Even You Can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone Who Has Ever Been Afraid of Statistics

Even You Can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone Who Has Ever Been Afraid of Statistics

3.8 7
by David M. Levine, David F. Stephan
     
 

One easy step of a time, this book will teach you the key statistical techniques you'll need for finance, quality, marketing, the social sciences, or just about any other field. Each technique is introduced with a simple, jorgon-free explanation, practical examples, and hands-on guidance for solving real problems with Excel or a TI-83/84 series calculator, including… See more details below

Overview

One easy step of a time, this book will teach you the key statistical techniques you'll need for finance, quality, marketing, the social sciences, or just about any other field. Each technique is introduced with a simple, jorgon-free explanation, practical examples, and hands-on guidance for solving real problems with Excel or a TI-83/84 series calculator, including Plus models. Hate math? No sweat. You'll be amazed how little you need! For those who do have an interest in mathematics, optional "Equation Blackhoard" sections review the equations that provide the foundations for important concepts.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131467576
Publisher:
FT Press
Publication date:
09/16/2004
Edition description:
with complimentarty website
Pages:
281
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.18(h) x 0.65(d)

Related Subjects

Meet the Author

David M. Levine, a much-honored innovator in statistics education, is Professor Emeritus of Statistics and Computer Information Systems at Baruch College (CUNY). His bestselling books include Statistics for Managers Using Microsoft Excel, Basic Business Statistics, Business Statistics: A First Course, Statistics for Six Sigma Green Belts with Minitab and JMP, Six Sigma for Green Belts and Champions, and Design for Six Sigma for Green Belts and Champions.

David F. Stephan is an independent instructional technologist. As a computer information systems instructor at Baruch College (CUNY), he pioneered the use of computers in classrooms, devised interdisciplinary multimedia tools, and created techniques for teaching computer applications in a business context. The developer of PHStat2, the Pearson Education statistics add-in system for Microsoft Excel, he has coauthored several books with David M. Levine.

Table of Contents

Introductionxvii
Chapter 1Fundamentals of Statistics1
1.1The Five Basic Words of Statistics2
Population2
Sample2
Parameter2
Statistic3
Variable3
1.2The Branches of Statistics4
Descriptive Statistics4
Inferential Statistics5
1.3Sources of Data5
Published Sources5
Experiments6
Surveys6
1.4Sampling Concepts7
Sampling7
Probability Sampling7
Simple Random Sampling7
Frame8
1.5Sample Selection Methods8
Sampling With Replacement8
Sampling Without Replacement8
One-Minute Summary10
Test Yourself11
Answers to Test Yourself Questions14
References14
Chapter 2Presenting Data in Charts and Tables17
2.1Presenting Categorical Data17
The Summary Table17
The Bar Chart18
The Pie Chart19
The Pareto Diagram20
Two-Way Cross-Classification Tables22
2.2Presenting Numerical Data24
The Frequency and Percentage Distribution24
Histogram25
The Dot Scale Diagram27
The Time-Series Plot28
The Scatter Plot28
2.3Misusing Graphs30
One-Minute Summary32
Test Yourself32
Answers to Test Yourself Questions35
References36
Chapter 3Descriptive Statistics for Numerical Variables37
3.1Measures of Central Tendency37
The Mean37
The Median40
The Mode41
Quartiles41
3.2Measures of Variation45
The Range45
The Variance and the Standard Deviation46
Standard (Z) Scores49
3.3Shape of Distributions50
Symmetrical Shape50
Left-Skewed Shape50
Right-Skewed Shape51
The Box-and-Whisker Plot52
Important Equations56
One-Minute Summary56
Test Yourself57
Answers to Test Yourself Questions59
References60
Chapter 4Probability61
4.1Getting Started with Probability61
Event61
Elementary Event62
Random Variable62
Probability62
Collectively Exhaustive Events64
4.2Some Rules of Probability64
4.3Assigning Probabilities67
Classical Approach67
Empirical Approach67
Subjective Approach68
One-Minute Summary68
Test Yourself68
Answers to Test Yourself Questions70
References70
Chapter 5Probability Distributions73
5.1Probability Distributions for Discrete Variables73
Discrete Probability Distribution73
The Expected Value of a Random Variable75
Standard Deviation of a Random Variable ([sigma])76
5.2The Binomial and Poisson Probability Distributions79
The Binomial Distribution79
The Poisson Distribution83
5.3Continuous Probability Distributions and the Normal Distribution87
Normal Distribution87
Using Standard Deviation Units89
Finding the Z Value from the Area Under the Normal Curve91
5.4The Normal Probability Plot94
Important Equations96
One-Minute Summary96
Test Yourself97
Answers to Test Yourself Questions101
References102
Chapter 6Sampling Distributions and Confidence Intervals103
6.1Sampling Distributions104
Sampling Distribution104
Sampling Distribution of the Mean and the Central Limit Theorem104
Sampling Distribution of the Proportion107
What You Need to Know About Sampling Distributions107
6.2Sampling Error and Confidence Intervals107
Sampling Error109
Confidence Interval Estimate109
6.3Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Using the t Distribution ([sigma] Unknown)111
t Distribution112
6.4Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion116
Important Equations119
One-Minute Summary119
Test Yourself119
Answers to Test Yourself Questions122
References122
Chapter 7Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing125
7.1The Null and Alternative Hypotheses125
Null Hypothesis126
Alternative Hypothesis126
7.2Hypothesis Testing Issues127
Test Statistic127
Practical Significance Versus Statistical Significance128
7.3Decision-Making Risks129
Type I Error129
Type II Error129
Risk Trade-Off130
7.4Performing Hypothesis Testing130
The p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing131
p-Value131
7.5Types of Hypothesis Tests132
Number of Groups132
Relationship Stated in Alternative Hypothesis H[subscript 1]132
Type of Variable132
One-Minute Summary133
Test Yourself133
Answers to Test Yourself Questions135
References135
Chapter 8Hypothesis Testing: Z and t Tests137
8.1Testing for the Difference Between Two Proportions137
8.2Testing for the Difference Between the Means of Two Independent Groups143
Pooled-Variance t Test143
Pooled-Variance t Test Assumptions148
8.3The Paired t Test150
Important Equations155
One-Minute Summary156
Test Yourself156
Answers to Test Yourself Questions157
References158
Chapter 9Hypothesis Testing: Chi-Square Tests and the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)159
9.1Chi-Square Test for Two-Way Tables159
9.2One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): Testing for the Differences Among the Means of More Than Two Groups166
One-Way ANOVA166
The Three Variances of ANOVA168
ANOVA Summary Table170
One-Way ANOVA Assumptions174
Important Equations174
One-Minute Summary175
Test Yourself175
Answers to Test Yourself Questions178
References178
Chapter 10Regression Analysis181
10.1Basics of Regression Analysis182
Simple Linear Regression182
10.2Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation183
Y intercept183
Slope183
Least-Squares Method184
Regression Model Prediction187
10.3Measures of Variation191
Regression Sum of Squares (SSR)191
Error Sum of Squares (SSE)191
Total Sum of Squares (SST)192
The Coefficient of Determination193
The Coefficient of Correlation194
Standard Error of the Estimate194
10.4Regression Assumptions195
10.5Residual Analysis196
Residual196
Evaluating the Assumptions197
10.6Inferences About the Slope197
t Test for the Slope198
Confidence Interval Estimate of the Slope ([beta subscript 1])200
10.7Common Mistakes Using Regression Analysis201
Important Equations203
One-Minute Summary205
Test Yourself205
Answers to Test Yourself Questions207
References208
Chapter 11Quality and Six Sigma Management Applications of Statistics209
11.1Total Quality Management209
11.2Six Sigma Management211
Six Sigma211
The Six Sigma DMAIC Model211
11.3Control Charts212
Special or Assignable Causes of Variation212
Chance or Common Causes of Variation213
Control Limits213
The p Chart214
11.4The Parable of the Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability219
Deming's Red Bead Experiment220
11.5Variables Control Charts for the Mean and Range221
Important Equations226
One-Minute Summary227
Test Yourself227
Answers to Test Yourself Questions229
References230
Appendix ATI Statistical Calculator Settings and Microsoft Excel Settings231
A.1TI Statistical Calculator Settings231
"Ready State" Assumptions231
Menu Selections231
Statistical Function Entries by Menus232
Primary Key Legend Convention232
Mode Settings232
Calculator Clearing and Reset232
Data Storage232
A.2Microsoft Excel Settings233
Appendix BReview of Arithmetic and Algebra235
Assessment Quiz235
Part 1235
Part 2236
Symbols238
Addition238
Subtraction239
Multiplication239
Division240
Fractions241
Exponents and Square Roots242
Equations243
Answers to Quiz244
Part 1244
Part 2244
Appendix CStatistical Tables245
C.1The Cumulative Standardized Normal Distribution246
C.2Critical Values of t248
C.3Critical Values of X[superscript 2]252
C.4Critical Values of F254
C.5Control Chart Factors262
Appendix DUsing Microsoft Excel Wizards263
D.1Using the Chart Wizard263
Choosing the Best Chart Options264
D.2Using the PivotTable Wizard265
D.3Using the Data Analysis Tools267
D.4Simple Linear Regression267
Glossary269
Index277

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