Ethics for the Information Age / Edition 4

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Overview

This book is appropriate for any standalone “computers and society” or “computer ethics” course offered by a computer science, business, or philosophy department, as well as special "modules" in any advanced CS course.

In an era where information technology changes constantly, a thoughtful response to these rapid changes requires a basic understanding of IT history, an awareness of current issues, and a familiarity with ethics. Ethics for the Information Age is unique in its balanced coverage of ethical theories used to analyze problems encountered by computer professionals in today’s environment. By presenting provocative issues such as social networking, government surveillance, and intellectual property from all points of view, this market-leading text challenges students to think critically and draw their own conclusions, which ultimately prepares them to become responsible, ethical users of future technologies.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132133876
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 2/12/2010
  • Series: Pearson Custom Computer Science Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael J. Quinn is the author of the first three editions of Ethics for the Information Age. He is Dean of the College of Science and Engineering at Seattle University. He did his graduate work at University of Wisconsin - Madison and received his PhD at Washington State University. Previously, he was a professor of computer science at Oregon State University where he taught Social and Ethical Issues in Computer Science among other computer science courses.
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Table of Contents

Preface xix
1 Catalysts for Change 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Milestones in Computing 5
1.2.1 Aids to Manual Calculating 5
1.2.2 Mechanical Calculators 7
1.2.3 Cash Register 9
1.2.4 Punched Card Tabulation 10
1.2.5 Precursors of Commercial Computers 11
1.2.6 First Commercial Computers 13
1.2.7 Programming Languages and Time-Sharing 15
1.2.8 Transistor and Integrated Circuit 16
1.2.9 IBM System/360 17
1.2.10 Microprocessor 18
1.2.11 Personal Computer 19
1.3 Milestones in Networking 22
1.3.1 Electricity and Electromagnetism 22
1.3.2 Telegraph 23
1.3.3 Telephone 24
1.3.4 Typewriter and Teletype 26
1.3.5 Radio 26
1.3.6 Television 28
1.3.7 Remote Computing 29
1.3.8 ARPANET 29
1.3.9 Email 31
1.3.10 Internet 31
1.3.11 NSFNET 31
1.3.12 Broadband 32
1.4 Milestones in Information Storage and Retrieval 32
1.4.1 Codex 32
1.4.2 Gutenberg’s Printing Press 33
1.4.3 Newspapers 33
1.4.4 Hypertext 33
1.4.5 Graphical User Interface 35
1.4.6 Single-Computer Hypertext Systems 36
1.4.7 Networked Hypertext: World Wide Web 37
1.4.8 Search Engines 38
1.5 Information Technology Issues 39
Summary 40
Review Questions 43
Discussion Questions 44
In-Class Exercises 45
Further Reading 46
References 47
An Interview with Dalton Conley 51

2 Introduction to Ethics 53
2.1 Introduction 53
2.1.1 Defining Terms 54
2.1.2 Four Scenarios 56
2.1.3 Overview of Ethical Theories 59
2.2 Subjective Relativism 60
2.2.1 The Case for Subjective Relativism 61
2.2.2 The Case against Subjective Relativism 61
2.3 Cultural Relativism 62
2.3.1 The Case for Cultural Relativism 63
2.3.2 The Case against Cultural Relativism 64
2.4 Divine Command Theory 66
2.4.1 The Case for the Divine Command Theory 67
2.4.2 The Case against the Divine Command Theory 68
2.5 Ethical Egoism 69
2.5.1 The Case for Ethical Egoism 70
2.5.2 The Case against Ethical Egoism 70
2.6 Kantianism 71
2.6.1 GoodWill and the Categorical Imperative 71
2.6.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Kantianism 74
2.6.3 The Case for Kantianism 75
2.6.4 The Case against Kantianism 75
2.7 Act Utilitarianism 76
2.7.1 Principle of Utility 76
2.7.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Act Utilitarianism 78
2.7.3 The Case for Act Utilitarianism 79
2.7.4 The Case against Act Utilitarianism 80
2.8 Rule Utilitarianism 81
2.8.1 Basis of Rule Utilitarianism 81
2.8.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Rule Utilitarianism 82
2.8.3 The Case for Rule Utilitarianism 83
2.8.4 The Case against Utilitarianism in General 84
2.9 Social Contract Theory 85
2.9.1 The Social Contract 85
2.9.2 Rawls’s Theory of Justice 87
2.9.3 Evaluating a Scenario Using Social Contract Theory 90
2.9.4 The Case for Social Contract Theory 90
2.9.5 The Case against Social Contract Theory 92
2.10 Comparing Workable Ethical Theories 93
2.11 Morality of Breaking the Law 94
2.11.1 Social Contract Theory Perspective 95
2.11.2 Kantian Perspective 96
2.11.3 Rule Utilitarian Perspective 96
2.11.4 Act Utilitarian Perspective 96
2.11.5 Conclusion 97
Summary 97
Review Questions 99
Discussion Questions 101
In-Class Exercises 102
Further Reading 103
References 103
An Interview with James Moor 105

3 Networked Communications 109
3.1 Introduction 109
3.2 Email and Spam 111
3.2.1 How EmailWorks 111
3.2.2 The Spam Epidemic 111
3.2.3 Ethical Evaluations of Spamming 114
3.2.4 Need for Social-Technical Solutions 116
3.3 The World Wide Web 116
3.3.1 Attributes of the Web 116
3.3.2 How We Use the Web 117
3.3.3 Too Much Governmental Control or Too Little? 120
3.4 Censorship 122
3.4.1 Direct Censorship 122
3.4.2 Self-Censorship 123
3.4.3 Challenges Posed by the Internet 123
3.4.4 Ethical Perspectives on Censorship 124
3.5 Freedom of Expression 125
3.5.1 History 125
3.5.2 Freedom of Expression Not an Absolute Right 127
3.5.3 FCC v. Pacifica Foundation et al. 128
3.6 Children and Inappropriate Content 129
3.6.1 Web Filters 129
3.6.2 Child Internet Protection Act 130
3.6.3 Ethical Evaluations of CIPA 131
3.6.4 Sexting 132
3.7 Breaking Trust on the Internet 134
3.7.1 Identity Theft 134
3.7.2 Chat-Room Predators 135
3.7.3 Ethical Evaluations of Police “Sting” Operations 136
3.7.4 False Information 137
3.7.5 Cyberbullying 138
3.8 Internet Addiction 140
3.8.1 Is Internet Addiction Real? 140
3.8.2 Contributing Factors 142
3.8.3 Ethical Evaluation of Internet Addiction 143
Summary 144
Review Questions 145
Discussion Questions 146
In-Class Exercises 148
Further Reading 149
References 150
An Interview with Michael Liebhold 155

4 Intellectual Property 157
4.1 Introduction 157
4.2 Intellectual Property Rights 159
4.2.1 What Is Intellectual Property? 159
4.2.2 Property Rights 159
4.2.3 Extending the Argument to Intellectual Property 160
4.2.4 Benefits of Intellectual Property Protection 163
4.2.5 Limits to Intellectual Property Protection 163
4.3 Protecting Intellectual Property 165
4.3.1 Trade Secrets 165
4.3.2 Trademarks and Service Marks 166
4.3.3 Patents 166
4.3.4 Copyrights 168
4.4 Fair Use 172
4.4.1 Sony v. Universal City Studios 174
4.4.2 Digital Recording Technology 174
4.4.3 Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 175
4.4.4 RIAA v. Diamond Multimedia Systems Inc. 176
4.4.5 Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation 176
4.4.6 Google Books 177
4.5 New Restrictions on Use 179
4.5.1 Digital Millennium Copyright Act 179
4.5.2 Digital Rights Management 180
4.5.3 Secure Digital Music Initiative 180
4.5.4 Sony BMG Music Entertainment Rootkit 181
4.5.5 Encrypting DVDs 181
4.5.6 Foiling HD-DVD Encryption 182
4.5.7 Criticisms of Digital Rights Management 183
4.5.8 Online Music Stores Drop Digital Rights Management 183
4.6 Peer-to-Peer Networks 184
4.6.1 Napster 185
4.6.2 FastTrack 185
4.6.3 BitTorrent 186
4.6.4 RIAA Lawsuits 187
4.6.5 Universities Caught in the Middle 187
4.6.6 MGM v. Grokster 188
4.6.7 Legal Action Against The Pirate Bay 190
4.6.8 Legal Music Services on the Internet 190
4.7 Protections for Software 191
4.7.1 Software Copyrights 191
4.7.2 Violations of Software Copyrights 191
4.7.3 Software Patents 192
4.7.4 Safe Software Development 193
4.8 Open-Source Software 194
4.8.1 Consequences of Proprietary Software 194
4.8.2 “Open Source” Definition 195
4.8.3 Beneficial Consequences of Open-Source Software 196
4.8.4 Examples of Open-Source Software 197
4.8.5 The GNU Project and Linux 197
4.8.6 Impact of Open-Source Software 198
4.8.7 Critique of the Open-Source Software Movement 199
4.9 Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Protection for Software 200
4.9.1 Rights-Based Analysis 200
4.9.2 Utilitarian Analysis 201
4.9.3 Conclusion 202
4.10 Creative Commons 203
Summary 205
Review Questions 208
Discussion Questions 209
In-Class Exercises 210
Further Reading 211
References 211
An Interview with Wendy Seltzer 217

5 Privacy 219
5.1 Introduction 219
5.2 Perspectives on Privacy 221
5.2.1 Defining Privacy 221
5.2.2 Harms and Benefits of Privacy 222
5.2.3 Is There a Natural Right to Privacy? 225
5.2.4 Privacy and Trust 229
5.2.5 A Taxonomy of Privacy 230
5.2.6 Case Study 231
5.3 Disclosing Information 234
5.4 Public Information 235
5.4.1 Rewards or Loyalty Programs 236
5.4.2 Body Scanners 236
5.4.3 Digital Video Recorders 237
5.4.4 Automobile “Black Boxes” 237
5.4.5 Enhanced 911 Service 238
5.4.6 RFIDs 238
5.4.7 Implanted Chips 239
5.4.8 Cookies 239
5.4.9 Biometrics 240
5.4.10 Spyware 240
5.5 U.S. Legislation 240
5.5.1 Fair Credit Reporting Act 240
5.5.2 Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act 241
5.5.3 Family Education Rights and Privacy Act 241
5.5.4 Employee Polygraph Protection Act 241
5.5.5 Video Privacy Protection Act 242
5.5.6 Financial Services Modernization Act 242
5.5.7 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act 243
5.5.8 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 243
5.5.9 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act 243
5.6 Public Records 243
5.6.1 Census Records 244
5.6.2 Internal Revenue Service Records 244
5.6.3 FBI National Crime Information Center 2000 246
5.6.4 OneDOJ Database 247
5.6.5 Privacy Act of 1974 248
5.7 Covert Government Surveillance 249
5.7.1 Wiretaps and Bugs 250
5.7.2 Operation Shamrock 252
5.7.3 Carnivore Surveillance System 253
5.7.4 Covert Activities after 9/11 254
5.8 U.S. Legislation Authorizing Wiretapping 255
5.8.1 Title III 255
5.8.2 Electronic Communications Privacy Act 255
5.8.3 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act 255
5.8.4 USA PATRIOT Act 256
5.9 DataMining 261
5.9.1 Marketplace: Households 263
5.9.2 IRS Audits 263
5.9.3 Syndromic Surveillance System 264
5.9.4 Telecommunications Records Database 264
5.9.5 Total Information Awareness 264
5.9.6 Criticisms of the TIA Program 265
5.9.7 Who Should Own Information about a Transaction? 265
5.9.8 Opt-in Versus Opt-out 266
5.9.9 Facebook Beacon 267
5.10 Identity Theft 267
5.10.1 Background 267
5.10.2 History and Role of the Social Security Number 269
5.10.3 Debate over a National ID Card 270
5.10.4 The REAL ID Act 272
5.11 Encryption 273
5.11.1 Symmetric Encryption 273
5.11.2 Public-Key Cryptography 273
5.11.3 Pretty Good Privacy 276
5.11.4 Clipper Chip 276
5.11.5 Effects of U.S. Export Restrictions 277
5.11.6 Digital Cash 278
Summary 280
Review Questions 283
Discussion Questions 285
In-class Exercises 288
Further Reading 289
References 289
An Interview with Ann Cavoukian 297

6 Computer and Network Security 301
6.1 Introduction 301
6.2 Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses 302
6.2.1 Viruses 302
6.2.2 Worms 306
6.2.3 The Internet Worm 310
6.2.4 Trojan Horses 313
6.2.5 Bot Networks 314
6.2.6 Defensive Measures 314
6.3 Phreaks and Hackers 315
6.3.1 Hackers 315
6.3.2 Phone Phreaking 320
6.3.3 The Cuckoo’s Egg 320
6.3.4 Legion of Doom 321
6.3.5 Fry Guy 322
6.3.6 U.S. v. Riggs 323
6.3.7 Steve Jackson Games 324
6.3.8 Retrospective 324
6.3.9 Penalties for Hacking 326
6.3.10 Recent Incidents 327
6.4 Denial-of-Service Attacks 328
6.4.1 Attacks that Consume Scarce Resources 328
6.4.2 Defensive Measures 331
6.4.3 Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks 331
6.4.4 Blue Security 332
6.4.5 Fourth of July Attacks 332
6.4.6 Attacks on Twitter 333
6.4.7 SATAN 333
6.5 Online Voting 334
6.5.1 Motivation for Online Voting 334
6.5.2 Proposals 335
6.5.3 Ethical Evaluation 335
Summary 338
Review Questions 339
Discussion Questions 340
In-Class Exercises 341
Further Reading 342
References 343
An Interview with Matt Bishop 347

7 Computer Reliability 351
7.1 Introduction 351
7.2 Data-Entry or Data-Retrieval Errors 352
7.2.1 Disfranchised Voters 352
7.2.2 False Arrests 352
7.2.3 Analysis: Accuracy of NCIC Records 353
7.3 Software and Billing Errors 354
7.3.1 Errors Leading to System Malfunctions 354
7.3.2 Errors Leading to System Failures 355
7.3.3 Analysis: E-Retailer PostsWrong Price, Refuses to Deliver 356
7.4 Notable Software System Failures 357
7.4.1 Patriot Missile 358
7.4.2 Ariane 5 359
7.4.3 AT&T Long-Distance Network 360
7.4.4 Robot Missions to Mars 360
7.4.5 Denver International Airport 362
7.4.6 Tokyo Stock Exchange 363
7.4.7 Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines 364
7.5 Therac-25 367
7.5.1 Genesis of the Therac-25 367
7.5.2 Chronology of Accidents and AECL Responses 368
7.5.3 Software Errors 370
7.5.4 Postmortem 372
7.5.5 Moral Responsibility of the Therac-25 Team 373
7.6 Computer Simulations 374
7.6.1 Uses of Simulation 374
7.6.2 Validating Simulations 375
7.7 Software Engineering 377
7.7.1 Specification 377
7.7.2 Development 378
7.7.3 Validation 379
7.7.4 Software Quality Is Improving 380
7.8 SoftwareWarranties 381
7.8.1 ShrinkwrapWarranties 381
7.8.2 Are SoftwareWarranties Enforceable? 382
7.8.3 Moral Responsibility of Software Manufacturers 385
Summary 386
Review Questions 388
Discussion Questions 390
In-class Exercises 390
Further Reading 391
References 392
An Interview with Avi Rubin 395

8 Professional Ethics 397
8.1 Introduction 397
8.2 Are Computer Experts Professionals? 398
8.2.1 Characteristics of a Profession 398
8.2.2 Certified Public Accountants 399
8.2.3 Computer-Related Careers 400
8.3 Software Engineering Code of Ethics 402
8.3.1 Preamble 402
8.3.2 Principles 403
8.4 Analysis of the Code 410
8.4.1 Preamble 410
8.4.2 Virtue Ethics 411
8.4.3 Alternative List of Fundamental Principles 414
8.5 Case Studies 415
8.5.1 Software Recommendation 416
8.5.2 Child Pornography 417
8.5.3 Anti-Worm 418
8.5.4 Consulting Opportunity 420
8.6 Whistleblowing 422
8.6.1 Morton Thiokol/NASA 423
8.6.2 Hughes Aircraft 425
8.6.3 U.S. Legislation Related to Whistleblowing 426
8.6.4 Morality ofWhistleblowing 427
Summary 431
Review Questions 433
Discussion Questions 433
In-class Exercises 435
Further Reading 436
References 437
An Interview with Paul Axtell 439

9 Work and Wealth 443
9.1 Introduction 443
9.2 Automation and Unemployment 444
9.2.1 Automation and Job Destruction 445
9.2.2 Automation and Job Creation 447
9.2.3 Effects of Increase in Productivity 448
9.2.4 Rise of the Robots? 451
9.3 Workplace Changes 453
9.3.1 Organizational Changes 454
9.3.2 Telework 455
9.3.3 Temporary Work 457
9.3.4 Monitoring 457
9.3.5 Multinational Teams 459
9.4 Globalization 459
9.4.1 Arguments for Globalization 460
9.4.2 Arguments against Globalization 461
9.4.3 Dot-Com Bust Increases IT Sector Unemployment 462
9.4.4 Foreign Workers in the American IT Industry 462
9.4.5 Foreign Competition 463
9.5 The Digital Divide 464
9.5.1 Evidence of the Digital Divide 465
9.5.2 Models of Technological Diffusion 466
9.5.3 Critiques of the Digital Divide 468
9.5.4 Net Neutrality 469
9.6 The “Winner-Take-All Society” 470
9.6.1 The Winner-Take-All Phenomenon 470
9.6.2 Harmful Effects of Winner-Take-All 472
9.6.3 Reducing Winner-Take-All Effects 473
Summary 474
Review Questions 476
Discussion Questions 476
In-class Exercises 477
Further Reading 479
References 479
An Interview with Jerry Berman 483

Appendix A: Plagiarism 487
Consequences of Plagiarism 487
Types of Plagiarism 488
Guidelines for Citing Sources 488
How to Avoid Plagiarism 488
Misuse of Sources 489
Additional Information 489
References 489
Index 491

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