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This volume focuses, comparatively and dynamically, on the reception of the ECHR regime within the national legal orders of the Member States of the Council of Europe. The definition of "legal order" used is expansive, including the legislature, the executive, the judiciary, and any public authority established through constitutional and public law that produces or applies legal norms. The central inquiry of the book is how, through what mechanisms, and to what extent, the national legal orders of the Member States are coordinated with, adapted to, or adjusted by the ECHR - emphasizing both the cooperative and conflictive aspects of reception.
The book brings together a series of structured-focused comparisons: each chapter undertaking a comparative case study which collects and analyzes basic data on the reception of the ECHR within national legal orders. These structured-focused comparisons, whose purpose is not so much to test theory, but to develop appropriate theoretical concepts and to generate hypotheses, work on the assumption that comparing two, relatively like cases offer a better opportunity to build more general theoretical frameworks.
Through an examination of a set of general questions about how national decision-makers - governments, legislators, and judges - have reacted to the evolution of European human rights law, the chapters enquire how various actors within national legal orders could take decisions to either hinder or to enhance the status of the ECHR. What interests or values, individual or corporate, are judges maximizing? How has this affected the evolution of the ECHR? How do national constitutions take into account treaty law (or international law generally)? Do separation of powers doctrines (or other explicit provisions of public law) permit or prohibit the judicial review of the legal validity of legislative and executive acts with reference to "higher" norms? To what extent should the federal or unitary nature of a Member State make a difference to reception? That is, should we expect the territorial distribution of powers and competences - judicial, legislative, administrative - to have an effect on the status or effectiveness of the ECHR, and if so, how?
1 The Reception of the ECHR in National Legal Orders Alec Stone Sweet Sweet, Alec Stone Helen Keller Keller, Helen 3
2 The Reception Process in Ireland and the United Kingdom Samantha Besson Besson, Samantha 31
3 The Reception Process in France and Germany Elisabeth Lambert Abdelgawad Abdelgawad, Elisabeth Lambert Anne Weber Weber, Anne 107
4 The Reception Process in Sweden and Norway Ola Wiklund Wiklund, Ola 165
5 The Reception Process in the Netherlands and Belgium Erika de Wet de Wet, Erika 229
6 The Reception Process in Austria and Switzerland Daniela Thurnherr Thurnherr, Daniela 311
7 The Reception Process in Spain and Italy Mercedes Candela Soriano Soriano, Mercedes Candela 393
8 The Reception Process in Greece and Turkey Ibrahim Ozden Kaboglu Kaboglu, Ibrahim Ozden Stylianos-Ioannis G. Koutnatzis Koutnatzis, Stylianos-Ioannis G. 451
9 The Reception Process in Poland and Slovakia Magda Krzyzanowska-Mierzewska Krzyzanowska-Mierzewska, Magda 531
10 The Reception Process in Russia and Ukraine Angelika Nussberger Nussberger, Angelika 603
11 Assessing the Impact of the ECHR on National Legal Systems Helen Keller Keller, Helen Alec Stone Sweet Sweet, Alec Stone 677
Overview of the Activity of the European Court of Human Rights 713