Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-23 / Edition 1

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Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires is a wide-ranging comparative study of the origins of today's ethnic politics in East Central Europe, the former Russian empire and the Middle East.

Centred on the First World War Era, Ethnic Nationalism highlights the roles of historical contingency and the ordeal of total war in shaping the states and institutions that supplanted the great multinational empires after 1918. It explores how the fixing of new political boundaries and the complex interplay of nationalist elites and popular forces set in motion bitter ethnic conflicts and political disputes, many of which are still with us today.

Topics discussed include:

* the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian empire
* the ethnic dimension of the Russian Revolution and Soviet state building
* Nationality issues in the late Ottoman empire
* the origins of Arab nationalism
* ethnic politics in zones of military occupation
* the construction of Czechoslovak and Yugoslav identities

Ethnic Nationalism is an invaluable survey of the origins of twentieth-century ethnic politics. It is essential reading for those interested in the politics of ethnicity and nationalism in modern European and Middle Eastern history.

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Editorial Reviews

Concentrating on the First World War era, Roshwald (history, Georgetown U.) highlights the role of historical contingency and the ordeal of total war in shaping the states and institutions that supplanted the great multinational empires after 1918 in the three regions. He explores how the fixing of new political boundaries and the complex interplay of nationalist elites and popular forces set in motion bitter ethnic conflicts and political disputes, many of which remain active four generations later. The three major empires he discusses are the Austro- Hungarian, the Russian, and the Ottoman. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415242295
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 1/22/2001
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Maps
1 Introduction 1
2 Ethnicity and Empire: An Historical Introduction 7
The Austro-Hungarian Empire 8
The Russian Empire 19
The Ottoman Empire 28
3 On the Eve of War: The Intelligentsia as Vanguard of Nationalism 34
Conflicting Nationalist Agendas in East Central Europe 36
Poland 36
Czechs and Slovaks 42
The Dream of Yugoslav Unity 46
Synopsis 48
Populism, Socialism, and Nationalism in the Russian Empire 49
Social Elites and Nationalist Intellectuals in the Ottoman Empire 57
From Ottomanism to Turkish Nationalism 57
From Ottomanism to Arab Nationalism 63
4 Straining the Imperial Molds, 1914-1918 70
War Front, Home Front, and the Politicization of Ethnicity in the Habsburg Empire 71
Loyalties on the (Front) Line 73
The Czech Home Front 78
The South Slav Lands 84
Synopsis 88
The Ethnic Dimension of War and Revolution in Russia 90
Nationalism and Separatism under the Provisional Government 92
The Socio-Cultural Bases of Ethnic Unrest 94
The Burden of War in the Middle East 104
The Radicalization of Turkish Nationalism 105
The Suppression of Dissent in the Arab Lands 111
5 New Arenas of Action: Nationalisms of Occupation and Exile, 1914-1918 116
Zones of Occupation 116
Poland and Lithuania 116
Serbia 125
The Politics of Exile 128
The Czechoslovak National Council 129
The Yugoslav Committee 132
The Polish National Committee 138
Zionism 140
Synopsis 145
Volunteer Legions 146
The Czechoslovak Legion 147
Pilsudski's First Brigade 149
The Arab Revolt 152
6 Defining the Boundaries of the Nation, 1918-1923 156
Defining Frontiers in East Central Europe 157
The Political Geography of Soviet Ethnofederalism 171
The Ethnic Dimension of Russian Political Collapse and Civil War 171
The Soviet Ethnofederal Experiment 174
Reconfiguring the Boundaries of Identity in the Middle East 183
The Turkish Settlement and the Kemalist State 183
European Imperialism as Framework for the Genesis of Middle Eastern Nation-States 187
Statehood vs. Nationhood in the Arab World 189
Sectarianism and Ethno-Regional Politics in the Framework of Arab Nationalism 192
7 Old Elites and Radical Challengers in the New Nation-States, 1918-1939 198
Institutional Continuities and Disaffected Ethnic Groups: the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav Cases 201
Czechoslovakia 201
Yugoslavia 204
Revolutionary Elites in Reactionary Roles: Poland and the Arab Middle East 207
Poland 207
Syria and Iraq 211
8 Conclusion 218
Notes 224
Index 264
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