Even You Can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone Who Has Ever Been Afraid of Statistics / Edition 2

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Overview

Even You Can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone Who Has Ever Been Afraid of Statisticsi s a practical, up-to-date introduction to statistics—for everyone! Thought you couldn’t learn statistics? You can—and you will! One easy step at a time, this fully updated book teaches you all the statistical techniques you’ll need for finance, quality, marketing, the social sciences, or anything else! Simple jargon-free explanations help you understand every technique. Practical examples and worked-out problems give you hands-on practice. Special sections present detailed instructions for developing statistical answers, using spreadsheet programs or any TI-83/TI-84 compatible calculator. This edition delivers new examples, more detailed problems and sample solutions, plus an all-new chapter on powerful multiple regression techniques. Hate math? No sweat. You’ll be amazed at how little you need. Like math? Optional “Equation Blackboard” sections reveal the mathematical foundations of statistics right before your eyes! You’ll learn how to:

• Construct and interpret statistical charts and tables with Excel or OpenOffice.org Calc 3

• Work with mean, median, mode, standard deviation, Z scores, skewness, and other descriptive statistics

• Use probability and probability distributions

• Work with sampling distributions and confidence intervals

• Test hypotheses with Z, t, chi-square, ANOVA, and other techniques

• Perform powerful regression analysis and modeling

• Use multiple regression to develop models that contain several independent variables

• Master specific statistical techniques for quality and Six Sigma programs

About the Web Site

Download practice files, templates, data sets, and sample spreadsheet models—including ready-to-use solutions for your own work! www.ftpress.com/youcanlearnstatistics2e

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137010592
  • Publisher: FT Press
  • Publication date: 9/3/2009
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 384
  • Sales rank: 320,708
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

David M. Levine, a much-honored innovator in statistics education, is Professor Emeritus of Statistics and Computer Information Systems at Baruch College (CUNY). His bestselling books include Statistics for Managers Using Microsoft Excel, Basic Business Statistics, Business Statistics: A First Course, Statistics for Six Sigma Green Belts with Minitab and JMP, Six Sigma for Green Belts and Champions, and Design for Six Sigma for Green Belts and Champions.

David F. Stephan is an independent instructional technologist. As a computer information systems instructor at Baruch College (CUNY), he pioneered the use of computers in classrooms, devised interdisciplinary multimedia tools, and created techniques for teaching computer applications in a business context. The developer of PHStat2, the Pearson Education statistics add-in system for Microsoft Excel, he has coauthored several books with David M. Levine.

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Read an Excerpt

Introduction

The Even You Can Learn Statistics Owners Manual

In today's world, knowing how to apply statistics is more important than ever. Even You Can Learn Statistics: The Easy to Use Guide for Everyone Who Has Ever Been Afraid of Statistics will teach you the basic concepts that provide that understanding. You will also learn the most commonly used statistical methods and be able to practice those methods using a statistical calculator or a spreadsheet program. Please read the rest of this introduction

so that you can become familiar with the distinctive features of this book. Be sure to visit the Web site for this book (www.prenticehall.com/youcanlearnstatistics), which contains free downloads and other material to support your learning.

Mathematics Is Always Optional!

Never mastered higher mathematics—or generally fearful of math? Not to worry, because in Even You Can Learn Statistics, you will find that every concept is explained in plain English, without the use of higher mathematics or mathematical symbols. Interested in the mathematical foundations behind statistics? Even You Can Learn Statistics includes EQUATION BLACKBOARDS, standalone sections that present the equations behind statistical methods and complement the main material. Either way, you can learn statistics.

Learning with the Concept-Interpretation Approach

Even You Can Learn Statistics uses a Concept-Interpretation approach to help you learn statistics. For each important statistical concept, you will first find a

CONCEPT, a plain-language definition that uses no complicated mathematical terms, followed by an INTERPRETATION that fully explains the concept and its importance to statistics. When necessary, these sections also review the misconceptions and the errors people make when trying to apply the concept.

For simpler concepts, an EXAMPLES section lists real-life examples or applications of the statistical concepts. For more advanced concepts, WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS provide a complete solution to a statistical problem—including actual spreadsheet and calculator results—that illustrate how you can apply the concept to your own problems.

Practicing Statistics While You Learn Statistics

To enhance your learning of statistics, you should always review the WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS. If you want to practice what you have just learned, you can use the optional CALCULATOR KEYS and SPREADSHEET SOLUTION sections, which help you apply a statistical calculator or spreadsheet program to statistical analyses.

CALCULATOR KEYS sections give you the keystroke-by-keystroke steps to perform statistical analysis on a Texas Instruments statistical calculator from the TI-83 or TI-84 families, including TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus models. (You can adapt many sections for use with other TI statistical calculators—such as any model from the TI-86, TI-89, or Voyage 200 families—that have different keypads and arrangements of statistical functions.)

SPREADSHEET SOLUTION sections provide instructions for using the statistical capabilities of Microsoft Excel and identify files that you can download from the Even You Can Learn Statistics Web site that contain complete spreadsheets that you can use as models for your own problem solving.

If you plan to use either of these sections, review Appendix A for the conventions, software settings, and assumptions used for these sections.

In-Chapter Aids

As you read a chapter, look for Important Point icons that highlight key explanations. Download the data files from the Web site for this book (www.prenticehall.com/youcanlearnstatistics) so that you may examine the data under study in the Worked-out Problems. Even if you do not plan to use a calculator or a spreadsheet, look at the actual examples of their outputs to become familiar with how statistical results are reported.

Interested in Math? Then look for this icon throughout the book. And if you are not interested in math, remember that all of the passages with this icon can be skipped without losing any comprehension of the statistical methods presented.

End-of-Chapter Features

At the end of most chapters of Even You Can Learn Statistics, you will find these features that you can review to reinforce your learning.

Important Equations

A list of the important equations discussed in the chapter. Even if you are not interested in the mathematics of the statistical methods and have skipped the EQUATION BLACKBOARDS in the book, you can use these lists for reference and later study.

One-Minute Summary

A quick review of the significant topics of a chapter in outline form. When appropriate, the summaries also help guide you to make the right decisions about applying statistics to the data you seek to analyze.

Test Yourself

Explore how much you have retained with a set of questions that enable you to review and test yourself (with answers provided) on the concepts presented in a chapter.

Summary

Even You Can Learn Statistics can help you whether you are studying statistics as part of a formal course or just brushing up on your knowledge of statistics for a specific analysis. Be sure to visit the Web site for this book (www.prenticehall.com/youcanlearnstatistics). You are also invited to contact the authors via e-mail at david_levine@baruch.cuny.edu if you have any questions about this book.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments. . . . . viii

About the Authors . . . . . ix

Introduction The Even You Can Learn Statistics Owners Manual. . . . xi

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Statistics . . . . . 1

1.1 The First Three Words of Statistics. . . . . . . 2

1.2 The Fourth and Fifth Words . . . . 4

1.3 The Branches of Statistics . . . . . 5

1.4 Sources of Data . . . . . 6

1.5 Sampling Concepts . . . . 7

1.6 Sample Selection Methods. . . . . 9

Chapter 2 Presenting Data in Charts and Tables. . . . . 19

2.1 Presenting Categorical Variables. . . . . . 19

2.2 Presenting Numerical Variables. . . . .. 26

2.3 Misusing Charts. . . . . 32

Chapter 3 Descriptive Statistics . . . . 43

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency . . . . 43

3.2 Measures of Position. . . . . 47

3.3 Measures of Variation. . . . . . 51

3.4 Shape of Distributions . . . . . 57

Chapter 4 Probability . . . . . . 71

4.1 Events. . . . . . 71

4.2 More Definitions . . . . . . 72

4.3 Some Rules of Probability . . . . . 74

4.4 Assigning Probabilities . . . . 77

Chapter 5 Probability Distributions . . . . 83

5.1 Probability Distributions for Discrete Variables . . .. . 83

5.2 The Binomial and Poisson Probability Distributions. . . . 89

5.3 Continuous Probability Distributions and the Normal Distribution . . . 97

5.4 The Normal Probability Plot. . . . . 105

Chapter 6 Sampling Distributions and Confidence Intervals . . . . 119

6.1 Sampling Distributions. . . . . . . 119

6.2 Sampling Error and Confidence Intervals. . . . . . 123

6.3 Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Using the t Distribution (ó Unknown) . . . . . 127

6.4 Confidence Interval Estimation for Categorical Variables. .. . . 131

Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing . . . 141

7.1 The Null and Alternative Hypotheses. . . . . . 141

7.2 Hypothesis Testing Issues . . . . . 143

7.3 Decision-Making Risks . . . . . . . 145

7.4 Performing Hypothesis Testing . . . . . 147

7.5 Types of Hypothesis Tests . . . . 148

Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing: Z and t Tests . . . . 153

8.1 Testing for the Difference Between Two Proportions. . . . . . 153

8.2 Testing for the Difference Between the Means of Two Independent Groups .. . . . . . 160

8.3 The Paired t Test . . . . . 166

Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing: Chi-Square Tests and the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). . . . . .179

9.1 Chi-Square Test for Two-Way Cross-Classification Tables . . . . . 179

9.2 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): Testing for the Differences Among the Means of More Than Two Groups . . . . 186

Chapter 10 Simple Linear Regression . . . . . ..207

10.1 Basics of Regression Analysis . . . . . . . 208

10.2 Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation . . . . . . 209

10.3 Measures of Variation . . . . . . 217

10.4 Regression Assumptions. . . . . . . . . 222

10.5 Residual Analysis. . . . . . .223

10.6 Inferences About the Slope. . . . . 225

10.7 Common Mistakes Using Regression Analysis . . . . . 228

Chapter 11 Multiple Regression . . . . . ..245

11.1 The Multiple Regression Model . . . . . 245

11.2 Coefficient of Multiple Determination. . . . . . 248

11.3 The Overall F test. . . . . . . 249

11.4 Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model . . . . . . 250

11.5 Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients . . . . 251

Chapter 12 Quality and Six Sigma Applications of Statistics . . . . 265

12.1 Total Quality Management . . . . . 265

12.2 Six Sigma. . . . . . . 267

12.3 Control Charts . . . . . 268

12.4 The p Chart. . . . . . .271

12.5 The Parable of the Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability . . . . . . . . 276

12.6 Variables Control Charts for the Mean and Range . . . . . 278

Appendix A Calculator and Spreadsheet Operation and Configuration . . . . ..295

A.C1 Calculator Operation Conventions ...... 295

A.C2 Calculator Technical Configuration ...... 297

A.C3 Using the A2MULREG Program ...... 298

A.C4 Using TI Connect ...... 298

A.S1 Spreadsheet Operation Conventions ..... 299

A.S2 Spreadsheet Technical Configurations..... 299

Appendix B Review of Arithmetic and Algebra . . . . .301

Assessment Quiz . . . . . . 301

Symbols. . . . . 304

Answers to Quiz. . . . . . . 310

Appendix C Statistical Tables . . . 311

Appendix D Spreadsheet Tips. . . . . . ..339

CT: Chart Tips . . . . . 339

FT: Function Tips . . . . .341

ATT: Analysis ToolPak Tips (Microsoft Excel only). . . . .343

Appendix E Advanced Techniques. . . . . . 347

E.1 Using PivotTables to Create Two-Way Cross-Classification Tables . . . . 347

E.2 Using the FREQUENCY Function to Create Frequency Distributions. . . . . . . 349

E.3 Calculating Quartiles . . . . . . 350

E.4 Using the LINEST Function to Calculate Regression Results. . . . . 351

Appendix F Documentation for Downloadable Files . . . . 353

F.1 Downloadable Data Files . . . . . . 353

F.2 Downloadable Spreadsheet Solution Files. . . . . . 357

Glossary . . . . ..359

Index . . . . .367

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