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Written to provide you with reader friendly, but not superficial, access to many complex concepts, the Fifth Edition brings the most recent events and research to bear on many subjects addressed in the book: euthanasia, the death penalty, animal experimentation, abortion, stem-cell research, cloning, racial profiling, terrorism, affirmative action, treatment of prisoners of war, the Kyoto Accord, and world poverty and globalization. With this text as your guide, you'll learn to make the connection between ethical theory and the real-world problems we face everyday. And, you'll learn to look analytically at more than one side of an issue before deciding for yourself what position you will take.
"MacKinnon's Ethics is the perfect introductory text. It presents a balance of theory and application, and a balance of historical and contemporary readings. It provides a wealth of up-to-date empirical data on all of the topics discussed. And on top of that, it's written in a clear, engaging style."
"It is rare to find a text that provides an excellent combination of both ethical theory and applied ethics in a single volume that is concise, highly readable, and quite informative. MacKinnon's text is right on target!"
Barbara MacKinnon is a professor emerita of philosophy at the University of San Francisco. During her 30 years of teaching, her instruction and writing focused primarily on the history of ethics and contemporary ethical issues. She enjoys reading widely, playing the piano, and traveling.
Andrew Fiala is chair and professor of philosophy at Fresno State University, as well as director of the university's Ethics Center. His scholarly writing focuses on war and peace, politics, religion, and ethics. He also is a columnist for the Fresno Bee.
Part I: THEORY. 1. Ethics and Ethical Reasoning. Why Study Ethics? What is Ethics? Ethical and Other Types of Evaluation. Sociobiology and the Naturalistic Fallacy. Ethical Terms. Ethics and Reasons. Intuitionism, Emotivism, Subjectivism, Objectivism. Ethical Reasoning and Arguments. Ethical Theory. Types of Ethical Theory. Can Ethics Be Taught. Readings: David Hume, Ethical Judgments and Matters of Fact (from Treatise); C.L. Stevenson, Facts and Values. 2. Religion and Global Ethics. Freedom, Cosmopolitanism, and The European Enlightenment. Religion, Civic Life, and Civil Disobedience. Ethics, Religion, and Divine Command Theory. Pluralism and the Golden Rule. The Problem of Evil and Free Will. Secular Ethics and Toleration. Criticisms of Secularism and Global Ethics. Readings: Plato, Euthyphro; M.K. Gandhi, Religion and Truth; Michael Ignatieff, Reimagining a Global Ethic. 3. Ethical Relativism. Descriptive vs. Normative Ethical Relativism. Individual vs. Cultural Relativism. Reasons Supporting Ethical Relativism.Are these Reasons Convincing? Is Relativism Self-Contradictory? Moral Realism. Moral Pluralism. Readings: Louis Pojman, Who's to Judge? Richard Rorty, Moral Relativism. 4. Egoism, Altruism, and the Social Contract. Psychological Egoism. Ethical Egoism. The Moral Point of View. Why be Moral? Readings: Plato, The Ring of Gyges (from Republic); Thomas Hobbes, Self Love (from Leviathan); Steven Pinker, Social Contract and Altruism (from The Blank Slate). 5. Utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill. Weighing Consequences. Historical Background. The Principle of Utility. Pleasure and Happiness. Calculating the Greatest Amount of Happiness. Quantity vs. Quality of Pleasure. Evaluating Utilitarianism. The Trolley Problem. Act and Rule Utilitarianism. "Proof" of the Theory. Reading: John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism. 6. Deontological Ethics and Immanuel Kant. Deontology and the Ethics of Duty. Immanuel Kant. The Categorical Imperative. Evaluating Kant's Moral Theory. Perfect and Imperfect Duties. Variations on Kant and Deontology. Reading: Immanuel Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. 7. Natural Law and Human Rights. Natural Law Theory. Historical Origins. Evaluating Natural Law Theory. Natural Rights. Evaluating Natural Rights Theory. Is There a Human Nature? Readings. Thomas Aquinas, On Natural Law. John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government. 8. Virtue Ethics. Virtues and Everyday Life. Aristotle. Cross-Cultural and Contemporary Virtue Ethics. Evaluating Virtue Ethics. Readings: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics. Philippa Foot, Virtues and Vices. 9. Feminist Thought and the Ethics of Care. Gender in Moral Reasoning and the Ethics of Care. Feminist Thought. Evaluation of Feminist Thought and the Ethics of Care. Readings: Nel Noddings, Caring; Annette Baier, The Need for More than Justice; Part II: CONTEMPORARY ETHICAL ISSUES. 10. Euthanasia. Euthanasia for Infants and the Disabled. Criteria for Death. Types of Euthanasia. Making Moral Judgments About Euthanasia. Readings: J. Gay-Williams, The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia; James Rachels, Active and Passive Euthanasia; Carl B. Becker, Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia. 11. Abortion. Stages of Fetal Development. Methods of Abortion. Abortion and the Law. Abortion: The Moral Question. Arguments that Do Not Depend on the Moral Status of the Fetus. Arguments that Depend on the Moral Status of the Fetus. Readings: Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion; Mary Anne Warren, On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion; Don Marquis, Why Abortion is Immoral. 12. Sexual Morality. Current Issues. Conceptual Problems: What Is and Is Not Sexual. Relevant Factual Matters. Sexual Morality and Ethical Theories. Gay Marriage. Readings: John Finnis, Law, Morality, and "Sexual Orientation"; Igor Primoratz, Homosexuality, Ethics, and Sex. 13. Equality and Discrimination. Discrimination. The Principle of Equality. Current Issues and the Law. Affirmative Action and Preferential Treatment. Readings: Kwame Anthony Appiah, Racisms; Anita L. Allen, Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward. 14. Economic Justice. Economic Inequality. Conceptions of Social Justice. Political and Economic Theories. Readings: John Rawls, Justice as Fairness; Robert Nozick, Distributive Justice. 15. Punishment and the Death Penalty. The Nature of Legal Punishment. Prisons. The Death Penalty. Readings: Angela Y. Davis, Are Prisons Obsolete? Lloyd Steffen, A Theory of Just Execution. 16. Environmental Ethics. The Environment and Its Value. Anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism. Current Issues. Readings: William F. Baxter, People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution; Bill Devall and George Sessions, Deep Ecology; Ramachandra Guha, Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique. 17. Animal Ethics. Current Issues. Approaches to Animal Ethics. Readings: Peter Singer, All Animals Are Equal; Bonnie Steinbock, Speciesism and the Idea of Equality. 18. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Current Issues. Legal and Ethical Issues. Readings: Leon R. Kass, Ageless Bodies, Happy Souls; Nick Bostrom, In Defense of Posthuman Dignity. 19. Violence and War. Realism. Pacifism. Just War Theory. Current Issues. Readings: Thucydides, Melian Dialogue; Martin Luther King, Jr., Pilgrimage to Nonviolence; Michael Walzer, Triumph of Just War Theory. 20. Global Justice. Current Issues. National Self-Interest. Global Justice. Readings: Peter Singer, The Life You Can Save; Herman Daly, Globalization and Its Discontents; Vandana Shiva, Principles of Earth Democracy.