Ethan Frome and Summer / Edition 1

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Overview

This New Riverside Edition, edited by Denise D. Knight (State University of New York -- Cortland) pairs two of Edith Wharton's most famous works, Ethan Frome and Summer. Wharton herself connected these novellas, both of which address the consequences of forbidden sexual passion and the tragedy of thwarted dreams. While Wharton continues to be one of the most frequently taught American writers, this is the first edition to place not only these two important texts in one volume but to include writings about the Berkshires and New England culture, as well as critical materials that illuminate both works, their connections, and Wharton's advanced ideas about their controversial subjects.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780618300129
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 1/23/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 323
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.20 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Elizabeth Strout is the winner of the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for First Fiction for her novel Amy and Isabelle. She lives in New York City and teaches literature and writing at Manhattan Community College.

Biography

Edith Newbold Jones was born January 24, 1862, into such wealth and privilege that her family inspired the phrase "keeping up with the Joneses." The youngest of three children, Edith spent her early years touring Europe with her parents and, upon the family's return to the United States, enjoyed a privileged childhood in New York and Newport, Rhode Island. Edith's creativity and talent soon became obvious: By the age of eighteen she had written a novella, (as well as witty reviews of it) and published poetry in the Atlantic Monthly.

After a failed engagement, Edith married a wealthy sportsman, Edward Wharton. Despite similar backgrounds and a shared taste for travel, the marriage was not a success. Many of Wharton's novels chronicle unhappy marriages, in which the demands of love and vocation often conflict with the expectations of society. Wharton's first major novel, The House of Mirth, published in 1905, enjoyed considerable Literary Success. Ethan Frome appeared six years later, solidifying Wharton's reputation as an important novelist. Often in the company of her close friend, Henry James, Wharton mingled with some of the most famous writers and artists of the day, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, André Gide, Sinclair Lewis, Jean Cocteau, and Jack London.

In 1913 Edith divorced Edward. She lived mostly in France for the remainder of her life. When World War I broke out, she organized hostels for refugees, worked as a fund-raiser, and wrote for American publications from battlefield frontlines. She was awarded the French Legion of Honor for her courage and distinguished work.

The Age of Innocence, a novel about New York in the 1870s, earned Wharton the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1921 -- the first time the award had been bestowed upon a woman. Wharton traveled throughout Europe to encourage young authors. She also continued to write, lying in her bed every morning, as she had always done, dropping each newly penned page on the floor to be collected and arranged when she was finished. Wharton suffered a stroke and died on August 11, 1937. She is buried in the American Cemetery in Versailles, France.

Author biography from the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of The Age of Innocence.

Good To Know

Upon the publication of The House of Mirth in 1905, Wharton became an instant celebrity, and the the book was an instant bestseller, with 80,000 copies ordered from Scribner's six weeks after its release.

Wharton had a great fondness for dogs, and owned several throughout her life.

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    1. Also Known As:
      Edith Newbold Jones Wharton (full name)
    1. Date of Birth:
      January 24, 1862
    2. Place of Birth:
      New York, New York
    1. Date of Death:
      August 11, 1937
    2. Place of Death:
      Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt, France

Read an Excerpt

Chapter I

The village lay under two feet of snow, with drifts at the windy corners. In a sky of iron the points of the Dipper hung like icicles and Orion flashed his cold fires. The moon had set, but the night was so transparent that the white house-fronts between the elms looked gray against the snow, clumps of bushes made black stains on it, and the basement windows of the church sent shafts of yellow light far across the endless undulations.

Young Ethan Frome walked at a quick pace along the deserted street, past the bank and Michael Eady’s new brick store and Lawyer Varnum’s house with the two black Norway spruces at the gate. Opposite the Varnum gate, where the road fell away toward the Corbury valley, the church reared its slim white steeple and narrow peristyle. As the young man walked toward it the upper windows drew a black arcade along the side wall of the building, but from the lower openings, on the side where the ground sloped steeply down to the Corbury road, the light shot its long bars, illuminating many fresh furrows in the track leading to the basement door, and showing, under an adjoining shed, a line of sleighs with heavily blanketed horses.

The night was perfectly still, and the air so dry and pure that it gave little sensation of cold. The effect produced on Frome was rather of a complete absence of atmosphere, as though nothing less tenuous than ether intervened between the white earth under his feet and the metallic dome overhead. “It’s like being in an exhausted receiver,” he thought. Four or five years earlier he had taken a year’s course at a technological college at Worcester, and dabbled in thelaboratory with a friendly professor of physics; and the images supplied by that experience still cropped up, at unexpected moments, through the totally different associations of thought in which he had since been living. His father’s death, and the misfortunes following it, had put a premature end to Ethan’s studies; but though they had not gone far enough to be of much practical use they had fed his fancy and made him aware of huge cloudy meanings behind the daily face of things.

As he strode along through the snow the sense of such meanings glowed in his brain and mingled with the bodily flush produced by his sharp tramp. At the end of the village he paused before the darkened front of the church. He stood there a moment, breathing quickly, and looking up and down the street, in which not another figure moved. The pitch of the Corbury road, below lawyer Varnum’s spruces, was the favourite coasting-ground of Starkfield, and on clear evenings the church corner rang till late with the shouts of the coasters; but tonight not a sled darkened the whiteness of the long declivity. The hush of midnight lay on the village, and all its waking life was gathered behind the church windows, from which strains of dance-music flowed with the broad bands of yellow light.

The young man, skirting the side of the building, went down the slope toward the basement door. To keep out of range of the revealing rays from within he made a circuit through the untrodden snow and gradually approached the farther angle of the basement wall. Thence, still hugging the shadow, he edged his way cautiously forward to the nearest window, holding back his straight spare body and craning his neck till he got a glimpse of the room.

Seen thus, from the pure and frosty darkness in which he stood, it seemed to be seething in a mist of heat. The metal reflectors of the gas-jets sent crude waves of light against the whitewashed walls, and the iron flanks of the stove at the end of the hall looked as though they were heaving with volcanic fires. The floor was thronged with girls and young men. Down the side wall facing the window stood a row of kitchen chairs from which the older women had just risen. By this time the music had stopped, and the musicians—a fiddler, and the young lady who played the harmonium on Sundays—were hastily refreshing themselves at one corner of the supper-table which aligned its devastated pie-dishes and ice-cream saucers on the platform at the end of the hall. The guests were preparing to leave, and the tide had already set toward the passage where coats and wraps were hung, when a young man with a sprightly foot and a shock of black hair shot into the middle of the floor and clapped his hands. The signal took instant effect. The musicians hurried to their instruments, the dancers—some already half-muffled for departure—fell into line down each side of the room, the older spectators slipped back to their chairs, and the lively young man, after diving about here and there in the throng, drew forth a girl who had already wound a cherry-coloured “fascinator” about her head, and, leading her up to the end of the floor, whirled her down its length to the bounding tune of a Virginia reel.

Frome’s heart was beating fast. He had been straining for a glimpse of the dark head under the cherry-coloured scarf and it vexed him that another eye should have been quicker than his. The leader of the reel, who looked as if he had Irish blood in his veins, danced well, and his partner caught his fire. As she passed down the line, her light figure swinging from hand to hand in circles of increasing swiftness, the scarf flew off her head and stood out behind her shoulders, and Frome, at each turn, caught sight of her laughing panting lips, the cloud of dark hair about her forehead, and the dark eyes which seemed the only fixed points in a maze of flying lines.

The dancers were going faster and faster, and the musicians, to keep up with them, belaboured their instruments like jockeys lashing their mounts on the home-stretch; yet it seemed to the young man at the window that the reel would never end. Now and then he turned his eyes from the girl’s face to that of her partner, which, in the exhilaration of the dance, had taken on a look of almost impudent ownership. Denis Eady was the son of Michael Eady, the ambitious Irish grocer, whose suppleness and effrontery had given Starkfield its first notion of “smart” business methods, and whose new brick store testified to the success of the attempt. His son seemed likely to follow in his steps, and was meanwhile applying the same arts to the conquest of the Starkfield maidenhood. Hitherto Ethan Frome had been content to think him a mean fellow; but now he positively invited a horse-whipping. It was strange that the girl did not seem aware of it: that she could lift her rapt face to her dancer’s, and drop her hands into his, without appearing to feel the offence of his look and touch.

Frome was in the habit of walking into Starkfield to fetch home his wife’s cousin, Mattie Silver, on the rare evenings when some chance of amusement drew her to the village. It was his wife who had suggested, when the girl came to live with them, that such opportunities should be put in her way. Mattie Silver came from Stamford, and when she entered the Fromes household to act as her cousin Zeena’s aid it was thought best, as she came without pay, not to let her feel too sharp a contrast between the life she had left and the isolation of a Starkfield farm. But for this—as Frome sardonically reflected—it would hardly have occurred to Zeena to take any thought for the girl’s amusement.

When his wife first proposed that they should give Mattie an occasional evening out he had inwardly demurred at having to do the extra two miles to the village and back after his hard day on the farm; but not long afterward he had reached the point of wishing that Starkfield might give all its nights to revelry.

Mattie Silver had lived under his roof for a year, and from early morning till they met at supper he had frequent chances of seeing her; but no moments in her company were comparable to those when, her arm in his, and her light step flying to keep time with his long stride, they walked back through the night to the farm. He had taken to the girl from the first day, when he had driven over to the Flats to meet her, and she had smiled and waved to him from the train, crying out, “You must be Ethan!” as she jumped down with her bundles, while he reflected, looking over her slight person: “She don’t look much on housework, but she ain’t a fretter, anyhow.” But it was not only that the coming to his house of a bit of hopeful young life was like the lighting of a fire on a cold hearth. The girl was more than the bright serviceable creature he had thought her. She had an eye to see and an ear to hear: he could show her things and tell her things, and taste the bliss of feeling that all he imparted left long reverberations and echoes he could wake at will.

It was during their night walks back to the farm that he felt most intensely the sweetness of this communion. He had always been more sensitive than the people about him to the appeal of natural beauty. His unfinished studies had given form to this sensibility and even in his unhappiest moments field and sky spoke to him with a deep and powerful persuasion. But hitherto the emotion had remained in him as a silent ache, veiling with sadness the beauty that evoked it. He did not even know whether any one else in the world felt as he did, or whether he was the sole victim of this mournful privilege. Then he learned that one other spirit had trembled with the same touch of wonder: that at his side, living under his roof and eating his bread, was a creature to whom he could say: “That’s Orion down yonder; the big fellow to the right is Aldebaran, and the bunch of little ones—like bees swarming—they’re the Pleiades . . .” or whom he could hold entranced before a ledge of granite thrusting up through the fern while he unrolled the huge panorama of the ice age, and the long dim stretches of succeeding time. The fact that admiration for his learning mingled with Mattie’s wonder at what he taught was not the least part of his pleasure. And there were other sensations, less definable but more exquisite, which drew them together with a shock of silent joy: the cold red of sunset behind winter hills, the flight of cloud-flocks over slopes of golden stubble, or the intensely blue shadows of hemlocks on sunlit snow. When she said to him once: “It looks just as if it was painted!” it seemed to Ethan that the art of definition could go no farther, and that words had at last been found to utter his secret soul. . . .

As he stood in the darkness outside the church these memories came back with the poignancy of vanished things. Watching Mattie whirl down the floor from hand to hand he wondered how he could ever have thought that his dull talk interested her. To him, who was never gay but in her presence, her gaiety seemed plain proof of indifference. The face she lifted to her dancers was the same which, when she saw him, always looked like a window that has caught the sunset. He even noticed two or three gestures which, in his fatuity, he had thought she kept for him: a way of throwing her head back when she was amused, as if to taste her laugh before she let it out, and a trick of sinking her lids slowly when anything charmed or moved her.

The sight made him unhappy, and his unhappiness roused his latent fears. His wife had never shown any jealousy of Mattie, but of late she had grumbled increasingly over the house-work and found oblique ways of attracting attention to the girl’s inefficiency. Zeena had always been what Starkfield called “sickly,” and Frome had to admit that, if she were as ailing as she believed, she needed the help of a stronger arm than the one which lay so lightly in his during the night walks to the farm. Mattie had no natural turn for housekeeping, and her training had done nothing to remedy the defect. She was quick to learn, but forgetful and dreamy, and not disposed to take the matter seriously. Ethan had an idea that if she were to marry a man she was fond of the dormant instinct would wake, and her pies and biscuits become the pride of the county; but domesticity in the abstract did not interest her. At first she was so awkward that he could not help laughing at her; but she laughed with him and that made them better friends. He did his best to supplement her unskilled efforts, getting up earlier than usual to light the kitchen fire, carrying in the wood overnight, and neglecting the mill for the farm that he might help her about the house during the day. He even crept down on Saturday nights to scrub the kitchen floor after the women had gone to bed; and Zeena, one day, had surprised him at the churn and had turned away silently, with one of her queer looks.

Copyright 2001 by Edith Wharton
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Table of Contents

About This Series Introduction A Note on the Texts I. Ethan Frome (1911) II. Summer (1917) III. Contexts Edith Wharton, From A Backward Glance (1934) Roderick Peattie et al., From The Berkshires: The Purple Hills (1948) "Fatal Coasting Accident" From Berkshire Evening Eagle (1904) John Reid, "Hypochondria" From Essays on Hypochondriacal and Other Nervous Affections (1817) Barbara A. White, From Wharton's New England (1995) Rowland Evans Robinson, From "Glimpses of New England Farm Life" (1878) Linda Gordon, From "Incest and Resistance: Patterns of Father-Daughter Incest, 1880-1930" (1986) Edith Wharton, "Beatrice Palmato" (n.d.) Frances Sargent Osgood, "New England's Mountain-Child" (1838) Dorothy Schneider and Carl H. Schneider, "The Work Experience: Factory Workers," From American Women in the Progressive Era, 1900-1920 (1992) Carolyn J. Lawes, "The Sewing Circle," From Women and Reform in a New England Community, 1815-1860 (2000) IV. Critical Readings On Ethan Frome Jean Frantz Blackall, From "The Sledding Accident in Ethan Frome" Samuel Fisher Dodson, From "Frozen Hell: Edith Wharton's Tragic Offering" Richard B. Hovey, "Zeena: A Compelling Portrait of a Neurotic" From Ethan Frome: A Controversy About Modernizing It" Gary Scharnhorst, "The Two Faces of Mattie Silver" R. Baird Shuman, From "The Continued Popularity of Ethan Frome" On Summer Jean Frantz Blackall, "Charity at the Window: Narrative Technique in Edith Wharton's Summer" Linda Morante, From "The Desolation of Charity Royall: Imagery in Edith Wharton's Summer" Christine Rose, Summer: The Double Sense of Wharton's Title" Rhonda Skillern, From "Becoming a 'Good Girl': Law, Language, and Ritual in Edith Wharton's Summer" Monika M. Elbert, From "The Politics of Maternality in Summer" Nancy A. Walker, "'Seduced and Abandoned': Convention and Reality in Edith Wharton's Summer" Works Cited For Further Reading

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Foreword

1. Many critics have disagreed with Wharton's choice of narrative style in Ethan Frome, saying it is unrealistic that an outside character could intimately know all the details of the Frome household. Wharton, however, felt the narrative style necessary to convey the harshness of the story and the taciturn nature of New Englanders. What are the pros and cons of the third person narrative? Do you feel the narrative style hurts or hinders the story and its implied moral?

2. Consider Ethan's courting of Zeena and his "courting" of Mattie. How do they differ? Do you feel Ethan is a different person at these two times in his life, or is it Mattie that makes the difference?

3. Do you feel the "accident" at the end of Ethan Frome was Wharton's way of ending the story in a neat and tidy way? If not, what are the implications of the two disfigured people and their new life?

4. At first, Charity is ashamed of her biological ties to "the Mountain." Yet, she visits some of the inhabitants with Harney, the person whose opinion matters most to her. Why does she put herself in this situation?

5. Consider the town name of North Dormer, the most popular library book being Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the disrepair of many estates around North Dormer. What is Wharton saying about New England, its society, and its attitude to art?

6. Summer's ending marriage between Charity and Lawyer Royall is quite disturbing for many readers. What are the implications of this marriage? Consider his first interactions with Charity in the beginning of the story compared to his later interactions with her at the end of the story. Has his characterchanged?

7. While the novellas take place in New England, Ethan Frome's action revolves around winter and Summer's action revolves around summer. Both dark, sexually explorative tales, why did Wharton choose to set them in two different seasons? How do the seasons further, and hinder, the stories?

8. Compare Mattie, a more reserved woman, and Charity, who at first is independent and assertive. While their personalities are at first different, their final situations are sadly quite similar. What is Wharton saying about New England society and the women who live in it?

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Reading Group Guide

1. Many critics have disagreed with Wharton's choice of narrative style in Ethan Frome, saying it is unrealistic that an outside character could intimately know all the details of the Frome household. Wharton, however, felt the narrative style necessary to convey the harshness of the story and the taciturn nature of New Englanders. What are the pros and cons of the third person narrative? Do you feel the narrative style hurts or hinders the story and its implied moral?

2. Consider Ethan's courting of Zeena and his "courting" of Mattie. How do they differ? Do you feel Ethan is a different person at these two times in his life, or is it Mattie that makes the difference?

3. Do you feel the "accident" at the end of Ethan Frome was Wharton's way of ending the story in a neat and tidy way? If not, what are the implications of the two disfigured people and their new life?

4. At first, Charity is ashamed of her biological ties to "the Mountain." Yet, she visits some of the inhabitants with Harney, the person whose opinion matters most to her. Why does she put herself in this situation?

5. Consider the town name of North Dormer, the most popular library book being Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the disrepair of many estates around North Dormer. What is Wharton saying about New England, its society, and its attitude to art?

6. Summer's ending marriage between Charity and Lawyer Royall is quite disturbing for many readers. What are the implications of this marriage? Consider his first interactions with Charity in the beginning of the story compared to his later interactions with her at the end of the story. Has his character changed?

7.While the novellas take place in New England, Ethan Frome's action revolves around winter and Summer's action revolves around summer. Both dark, sexually explorative tales, why did Wharton choose to set them in two different seasons? How do the seasons further, and hinder, the stories?

8. Compare Mattie, a more reserved woman, and Charity, who at first is independent and assertive. While their personalities are at first different, their final situations are sadly quite similar. What is Wharton saying about New England society and the women who live in it?

Read More Show Less

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