European Reformations Sourcebo / Edition 1

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This collection of primary sources brings together in one volume for students documents on the European Reformations not easily accessible otherwise.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"[This collection] effectively introduces students to the fundamental issues of the Reformation as well as the tenor of the times and the course of the events surrounding the outbreak of the greatest reform movement in Christian history. [It provides] a rich vein of material to be mined by those who are catching a glimpse of Reformation thought for the first time, and...can serve to deepen understanding of the breadth and depth of the period for those in a second level course. Every university, college and seminary library must have [this volume]. [It provides] a helpful introduction to the thought and the context of thinking in the sixteenth century." Religious Studies Review
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780631213628
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/28/1999
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 330
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.74 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Carter Lindberg is Professor of Church History at Boston University. His recent publications include The European Reformations (Blackwell Publishers, 1996), with Emily Hanwalt Through the Eye of the Needle: Judaeo-Christian Contributions to Social Welfare (1994), and Beyond Charity: Reformation Initiatives for the Poor (1993).

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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments.

List of Abbreviations.

1 The Late Middle Ages.

1.1 Petrarch on the Plague.

1.2 Jean de Venette: Chronicle.

1.3 Social Tensions: The Reformation of the Emperor Sigismund (c.1438).

1.4 The Crisis of Values: 'Reynard the Fox' (1498).

1.5 Jakob Wimpfeling (1450-1528): The Origins of Printing from Epitome rerum Germanicarum (1505).

1.6 Sebastian Brant (1457-1521): The Ship of Fools.

1.7 'The Piper of Niklashausen, 'A Report of his Preaching (1476).

1.8 Jacob Wimpfeling: Grievances of the German Nation (1515).

1.9 Pope Boniface VIII: Unam Sanctam (1302).

1.10 Pope Clement VI: Unigenitus Dei Filius (January 27, 1343).

1.11 Pope Sixtus IV: Salvator noster (August 3, 1476).

1.12 Marsilius of Padua: Defensor Pacis (1324).

1.13 Conciliarism: Opinion of the University of Paris (1393).

1.14 Pierre D'Ailly: Conciliar Principles (1409).

1.15 The Council of Constance: Haec sancta (May 6, 1415) and Frequens (October 9, 1417).

1.16 Pope Pius II: Execrabilis (January 18, 1460).

1.17 Pope Leo X: Pastor Aeternus (March 16, 1516).

1.18 John Wyclif (c 1330-1384): 'On Indulgences'.

1.19 John Hus (c 1372-1415): The Treatise on the Church.

1.20 Nicholas of Lyra (d 1349): Interpretation of the Bible.

1.21 Gabriel Biel (d.1495): 'Doing What is in One'.

1.22 Johannes Tauler, O P.(c 1300-1361): Sermons.

1.23 Theologia Deutsch (Late Fourteenth or early Fifteenth Century).

1.24 Ludolf of Saxony (d 1371): Vita Jesu Christi.

1.25 Gerard Zerbolt (1367-1398): The Spiritual Ascents.

1.26 Thomas à Kempis (d 1471): The Imitation of Christ.

1.27 Johannes von Staupitz: Sermon Extracts (1516).

1.28 François Rabelais (c 1483-1553): On Education.

1.29 Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457): The Falsely Believed and Forged Donation of Constantine.

1.30 Desiderius Erasmus (c 1469-1536): Praise of Folly (1509).

1.31 Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523): Letters from Obscure Men (1515).

2 The Dawn of a New Era.

2.1 Martin Luther: Recollections of Becoming a Monk.

2.2 Luther's Conversion.

2.3 Luther's Theological Emphases.

2.4 Luther: 'Disputation Against Scholastic Theology' (September 4, 1517).

2.5 'Official Catalogue' of Relics in the Wittenberg Castle Church.

2.6 Archbishop Albert of Mainz (d 1545): The Commission of Indulgences.

2.7 Tetzel: A Sample Sermon.

2.8 A Contemporary Description of Indulgence Selling.

2.9 'The Robbing of Tetzel'.

2.10 Luther: 'The Ninety-five Theses' (October 31, 1517).

2.11 Prierias: Dialogue Against the Arrogant Theses of Martin Luther on the Power of the Pope (1518).

2.12 Luther's Hearing before Cardinal Cajetan at Augsburg (1518).

2.13 Georg Spalatin (1484-1545): Recollections of Frederick the Wise on Luther.

2.14 Pope Leo X: 'Exsurge domine' (June 15, 1520).

2.15 Luther: To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate (18 August 1520).

2.16 Luther: The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (October 6, 1520).

2.17 Luther: The Freedom of a Christian (early November 1520).

2.18 The Papal Nuncio's Reports from the Diet of Worms (1521).

2.19 Luther before Emperor and Empire at the Diet of Worms (1521).

2.20 Charles V: Message to his Council (April 19, 1521).

2.21 The Edict of Worms (May 26, 1521).

2.22 Albrecht Dürer: (1471-1528) Rumors of Luther's Capture.

3 Implementation of Reforms.

3.1 Thomas More (1478-1535) to Martin Dorp (October 21, 1515).

3.2 Erasmus: Paraclesis (1516).

3.3 Luther: 'On Translating: An Open Letter' (1530).

3.4 Luther: A Brief Instruction on What to Look For and Expect in the Gospels (1521).

3.5 J'örg Vögeli (c.1484-1563): Letter to Konrad Zwick (July 30, 1523).

3.6 Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560): 'On Improving the Studies of Youth' (1518).

3.7 Melanchthon: 'Theses Against Scholastic Theology' (August 3, 1520).

3.8 Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt (c 1480-1541): "The 151 Theses" (April 26, 1517).

3.9 Karlstadt: The Meaning of the Term 'Gelassen' and Where in Holy Scripture It is Found (1523).

3.10 Karlstadt: Exposition of Numbers 30 which speaks of vows (1522).

3.11 Luther: The Judgment of Martin Luther on Monastic Vows (1521).

3.12 Luther: The Estate of Marriage (1522).

3.13 Karlstadt: On the Abolition of Images and That There Should Be No Beggars Among Christians (January 27, 1522).

3.14 The Wittenberg Movement: Report of the University to Elector Frederick (October 20, 1521).

3.15 Nicholas Hausmann (c 1478-1538): A Report Concerning the Zwickau Prophets (1521).

3.16 Melanchthon: Report to Frederick on the Situation in Wittenberg (December 27, 1521).

3.17 Luther: Letter to Elector Frederick (March 5, 1522).

3.18 Luther: The Invocavit Sermons (March 9, 1522).

3.19 Luther: Against the Heavenly Prophets (1525).

3.20 Karlstadt: Several Main Points of Christian Teaching Regarding Which Dr Luther Brings Andreas Carlstadt Under Suspicion Through False Accusation and Slander (1525).

4 Social Welfare and Education.

4.1 Canon Law.

4.2 Johann Geiler of Kaysersberg (1445-1510): 'Concerning Begging'.

4.3 The Nuremberg Begging Order of 1478.

4.4 Luther: "Foreword" to Mathias Hütlin's 'The Book of Vagabonds' (1510).

4.5 Luther: The Blessed Sacrament of the Holy and True Body of Christ and the Brotherhoods (1519).

4.6 Anonymous: 'What is Loan-Interest Other than Usury?'(1522).

4.7 Luther: Trade and Usury (1524).

4.8 Luther: 'That Clergy Should Preach Against Usury' (1540).

4.9 Social Welfare Legislation: The City of Wittenberg (1522).

4.10 Social Welfare Legislation: Leisnig (1523).

4.11 A Conversation concerning the Common Chest of Schwabach, Namely by Brother Heinrich, Knecht Ruprecht, Spuler, and Their Master of the Wool Trade (1524).

4.12 Luther: To the Councilmen of All Cities in Germany that They Establish and Maintain Christian Schools (1524).

4.13 Luther: A Sermon on Keeping Children in School (1530).

5 The Reformation of the Common Man.

5.1 Müntzer to Luther (July 13, 1520).

5.2 Müntzer: Prague Manifesto (1521).

5.3 Müntzer to Melanchthon (March 29, 1522).

5.4 Karlstadt: Whether One Should Proceed Slowly (November, 1524).

5.5 Luther: Letter to the Christians at Strassburg in Opposition to the Fanatic Spirit (1524).

5.6 Luther: Letter to the Princes of Saxony Concerning the Rebellious Spirit (July, 1524).

5.7 Müntzer to Frederick the Wise Allstedt (August 3, 1524).

5.8 Müntzer: Vindication and Refutation (1524).

5.9 Müntzer: Sermon to the Princes (July 13, 1524).

5.10 The Twelve Articles of the Upper Swabian Peasants (February 27-March 1, 1525).

5.11 Luther: Admonition to Peace A Reply to the Twelve Articles of the Peasants in Swabia (1525).

5.12 Aspects of Müntzer's Military Campaign.

5.13 The Massacre of Weinsberg, April 16, 1525 Report of the Parson Johann Herolt.

5.14 Müntzer to the People of Allstedt (April 26 or 27, 1525).

5.15 Müntzer's Revolutionary 'Ring of Iustice' in the Camp of the Frankenhausen Army.

5.16 Luther: Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants (1525).

5.17 Luther: An Open Letter on the Harsh Book Against the Peasants (1525).

5.18 The Account of Hans Hut (November 26, 1527).

5.19 Johann Rühl, Mansfeld Councillor, to Martin Luther (May 21 and 26, 1525).

5.20 Aftermath of the Peasants' War: Report of the Bernese Chronicler, Valerius Anshelm.

5.21 The Consequences of Luther's Stance during the Peasants' War: Hermann Mühlpfort, Mayor of Zwickau, to Stephan Roth at Wittenberg (June 4, 1525).

6 The Swiss Connection: Zwingli and the Reformation in Zurich.

6.1 Zwingli's Invitation to Zurich (December 3, 1518).

6.2 Mandate of the Zurich Mayor and Council for Scriptural Preaching (December 1520).

6.3 Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575): Account of Zwingli's Preaching Against Mercenary Service in 1521.

6.4 The Affair of the Sausages.

6.5 Christopher Froschauer's Defence (April 1522).

6.6 Zwingli: Concerning Choice and Liberty Respecting Food - Concerning Offense and Vexation - Whether Anyone Has Power to Forbid Foods at Certain Times - Opinion of Huldreich Zwingli (April 16, 1522).

6.7 Petition of Certain Preachers of Switzerland to the Most Reverend Lord Hugo, Bishop of Constance, That He Will Not Suffer Himself to be Persuaded to Make Any Proclamation to the Injury of the Gospel, Nor Endure Longer the Scandal of Harlotry, But Allow the Priests to Marry Wives or at Least Would Wink at Their Marriages (July 2, 1522).

6.8 Ordinance for the Reform of the Great Minster (September 29, 1523).

6.9 Zwingli: 'Short Christian Instruction' (November 17, 1523).

6.10 Removal of Relics and Organs (June 1524).

6.11 The Council's Mandate for Church-going (August 10, 1531).

6.12 Zwingli's View of Luther.

6.13 Zwingli: Of the Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God (September 6, 1522).

6.14 Zwingli: The Sixty-Seven Articles (1523).

6.15 The First Zurich Disputation (January 23, 1523).

6.16 The Fourth Lateran Council (1215).

6.17 The Second Council of Lyons (1274).

6.18 Karlstadt: 'Dialogue' on the Lord's Supper (1524).

6.19 Corneliszoon Hoen (d 1524): 'A Most Christian Letter'.

6.20 Zwingli, 'Letter to Matthew Alber Concerning the Lord's Supper' (November 16, 1524).

6.21 Zwingli, Friendly Exegesis, that is, Exposition of the Matter of the Eucharist, Addressed to Martin Luther by Huldrych Zwingli (February, 1527).

6.22 Luther: Confession Concerning Christ's Supper (1528).

6.23 The Marburg Colloquy and Articles (1529).

7 The Radical Reformations.

7.1 Zwingli: Refutation of the Tricks of the Baptists (July 31, 1527).

7.2 Anabaptism begins (February 7, 1525).

7.3 The Second Zurich Disputation (October 26-28, 1523).

7.4 Conrad Grebel and Companions to Muntzer (September 5, 1524).

7.5 Mantz's Petition of Defense (December 13 and 28, 1524).

7.6 Hubmaier to Oecolampadius on Baptism (January 16, 1525).

7.7 The Zurich Council Orders Infant Baptism, and Silence (January 18, 1525).

7.8 The Council Orders Anabaptists to be Drowned (March 7, 1526).

7.9 Zwingli: Of Baptism (May 27, 1525).

7.10 The Schleitheim Confession of Faith [Seven Articles] (1527).

7.11 The Banishment of Blaurock and Execution of Mantz.

7.2 The Trial and Martyrdom of Michael Sattler (1527).

7.3 Bernard Rothmann: A Confession of Faith and Life in the Church of Christ of Münster (1534).

7.14 The Twelve Elders of Münster: 'Thirteen Statements of the Order of Life' and 'A Code for Public Behavior' (mid-1534).

7.15 Appeal to Outsiders to Join the 'New Jerusalem' in Münster.

7.16 The Death of the 'Prophet' Jan Matthijs.

7.17 Communism in the City of Münster.

7.18 The Introduction of Polygamy in the City of Münster.

7.19 Bernhard Rothmann: A Restitution of Christian Teaching, Faith, and Life (October, 1534).

7.20 Bernhard Rothmann: Concerning Revenge (December, 1534).

7.21 The Capture, Torture, Confession, and Execution of Jan van Leiden.

8 Augsburg 1530 to Augsburg 1555: Reform and Politics.

8.1 Reform Programme of the Bishop of Pomerania (January 1, 1525).

8.2 The Speech from the Throne (June 25, 1526).

8.3 The Declaration of the Cities (August 4, 1526).

8.4 The Recess of the Diet (August 27, 1526).

8.5 The Speech from the Throne (March 15, 1529).

8.6 The Resolution of the Majority (April 7, 1529).

8.7 The Resolution of the Minority (April 19-25, 1529).

8.8 Cardinal Campeggio's Instructions to the Emperor (January, 1530).

8.9 Dukes William IV and Louis X of Bavaria to the Theological Faculty of Ingolstadt University (February 13, 1530).

8.10 Johannes Eck: '404 Articles' on the Errors of the Reformers (March, 1530).

8.11 The Advice of Dr Brück, Chancellor of Electoral Saxony (March, 1530).

8.12 The Augsburg Confession (June 25, 1530).

8.13 Cardinal Legate Campeggio's Response to the Augsburg Confession (July, 1530).

8.14 Confutation of the Augsburg Confession (August 3, 1530).

8.15 The Recess of the Diet of Augsburg (September 22, 1530).

8.16 Judgment of the Saxon Jurists (October, 1530).

8.17 Luther: Letter to Lazarus Spengler in Nuremberg (March 18, 1531).

8.18 Luther: Dr Martin Luther's Warning to his Dear German People (1531).

8.19 Luther: Disputation Concerning the Right to Resist the Emperor.

8.20 Nicholas Gallus, et al: A Confession of the Magdeburg Pastors Concerning Resistance to the Superior Magistrate (April 13, 1550).

8.21 The Peace of Augsburg (1555).

8.22 Charles V: Abdication Speech Brussels (1556).

9 The Genevan Reformation.

9.1 John Calvin: Conversion and Development.

9.2 Nicolas Cop: Rector's Address to the University of Paris (November 1, 1533).

19.3 Michel Roset: Chronicles of Geneva (1562).

9.4 Jeanne de Jussie: Calvinist Germs or the Beginning of Heresy in Geneva.

9.5 The Ecclesiastical Ordinances of 1541.

9.6 Francois de Bonivard: On the Ecclesiastical Polity of Geneva.

9.7 Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion.

9.8 Ordinances Concerning Church Polity in Geneva (December 17, 1546).

9.9 The Consensus Tigurinus (August 1, 1549).

9.10 A Letter from the Geneva Company of Pastors to the Swiss Churches on Jerome Bolsec (November 14, 1551).

9.11 Servetus: Letter to Abel Poupin, Minister in Geneva (1547?).

9.12 The Trial of Michael Servetus (August, 1553).

9.13 Servetus: Plea for Religious Liberty.

9.14 Servetus: Petition from Prison to the Geneva Council.

9.15 The Sentence of the Geneva Council (October 27, 1553).

9.16 Castellio: Concerning Heretics.

10 The Reformation in France.

10.1 Jacques Lefevre (c.1455-1536): Commentary on the Epistles of St Paul (1512).

10.2 Lefevre: Preface to Latin Commentary on the Gospels (1522).

10.3 Lefevre: Letters to Farel (1524).

10.4 The Sorbonne Condemnation of Lefevre's 'Fifty-Two Sundays' (1525).

10.5 Florimond de Raemond: Heresy at Meaux.

10.6 The Message of the Placards.

10.7 Letter to Geneva from Five Evangelical Students Imprisoned in Lyon (July 1552).

10.8 Letter from Nicolas des Gallars, Pastor in Paris, to his Genevan Colleagues (September 7, 1557).

10.9 Calvin's Response to Des Gallars (September 16, 1557).

10.10 Letter from the Company of Pastors to the Church in Paris (September 16, 1557).

10.11 The French Confession of Faith (1559).

10.12 The Report of the Venetian Ambassador in France (1561).

10.13 Michel de L'Hôpital: Speech to the Estates-General of Orleans (December 13, 1560).

10.14 Beza's Account of the Colloquy of Poissy (September 9-October 18, 1561).

10.15 St Bartholomew's Eve (From Amsterdam, August 30, 1572).

10.16 The Duke of Sully's Account of the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

10.17 The Murder of Henry, Third Duke of Guise, at Blois (December 23, 1588).

10.18 Report of the Assassination of Henry III (August 1, 1589).

10.19 Henry IV Ascends the Throne (September, 1589).

10.20 Henry IV becomes a Catholic (August, 1593).

10.21 The Pope's Pardon for Henry IV (September, 1595).

10.22 The Edict of Nantes (April 13, 1598).

11 The Reformation in the Netherlands.

11.1 Luther: A New Song Shall Here Be Begun (1523).

11.2 The Venetian Ambassador on Philip II (1559).

11.3 Philip II: The Edict of 1555.

11.4 The Belgic Confession of Faith (1561).

11.5 Pieter Titelmans, Inquisitor to Regent Margaret of Parma Kortrijk (July 17, 1562).

11.6 Description of "Hedge-Preaching" Given to Regent Margaret (June, 1566).

11.7 Philip Marnix on Mob Violence in the Netherlands (1567).

11.8.'Request' of the Nobles, Presented to Regent Margaret by Henry Brederode (April 5, 1566).

11.9 "The Request of Those of the New Religion to the Confederate Nobles" (February 8, 1567). 

11.10 Philip II: Letter to Pope Pitus V on the Religious Question in the Netherlands (1566).

11.11 The Goals of William of Orange (June 16, 1572).

11.12 Calvinists Appeal to the King for a Truce (June 22, 1578).

11.13 Beutterich on the Possible Consequences of a Truce (c October 1, 1578).

11.14 Act of Abjuration (July 25, 1581).

11.15 Philip II Refuses to Concede Toleration (August 17, 1585).

12 The Reformations in England and Scotland.

12.1 William Melton, Chancellor of York Minister: Sermon to Ordinands (c 1510).

12.2 Simon Fish (d 1531): A Supplication for the Beggars (1529).

12.3 John Foxe’s Act and Monuments: Lollardy on the Eve of the Reformation.

12.4 John Foxe on Robert Barnes.

12.5 Edward Hall: A Protestant Merchant Outwits a Bishop (1529).

12.6 A Report of Henry VIII by the Venetian Ambassador (1519).

12.7 The Act of Supremacy (1534).

12.8 The Act of the Six Articles (1539).

12.9 William Tyndale’s Preface to the New Testament (1526).

12.10 Thomas Cranmer’s Preface to the Great Bible (1540).

12.11 The Preface to the Geneva Bible (1560).

12.12 The Preface to the Rheims New Testament (1582).

12.13 The Preface to the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible (1611).

12.14 Thomas Cranmer: Certain Sermons, or Homilies (1547).

12.15 The Act of Uniformity (1549).

12.16 Act to Take Away All Positive Laws Against Marriage of Priests (1549).

12.17 The Marian Injunctions (1554).

12.18 The Act of Supremacy (1559).

12.19The Elizabethan Injunctions (1559).

12.20 John Jewel: An Apologie of the Church of England (1560/61).

12.21 The Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England (1571).

12.22 John Hooper: The Regulative Principle and Things Indifferent (1550).

12.23 John à Lasco: The Abolition of Vestments (1552?).

12.24 The Excommunication and Deposition of Elizabeth: Pope Pitus V’s Bull "Regnans in Excelsis" (February 25, 1570).

12.25 Eyewitness Account of the Execution of Mary Stuart on the 18th  Day of February of the New Calendar, in the Castle of Fotheringhay in England (1587).

13 Catholic Renewal and Counter-Reformation..

13.1 Girolamo Savonarola: "On the Renovation of the Church" (1495).

13.2 John Colet: Conovocation Sermon (1512).

13.3 Egidio da Viterbo: "Address to the Fifth Lateran Council" (1512).

13.4 Gasparo Contarini’s Conversion Experience (April 19, 1511).

13.5 Contarini on Justification (February 7, 1523.

13.6 Pope Adrian VI: Instruction to the Diet of Nuremberg (1522.

13.7 Proposal of a Select Committee of Cardinals and other Prelates Concerning the Reform of the Church, Written and Presented by Order of His Holiness Pope Paul III (1537.

13.8 Anonymous: The Beneficio di Christo (1543.

13.9 Henry Comelius Agrippa: "The Art of the Inquisitors" (1530.

13.10 Loyola’s Conversion.

13.11 Pope Paul III: Regimini Militantis Ecclesiae (September 27, 1540).

13.12 Loyola: "Rules for Thinking with the Church".

13.13 Loyola: Letter to Father Peter Canisius on Opposing Hersey (August 13, 1554.

13.14 The Council of Trent on the Canonical Scriptures (April 8, 1546.

13.15 Decree and Canons Concerning Justification (January 13, 1547.

13.16 Canons on the Sacraments in General, Seventh Session (March 3, 154.

13.17 Decree Concerning the Eucharist (October 11, 1551).

13.18 Antonius Caucus: Sermon for the Opening of Session Eighteen (February 26, 1562.

13.19 The Sacrifice of the Mass, Twenty-Second Session (September 17, 1562.

13.20 Ten Rules Concerning the Prohibited Books Drawn Up By The Fathers Chosen By the Council of Trent and Approved by Pope Pitus IV.

14 Legacies of the Reformation.

14.1 Erasmus to Martin Bucer (Nobember 11, 1527.

14.2 Willibald Pirckheimer: Humanist Disappointment with the Reformation (1530.

14.3 Calvin on Luther: Letter to Heinrich Bullinger (November 25, 1544.

14.4 The Peace of Augsburg (September 25, 1555.

14.5 The Formula of Concord: Church Usages, Called Adiaphora or Indifferent Things (1580.

14.6 Luther: Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should Be Obeyed (1523.

14.7 John Calvin: "Constitutional Defenders of the Peoples’ Freedom," Institutes IV, 20, 31f.

14.8 François Hotman: Francogallia (1573.

14.9 Philippe du Plesis-Mornay: The Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants (1579.

14.10 Juan de Mariana, SJ: "Whether It Is Right to Destroy a Tyrant?" (1599.

14.11 John Calvin on Usury.

14.12 Luther on Music (1530.

14.13 The Hammer of Witches (1486.

14.14 Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472): "On the Family".

14.15 Luther: The Estate of Marriage (1522.

14.16 Luther: Lectures on Genesis (1535.

14.17 Calvin: Comments on Women.

14.18 Katherine Rem: A Nun Rejects the Reformation (1523.

14.19 Ursala of Münsterberg: A Nun Explains Her Leaving the Convent (1528.

14.20 Marie Dentière: On Women Preachers.

14.21 Argula von Grumbach (c, 1492-1554.

14.22 Anne Askew: The Examinations (1545, 1546.

14.23 Rabbi Josel of Rosheim: Diary Entry.

14.24 Expulsion of the Jews from Vienna (1572.

14.25 Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda: "On the Indians" (c, 1547).

14.26 Bartolomé de la Casas: "On the Indians" (1552).


Acknowledgments to Sources.


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