The Essentials of Safe Food Management and Sanitation / Edition 1

The Essentials of Safe Food Management and Sanitation / Edition 1

by Nancy R. Rue, David Z. McSwane
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0135321360

ISBN-13: 9780135321362

Pub. Date: 09/28/1997

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780135321362
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
09/28/1997
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
373
Product dimensions:
7.07(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.74(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xvii(3)
Acknowledgments xx
CHAPTER 1 -- FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION MANAGEMENT
1(21)
Objectives
1(1)
Essential Terms
2(1)
New Challenges Present New Opportunities
2(1)
Food Safety--Why All the Fuss?
3(1)
Why Me?
4(1)
Changing Trends in Food Consumption and Choices
5(1)
The Problem: Foodborne Illness
6(1)
Contamination
7(2)
Microorganisms (Germs or Microbes)
9(1)
The Food Flow
9(1)
A New Approach to an Old Problem
10(1)
Facility Planning and Design
10(1)
Keeping It Clean and Sanitary
11(1)
Accident Prevention and Crisis Management
12(1)
Education and Training Key to Food Safety
13(1)
The Role of Government in Food Safety
14(1)
The Food Code
14(1)
The Role of the Food Industry in Food Safety
15(1)
Food Manager Certification
15(2)
Summary
17(1)
Discussion Questions
18(1)
Quiz 1.1 (Multiple Choice)
19(1)
Quiz 1.2 (True/False)
20(1)
References/Suggested Readings
20(2)
CHAPTER 2 -- HAZARDS TO FOOD SAFETY
22(52)
Learning Objectives
22(1)
Essential Terms
22(1)
Foodborne Illness
23(2)
Foodborne Hazards
25(3)
Bacteria
26(1)
Stress Conditions for Bacteria
27(1)
Bacterial Growth
28(1)
What Bacteria Need for Growth
28(7)
Source of Food
30(1)
Acidity
31(1)
Temperature
32(1)
Time
33(1)
Oxygen
34(1)
Moisture
34(1)
Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)
35(1)
Ready-to-Eat Foods
36(1)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Bacteria
36(13)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Sporeforming Bacteria
37(5)
Bacillus cereus
39(1)
Clostridium perfringens
40(1)
Clostridium botulinum
41(1)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Non-Sporeforming Bacteria
42(7)
Campylobacter jejuni
42(1)
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
43(1)
Listeria monocytogenes
44(1)
Salmonella spp.
45(1)
Shigella spp.
46(1)
Staphylococcus aureus
47(1)
Vibrio spp.
48(1)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Viruses
49(4)
Hepatitis A
50(1)
Norwalk virus
51(1)
Rotavirus
52(1)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Parasites
53(3)
Anisakis spp.
53(1)
Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia
54(1)
Trichinella spiralis
55(1)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Chemicals
56(5)
Naturally Occurring Chemicals
57(4)
Ciguatoxin
57(1)
Scombrotoxin
58(1)
Shellfish Toxins--PSP, DSP, DAP, NSP
59(1)
Mycotoxins
60(1)
Added Man-Made Chemicals
61(1)
Foodborne Illness Caused by Physical Hazards
61(6)
Summary
67(1)
Case Study 2.1
67(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
68(1)
Quiz 2.1 (Multiple Choice)
68(2)
References/Suggested Readings
70(4)
CHAPTER 3 -- FACTORS THAT EFFECT FOODBORNE ILLNESS
74(28)
Learning Objectives
74(1)
Essential Terms
74(1)
Factors That Contribute to Foodborne Illness
74(1)
What Is Temperature Abuse?
75(7)
How and When to Measure Food Temperatures
77(1)
Thermometers
77(2)
When and How to Calibrate Thermometers
79(1)
Measuring Food Temperature
80(2)
Preventing Temperature Abuse
82(2)
Keep Cold Foods Cold and Hot Foods Hot!
84(2)
The Importance of Handwashing and Good Personal Hygiene
86(11)
Outer Clothing and Apparel
90(1)
Personal Habits
91(1)
Personal Health
92(1)
Why Is Cross Contamination Such a Problem?
93(1)
Avoiding Cross Contamination
94(2)
What Are Other Sources of Contamination?
96(1)
Summary
97(1)
Case Study 3.1
97(1)
Case Study 3.2
98(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
98(1)
Quiz 3.1 (Multiple Choice)
98(2)
References/Suggested Readings
100(2)
CHAPTER 4 -- FOLLOWING THE FOOD PRODUCT FLOW
102(44)
Learning Objectives
102(1)
Essential Terms
102(1)
A Sound Food Supply
103(2)
Buying from Approved Sources
103(1)
Strategies for Determining Food Quality
104(1)
Measuring Temperatures at Receiving and Storage
105(1)
Following the Flow of Food
106(31)
Receiving
107(1)
Packaged Foods
108(2)
Red Meat Products
110(1)
Game Animals
111(1)
Poultry
112(1)
Eggs
113(1)
Fluid Milk and Milk Products
114(1)
Fluid Milk
114(1)
Cheese
114(1)
Butter
114(1)
Fish
115(2)
Vegetables and Fruits
117(1)
Frozen Foods
117(1)
Proper Storage of Food
118(3)
Types of Storage
118(3)
Storage Conditions for Foods
121(2)
Preparation and Service
123(1)
Handwashing
124(1)
Avoiding Temperature Abuse
125(1)
Freezing
125(1)
Thawing
126(1)
Cold Storage
127(1)
Cooking
127(3)
Cooling
130(2)
Hot-holding, Cold-holding, Reheating
132(1)
Serving Safe Food
132(1)
Self-Service Bar
132(5)
Temporary and Mobile Food Facilities
134(3)
Summary
137(1)
Case Study 4.1
138(1)
Case Study 4.2
139(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
139(1)
Quiz 4.1 (Multiple Choice)
140(4)
References/Suggested Readings
144(2)
CHAPTER 5 -- THE HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEM: A SAFETY ASSURANCE PROCESS
146(41)
Learning Objectives
146(1)
Essential Terms
146(1)
The Problem
147(1)
The Solution
148(1)
The HACCP System
148(2)
The Seven Steps in a HACCP System
150(27)
Step 1 -- Hazard Analysis
150(8)
Biological Hazards
151(1)
Chemical Hazards
151(1)
Physical Hazards
151(7)
Step 2 -- Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs)
158(3)
Step 3 -- Establish the Critical Limits (Thresholds) Which Must Be Met at Each Critical Control Point
161(10)
Step 4 -- Establish Procedures to Monitor CCPs
171(1)
Step 5 -- Establish the Corrective Action to Be Taken When Monitoring Shows That a Critical Limit Has Been Exceeded
172(1)
Step 6 -- Establish Effective Record Keeping Systems That Document the HACCP System
172(2)
Step 7 -- Establish Procedures to Verify That the HACCP System Is Working
174(3)
Education and Training
177(1)
Roles and Responsibilities Under HACCP
177(1)
Summary
178(1)
Case Study 5.1
179(4)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
183(1)
Quiz 5.1 (Multiple Choice)
183(3)
References/Suggested Readings
186(1)
CHAPTER 6 -- FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, AND UTENSILS
187(38)
Learning Objectives
187(1)
Essential Terms
188(1)
Design, Layout, and Facilities
188(2)
Regulatory Considerations
190(1)
Work Center Planning
191(1)
Equipment Selection
192(5)
Need
193(1)
Cost
193(1)
Size and Design
194(1)
Construction Materials
194(3)
Metals
195(1)
Stainless Steel
195(1)
Plastic
196(1)
Wood
196(1)
Types of Equipment
197(15)
Cooking Equipment
197(1)
Ovens
197(4)
Steam-jacketed Kettles
201(1)
Refrigeration and Low-Temperature Storage Equipment
201(2)
Reach-in Refrigeration
203(1)
Walk-in Refrigerators
204(1)
Cook-Chill System
205(1)
Other Types of Food Equipment
205(3)
Slicers
205(1)
Mixers
206(1)
Ice Machines
207(1)
Dishwashing Equipment
208(1)
Manual Washing
209(1)
Mechanical Washing
210(2)
Installation
212(1)
Maintenance and Replacement
213(1)
Lighting
213(1)
Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
214(2)
Summary
216(1)
Case Study 6.1
217(1)
Case Study 6.2
217(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
218(1)
Quiz 6.1 (Multiple Choice)
219(3)
References/Suggested Readings
222(3)
CHAPTER 7 -- CLEANING AND SANITIZING OPERATIONS
225(34)
Learning Objectives
225(1)
Essential Terms
226(1)
Principles of Cleaning and Sanitizing
226(6)
Removal of Food Particles
227(1)
Application of Cleaning Agents
227(1)
Soaking
227(1)
Spray Methods
227(1)
Clean-in-Place Systems
227(1)
Abrasive Cleaning
227(1)
Rinsing
228(1)
Factors Effecting Cleaning Efficiency
228(4)
Type of Soil to Be Removed
228(1)
Water Quality
229(1)
Detergents and Cleaners to Be Used
229(2)
Water Temperature
231(1)
Velocity or Force
231(1)
Amount of Time the Detergent or Cleaner Remains in Contact with the Surface
232(1)
Concentration of the Detergent or Cleaner
232(1)
Sanitizing Principles
232(20)
Heat Sanitizing
232(2)
Chemical Sanitizing
234(5)
Chlorine
234(3)
Iodine
237(1)
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (quats)
237(2)
Mechanical Dishwashing
239(9)
Cleaning Environmental Areas
248(1)
Ceilings
248(1)
Walls
248(1)
Floors
248(1)
Equipment and Supplies Used for Cleaning
249(3)
Summary
252(1)
Case Study 7.1
253(1)
Case Study 7.2
253(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
254(1)
Quiz 7.1 (Multiple Choice)
255(2)
References/Suggested Readings
257(2)
CHAPTER 8 -- ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND MAINTENANCE
259(28)
Learning Objectives
259(1)
Essential Terms
260(1)
Condition of Premises
260(1)
Condition of Building
260(6)
Floors, Walls, and Ceilings
261(3)
Floors
261(2)
Walls and Ceilings
263(1)
Restroom Sanitation
264(1)
Handwashing Facilities
264(2)
Plumbing Hazards in Food Establishments
266(3)
Cross Connections
266(1)
Backflow
266(3)
Methods and Devices to Prevent Backflow
267(1)
Air Gap
268(1)
Garbage And Refuse Sanitation
269(2)
Pest Control
271(9)
Insects
272(4)
Flies
272(2)
Cockroaches
274(2)
Moths and Beetles
276(1)
Rodents
276(4)
Signs of Rodent Infestation
277(2)
Rodent Control
279(1)
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
280(1)
Summary
280(2)
Case Study 8.1
282(1)
Case Study 8.2
282(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
283(1)
Quiz 8.1 (Multiple Choice)
283(3)
Suggested Reading/References
286(1)
CHAPTER 9 -- ACCIDENT PREVENTION AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT
287(16)
Learning Objectives
287(1)
Essential Terms
288(1)
Safety in Food Establishments
288(9)
Common Types of Injuries
289(2)
Falls
289(1)
Cuts
290(1)
Burns
290(1)
Poisoning
291(1)
Body Mechanics Classes
291(1)
Employee Medications
291(1)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and First Aid for Choking
292(1)
Incident Reports
292(1)
Safety Training Programs
292(3)
Self-Inspection Safety Checks
295(1)
Fire Safety
295(1)
Fire Extinguishers
295(2)
Hood Systems
297(1)
Sprinkler Systems
297(1)
Crisis Management
297(1)
Foodborne Illness Incident or Outbreak
298(1)
Check the Flow of Food
298(1)
Formal Investigations
298(1)
Summary
299(1)
Case Study 9.1
299(1)
Quiz 9.1 (Fill in the blanks)
300(1)
References/Suggested Readings
301(2)
CHAPTER 10 -- EDUCATION AND TRAINING
303(22)
Objectives
303(1)
Essential Terms
304(1)
Training
304(6)
Adult Learners
305(1)
Competency Based Training (CBT)
306(1)
Who Trains Employees?
307(1)
How Long Should Training Sessions Last?
308(1)
When to Schedule Training Sessions
309(1)
Evaluation
310(4)
Planning a Sanitation Training Program
310(1)
Training Resources
311(3)
Industry Training Competencies
314(5)
Specific Elements of Knowledge
315(4)
Summary
319(1)
Discussion Questions (Short Answer)
320(1)
Quiz 10.1 (Multiple Choice)
320(3)
References/Suggested Reading
323(2)
CHAPTER 11 -- FOOD SAFETY REGULATIONS
325(14)
Learning Objectives
325(1)
Essential Terms
325(1)
State and Local Regulations
326(2)
Permit to Operate
326(2)
Federal Agencies
328(5)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
328(2)
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
330(1)
U.S. Department of Commerce (USDC)
331(1)
Environmental Protection Agency
331(1)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
331(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
332(1)
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
332(1)
Other Federal Food Safety Related Organizations
332(1)
Food Law
333(2)
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act
333(1)
1906--Federal Meat Inspection Act
334(1)
1957--Federal Poultry Products Inspection Act
334(1)
1993--Nutrition Labeling and Education Act
334(1)
Summary
335(1)
Case Study 11.1
336(1)
Quiz 11.1 (Multiple Choice)
336(2)
References/Suggested Reading
338(1)
APPENDIX A
339(14)
Answers to Case Studies and Quizzes
339(1)
Chapter 1
339(1)
Quiz 1.1
339
Quiz 1.2
339(1)
Chapter 2
339(1)
Case Study 2.1
339(1)
Quiz 2.1
340(1)
Chapter 3
340(1)
Case Study 3.1
340(1)
Case Study 3.2
340(1)
Quiz 3.1
341(1)
Chapter 4
341(2)
Case Study 4.1
341(1)
Case Study 4.2
341(1)
Quiz 4.1
342(1)
Chapter 5
343(3)
Case Study 5.1
343(3)
Quiz 5.1
346(1)
Chapter 6
346(1)
Case Study 6.1
346(1)
Case Study 6.2
346(1)
Quiz 6.1
347(1)
Chapter 7
347(1)
Case Study 7.1
347(1)
Case Study 7.2
347(1)
Quiz 7.1 (Multiple Choice)
348(1)
Chapter 8
348(1)
Case Study 8.1
348(1)
Case Study 8.2
348(1)
Quiz 8.1 (Multiple Choice)
349(1)
Chapter 9
349(2)
Case Study 9.1
349(1)
Quiz 9.1
350(1)
Chapter 10
351(1)
Quiz 10.1
351(1)
Chapter 11
351(2)
Case Study 11.1
351(1)
Quiz 11.1
352(1)
GLOSSARY 353(12)
INDEX 365

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