Organization-Environment Integrative Framework 68
Discussion Questions 69
Notes 70
Chapter 5 Manufacturing and Service Technologies 73
Purpose of This Chapter 74
Organization-Level Manufacturing Technology 74
Manufacturing Firms 75
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 78
Organization-Level Service Technology 81
Service Firms 81
Designing the Service Organization 83
Departmental Technology 84
Variety 84
Analyzability 84
Framework 84
Department Design 86
Workflow Interdependence Among Departments 87
Types 88
Structural Priority 89
Structural Implications 90
Impact of Technology on Job Design 91
Job Design 91
Sociotechnical Systems 92
Discussion Questions 92
Notes 93
Part 4 Internal Design Elements 97
Chapter 6 Organization Size, Life Cycle, and Control 98
Purpose of This Chapter 99
Organization Size: Is Bigger Better? 99
Pressures for Growth 99
Large Versus Small 100
Organizational Life Cycle 101
Stages of Life Cycle Development 101
Organizational Characteristics During the Life Cycle 103
Organizational Bureaucracy and Control 104
What is Bureaucracy? 105
Size and Structural Control 105
Bureaucracy in a Changing World 107
Dynamic Control Systems 108
Bureaucratic Control 108
Market Control 110
Clan Control 110
Discussion Questions 111
Notes 112
Chapter 7 Organizational Culture and Ethical Values 115
Purpose of This Chapter 116
Organizational Culture 116
What Is Culture? 116
Emergence and Purpose of Culture 116
Interpreting Culture 117
Organizational Design and Culture 120
The Adaptability/Entrepreneurial Culture 120
The Mission Culture 121
The Clan Culture 122
The Bureaucratic Culture 122
Culture Strength and Organizational Subcultures 122
Ethical Values in Organizations 123
Sources of Ethical Values in Organizations 124
Personal Ethics 124
Organizational Culture 125
Organizational Systems 126
External Stakeholders 126
Shaping Culture and Ethics Through Structure and Systems 127
Discussion Questions 129
Notes 129
Chapter 8 Innovation and Change 133
Purpose of This Chapter 134
The Strategic Role of Change 134
Strategic Types of Change 134
Elements for Successful Change 136
Technology Change 137
The Ambidextrous Approach 138
Techniques for Encouraging Technology Change 138
New Products and Services 141
New Product Success Rate 141
Reasons for New Product Success 142
Horizontal Linkage Model 142
Achieving Competitive Advantage with Rapid Product Innovation 143
Strategy and Structure Change 144
The Dual-Core Approach 145
Culture Change 146
Reengineering 147
Total Quality Management 147
Organization Development 148
OD Culture Change Interventions 148
Strategies for Implementing Change 149
Barriers to Change 149
Techniques for Implementation 150
Discussion Questions 152
Notes 152
Part 5 Managing Dynamic Processes 157
Chapter 9 Decision-Making Processes 159
Purpose of This Chapter 159
Definitions 159
Individual Decision Making 160
Rational Approach 160
Bounded Rationality Perspective 162
Organizational Decision Making 164
Management Science Approach 164
Carnegie Model 165
Incremental Decision Process Model 166
Garbage Can Model 169
Special Decision Circumstances 172
High-Velocity Environments 172
Decision Mistakes and Learning 172
Escalating Commitment 173
Discussion Questions 174
Notes 174
Chapter 10 Conflict, Power, and Politics 177
Purpose of This Chapter 178
What Is Intergroup Conflict? 178
Why Conflict Exists 179
Individual Versus Organizational Power 181
Power Versus Authority 181
Vertical Sources of Power 182
Horizontal Sources of Power 184
Strategic Contingencies 184
Power Sources 185
Political Processes in Organizations 187
Definition 187
When Is Political Activity Used? 188
Using Power, Politics, and Collaboration 189
Tactics for Increasing Power 189
Political Tactics for Using Power 190
Tactics for Enhancing Collaboration 191
Discussion Questions 193
Notes 194
Glossary 197
Name Index 203
Corporate Name Index 208
Subject Index 210
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