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Everything Jewish History and Heritage: From Abraham to Zionism, All You Need to Know about the Key Events, People, and Places

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The influence of the Jewish people can be found in virtually every corner of the world. They are creators of the world's oldest calendar and have endured the Diaspora, the Inquisition, and the Holocaust to contribute a rich legacy to world culture.
Written for both Jewish and non-Jewish readers alike, The Everything® Jewish History & Heritage Book not only explains historical events from biblical times to ...
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The Everything Jewish History and Heritage Book: From Abraham to Zionism, all you need to understand the key events, people, and places

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Overview

The influence of the Jewish people can be found in virtually every corner of the world. They are creators of the world's oldest calendar and have endured the Diaspora, the Inquisition, and the Holocaust to contribute a rich legacy to world culture.
Written for both Jewish and non-Jewish readers alike, The Everything® Jewish History & Heritage Book not only explains historical events from biblical times to the present, it celebrates Jewish languages, cuisine, literature, art, humor, and much more.
This fascinating book tells how:
*Abraham became known as "the first Jew">BR> *The early Hebrews lived
*David rose from a shepherd to become the King of Israel
*The Holocaust unalterably affected Jews around the world
*Immigration to America marked a new beginning for many Jews
*The modern state of Israel was formed

Featuring an additional wealth of information on everything from the Borscht Belt to bagels and lox, The Everything® Jewish History & Heritage Book serves as an excellent primer to this fascinating topic.

Richard D. Bank is the author of The Everything® Judaism Book and Why Be Jewish. He is the former president of the Philadelphia Children's Folkshul and former vice-chair of the adult board of the Philadelphia Region B'nai B'rith Youth Organization. He resides in Glenside, PA.

Julie Gutin is an editor, writer, and translator. She graduated from Boston University with a degree in comparative literature. She lives in South Boston, MA.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781580629669
  • Publisher: Adams Media Corporation
  • Publication date: 8/28/2003
  • Series: Everything Series
  • Pages: 304
  • Product dimensions: 7.96 (w) x 9.24 (h) x 0.89 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1

The Age of the Patriarchs

According to the Jewish tradition, Jewish history begins with Abraham and the other patriarchs, leaders of the nomadic Hebrew tribes that came from Mesopotamia and wandered throughout Canaan, eventually ending up in Egypt. Not much is known about this early period. The two sources are the Bible and archaeological findings. Unfortunately, they don’t always present the same version of the story.

Where Jewish History Begins

While no one can say for certain where the first human beings appeared on the planet, it is believed that civilization germinated in the Middle East, in an area known as the Fertile Crescent. Geographically, the Crescent was a fertile agricultural area surrounded by arid deserts. The fecundity of the terrain was ensured by four mighty rivers that surrounded or flowed through the region. To the west, it was supported by the Nile in Egypt; to the east it was nourished by the Tigris and Euphrates; in the middle flowed the Levant. Archaeologists believe that humans first settled down to farm the land around 5,000 b.c.e., in the region between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, known as Mesopotamia (parts of modern-day Iraq and Turkey). Eventually, prosperity in agriculture paved the way for the emergence of powerful city states. It is to this region that we trace the origins of the early Hebrews.

Abraham’s Covenant with God

Abraham was born in the city of Ur, also known as Ur Kasdim (Ur of the Chaldees), in the southern part of Mesopotamia, sometime between 1,950 and 1,800 b.c.e. The baby boy’s father, Terah, gave him the name of Abram. When Abram was still a youth, Terah moved with his family to the city of Haran in northern Mesopotamia, and that is where Abram grew into adulthood.

For centuries, the existence of Ur Kasdim was shrouded in mystery, and it was not until the nineteenth centuries that archaeologists began excavating this ancient city. Established over two and a half centuries b.c.e., Ur was one of the major cities of Ancient Sumer, an empire that thrived in Southern Mesopotamia until its fall to the Babylonians.

Terah was a Semitic merchant of idols but, legend has it, his young son was not convinced by the logic of idol worship. One day, young Abram went in to his father’s shop and smashed all the idols, save the largest one. When Terah returned, he was dumbfounded—all the idols were destroyed, except the largest one, which was holding a hammer. Aghast, Terah demanded an explanation, so Abram calmly told his father that the biggest idol destroyed all the smaller ones. “Ridiculous!” his father exclaimed. “Idols can’t move!” Abram rejoined that if that were the case, there’s no point to worship them. How could his father worship these statues if he believed them so powerless as to be unable to destroy one another? This legend foreshadows a change in Abram’s beliefs—that there is one God. Today, all three monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—credit Abram for this belief, which is central to their faith.

God Calls on Abram

From the Bible, we have the story of how God called on Abram and bid him to leave his home and family and go to Canaan, where he would make Abram the father of a great nation and bless him and his descendants. According to the Book of Genesis, God said, “Go forth from your native land and from your father’s house and I will make of you a great nation and curse him that curses you and all the families of the earth shall bless themselves by you.” Abram obeyed, and that is how the covenant (b’rit) between God and the Jewish people was established.
Part of God’s promise to Abraham’s descendants was territory (hence the concept of the Promised Land). In the Bible, God is very specific in delineating the boundaries of the region that stretches from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates River and includes the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites. However, in another biblical passage, the Promised Land only includes Canaan.

A Nomadic Lifestyle

Abram left the city of Haran and headed west, accompanied by his wife, Sarai, and his nephew Lot, as well as a full entourage of servants. Thus Abram assumed the lifestyle of a nomad, and his wanderings led him all the way to Egypt and then back to Canaan. Abraham was a formidable warrior as well as a savvy diplomat, employing his might or his wits--whichever proved most appropriate--when dealing with petty kings and local chieftains. Eventually, he amassed a great fortune, and was lucky in all but one respect: He and Sarai remained childless.

Sodom and Gomorrah

One day, three strangers came to visit Abraham. In keeping with the well-established custom of hospitality, he invited them into his tent and he set out a feast before them. The three strangers were messengers from God, and they informed Abram that God intended to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, two cities whose inhabitants were wicked and cruel. Despite all the crimes and transgressions of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abram pleaded with God on their behalf, pointing out that even ten just men didn’t deserve to die for the crimes of the rest of the town. Apparently, though, the citizens of Sodom and Gomorrah were so depraved, that not even ten just men lived among them. The only righteous family was that of Abram’s nephew Lot, who resided in Sodom. Because he was a good man, God’s messengers traveled there to bring him out of the city before God annihilated Sodom and Gomorrah.

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Table of Contents

Introduction
Chapter 1: The Age of the Patriarchs
Chapter 2: From Slavery to Freedom
Chapter 3: Standing at Sinai
Chapter 4: The Sabbath
Chapter 5: In The Promised Land
Chapter 6: The Kings of Biblical Times
Chapter 7: The Prophets and the First Temple Period
Chapter 8: The Destruction of the First Temple
Chapter 9: Purim - The Deliverance of the Jews
Chapter 10: Observing the Days of Awe
Chapter 11: Return to Zion
Chapter 12: A Revolt for Religious Liberty
Chapter 13: Under Roman Rule
Chapter 14: The Era of Mishna and Talmud
Chapter 15: The Medieval Period in Western Europe
Chapter 16: Living Under Islam
Chapter 17: Jewish Life in Eastern Europe
Chapter 18: Emancipation and Enlightenment
Chapter 19: Coming to America
Chapter 20: The Holocaust
Chapter 21: The Modern State of Israel
Chapter 22: Jewish Culture
Appendix A: Formidable Figures in Jewish History
Appendix B: Time Line of Jewish History
Appendix C: Glossary
<>%EXCERPT%> Chapter 1

The Age of the Patriarchs

According to the Jewish tradition, Jewish history begins with Abraham and the other patriarchs, leaders of the nomadic Hebrew tribes that came from Mesopotamia and wandered throughout Canaan, eventually ending up in Egypt. Not much is known about this early period. The two sources are the Bible and archaeological findings. Unfortunately, they don't always present the same version of the story.

Where Jewish History Begins

While no one can say for certain where the first human beings appeared on the planet, it is believed that civilization germinated in the Middle East, in an area known as the Fertile Crescent. Geographically, the Crescent was a fertile agricultural area surrounded by arid deserts. The fecundity of the terrain was ensured by four mighty rivers that surrounded or flowed through the region. To the west, it was supported by the Nile in Egypt; to the east it was nourished by the Tigris and Euphrates; in the middle flowed the Levant. Archaeologists believe that humans first settled down to farm the land around 5,000 B.C.E., in the region between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, known as Mesopotamia (parts of modern-day Iraq and Turkey). Eventually, prosperity in agriculture paved the way for the emergence of powerful city states. It is to this region that we trace the origins of the early Hebrews.

Abraham's Covenant with God

Abraham was born in the city of Ur, also known as Ur Kasdim (Ur of the Chaldees), in the southern part of Mesopotamia, sometime between 1,950 and 1,800 B.C.E. The baby boy's father, Terah, gave him the name of Abram. When Abram was still a youth, Terah moved with his family to the city of Haran in northern Mesopotamia, and that is where Abram grew into adulthood.

For centuries, the existence of Ur Kasdim was shrouded in mystery, and it was not until the nineteenth centuries that archaeologists began excavating this ancient city. Established over two and a half centuries B.C.E., Ur was one of the major cities of Ancient Sumer, an empire that thrived in Southern Mesopotamia until its fall to the Babylonians.

Terah was a Semitic merchant of idols but, legend has it, his young son was not convinced by the logic of idol worship. One day, young Abram went in to his father's shop and smashed all the idols, save the largest one. When Terah returned, he was dumbfounded-all the idols were destroyed, except the largest one, which was holding a hammer. Aghast, Terah demanded an explanation, so Abram calmly told his father that the biggest idol destroyed all the smaller ones. "Ridiculous!" his father exclaimed. "Idols can't move!" Abram rejoined that if that were the case, there's no point to worship them. How could his father worship these statues if he believed them so powerless as to be unable to destroy one another? This legend foreshadows a change in Abram's beliefs-that there is one God. Today, all three monotheistic religions-Judaism, Christianity, and Islam-credit Abram for this belief, which is central to their faith.

God Calls on Abram

From the Bible, we have the story of how God called on Abram and bid him to leave his home and family and go to Canaan, where he would make Abram the father of a great nation and bless him and his descendants. According to the Book of Genesis, God said, "Go forth from your native land and from your father's house and I will make of you a great nation and curse him that curses you and all the families of the earth shall bless themselves by you." Abram obeyed, and that is how the covenant (b'rit) between God and the Jewish people was established.
Part of God's promise to Abraham's descendants was territory (hence the concept of the Promised Land). In the Bible, God is very specific in delineating the boundaries of the region that stretches from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates River and includes the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites. However, in another biblical passage, the Promised Land only includes Canaan.

A Nomadic Lifestyle

Abram left the city of Haran and headed west, accompanied by his wife, Sarai, and his nephew Lot, as well as a full entourage of servants. Thus Abram assumed the lifestyle of a nomad, and his wanderings led him all the way to Egypt and then back to Canaan. Abraham was a formidable warrior as well as a savvy diplomat, employing his might or his wits--whichever proved most appropriate--when dealing with petty kings and local chieftains. Eventually, he amassed a great fortune, and was lucky in all but one respect: He and Sarai remained childless.

Sodom and Gomorrah

One day, three strangers came to visit Abraham. In keeping with the well-established custom of hospitality, he invited them into his tent and he set out a feast before them. The three strangers were messengers from God, and they informed Abram that God intended to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, two cities whose inhabitants were wicked and cruel. Despite all the crimes and transgressions of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abram pleaded with God on their behalf, pointing out that even ten just men didn't deserve to die for the crimes of the rest of the town. Apparently, though, the citizens of Sodom and Gomorrah were so depraved, that not even ten just men lived among them. The only righteous family was that of Abram's nephew Lot, who resided in Sodom. Because he was a good man, God's messengers traveled there to bring him out of the city before God annihilated Sodom and Gomorrah.

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