Evidence-Based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention / Edition 1

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Comprehensive research synthesis of reponse to intervention that lays the groundwork for scientifically validated effective reading programs.

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Editorial Reviews

Professor, College of Education and Human Ecology, Ohio State University - Laura Justice
"A research-based, clearly-written, and comprehensively-focused examination of response to intervention in reading . . . has become a seminal reference for me as a researcher concerned with prevention of reading difficulties."
Associate Professor, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA - Deborah Ellermeyer
"Outstanding . . . helps to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The suggested reading strategies are researched-based and perfect for addressing the needs of an increasingly diverse population of learners."
Martha Steger

"Served as a valuable resource when developing a Tier-II reading intervention program at my school. This book would be a welcome addition to the bookshelves of administrators, literacy coaches, and other professionals involved in implementing RTI."
Immediate Past President and current Board Member, New York Branch of the International Dyslexia Association - Eileen Marzola
"This extremely useful overview of Response to Intervention (RTI) models is an important resource for both administrators and teachers."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781557668288
  • Publisher: Brookes, Paul H. Publishing Company
  • Publication date: 1/1/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 336
  • Sales rank: 995,786
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Associate Research Professor, Psychology Department, University of Houston, and Associate Director, Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and, Statistics, 100 TLCC Annex, Houston, TX 77204. Dr. Carlson’s research interests include measurement development and psychometric evaluation, advanced statistical methods, program evaluation, and early literacy and language development in English- and Spanish-speaking students.

Professor of Pediatrics and Associate Director, Center for Academic and Reading Skills, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 7000 Fannin, UCT 2487, Houston, TX 77005. For the past 25 years, Dr. Fletcher, a child neuropsychologist, has conducted research on many aspects of the development of reading, language, and other cognitive skills in children. He has worked extensively on issues related to learning and attention problems, including definition and classification, neurobiological correlates, and, most recently, intervention.

Barbara R. Foorman, Ph.D., earned her doctorate at the University of California-Berkeley. She is Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the Center for Academic and Reading Skills at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School and Principal Investigator of the grant funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Early Interventions for Children with Reading Problems. In addition to many chapters and journal articles on topics related to language and reading development, she is the editor of Reading Acquisition: Cultural Constraints and Cognitive Universals (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986). She is on the editorial board of Journal of Learning Disabilities and has guest edited special issues of Scientific Studies of Reading, Linguistics and Education and Journal of Learning Disabilities. Dr. Foorman has been actively involved in outreach to the schools and to the general public, having chaired Houston Independent School District's Committee on a Balanced Approach to Reading and having testified before the California and Texas legislatures and the Texas Board of Education Long-Range Planning Committee. Dr. Foorman is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, the board of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, the Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE), and several local reading efforts.

Douglas Fuchs, Ph.D., Nicholas Hobbs Professor of Special Education and Human Development, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Department of Special Education, 110 Magnolia Circle, Room 417C, Nashville, TN 37203. Dr. Fuchs is a former classroom teacher, special educator, and school psychologist. He directed the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Reading Clinic for 12 years. His current interests include reading and math disabilities, intensive instruction, service delivery options, urban education, and education policy.

Lynn S. Fuchs, Ph.D., Nicholas Hobbs Professor of Special Education and Human Development, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Department of Special Education, 110 Magnolia Circle, Room 417C, Nashville, TN 37203. Dr. Fuchs’s research addresses teachers’ use of classroom-based assessment information and instructional practices for improving reading and mathematics performance.

Dr. Greenwood is the Director of the Juniper Gardens Children’s Project and Professor of Applied Behavioral Science at the University of Kansas. He is a founding author of progress monitoring measures for infants and toddlers and editor of School-Wide Prevention Models: Lessons Learned in Elementary Schools (Guilford Press, 2008). He is co-principal investigator of the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood (CRTIEC). He has more than 100 publications in peerreviewed journals to his credit. Under his leadership, the Juniper Gardens Children’s Project was awarde

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Read an Excerpt

Excerpted from Chapter 11 of Evidence–Based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention, edited by Diane Haager, Ph.D., Janette Klingner, Ph.D., and Sharon Vaughn, Ph.D.

Copyright © 2007 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

The notion of Response to Intervention (RTI) as a means of identifying and treating children with learning difficulties is widely recognized as an important and welcome shift from practices that rely on arbitrary and inconsistent discrepancy criteria and focus on student impairments. The reauthorization of special education law with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 (PL 108–446) indicates that schools may use an RTI approach to identifying students with learning disabilities. As researchers and educators move forward in delineating and validating interventions that support and enhance students' academic learning in an RTI model, practical issues related to implementation must also be examined. Of particular interest is how this shift in practice affects those who are responsible for instruction—general and special education teachers.

Other chapters in this book describe models and instructional practices for reading intervention; therefore, this chapter does so only briefly. Though there are variations in the conceptualization of multitiered models across researchers, the basic framework is similar. The first tier represents core reading instruction that is provided for all students. Instruction in Tier 1 consists of a research–based reading program that is comprehensive in covering the essential early reading skills, is fully implemented, and is delivered by skilled teachers who have received adequate professional development. Tier 2 involves supplemental instruction beyond the core program for students whose performance is significantly below grade level expectations as determined by reliable and valid assessment of essential reading skills. Tier 3 consists of more intensive and specialized instruction for students who have significant learning problems that have not been addressed in a specified amount of time in Tier 2. Some researchers and educators would consider Tier 3 to be special education; others would include a fourth tier that would be reserved for students with recognized disabilities.

Clearly, no one would doubt the merit of adopting a process for early identification and treatment of significant learning problems that would lead to positive reading outcomes for many children. The idea of developing a system of assessment and intervention that is responsive to student needs is intuitively appealing. In an RTI approach, educators follow the progress of students showing early signs of reading difficulty and make educational decisions, such as adaptations to instruction or curriculum, based on students' responses to intervention. Some students may respond well to intervention and in a short time be able to discontinue intervention. Continued or more intensive intervention may be warranted for other students based on their inadequate response to intervention. Such students may require intensive, specialized reading instruction such as is offered in special education programs (Torgesen, 2000).

The RTI approach brings compelling questions to the forefront regarding teachers' roles. The delineation of roles for general and special education teachers becomes less clear as students with and without disability labels require specialized instruction. In this chapter, we consider the roles of both general and special education teachers in a three–tier model of reading intervention. How does this model change teachers' roles and daily activities? What evidence is there that it is feasible for general and special educators to adopt the necessa

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Table of Contents

About the Editors

About the Contributors

I Background and Overview of the Three-Tier Model

  1. Overview of the Three-Tier Model of Reading Intervention
    Sharon Vaughn and Janette Klingner
  2. Prevention and Early Identification of Students with Reading Disabilities: A Research Review of the Three-Tier Model
    Sharaon Vaughn, Jeanne Wanzek, Althea L. Woodruff, and Sylvia Linan-Thompson
  3. The Role of Assessment in the Three-Tier Approach to Reading Instruction
    Lynn S. Fuchs and Douglas Fuchs
II Primary Intervention
  1. Classroom Reading Instruction and Teacher Knowledge in the Primary Grades
    Barbara R. Foorman, Coleen D. Carlson, Kristi L. Santi
  2. Primary Intervention: A Means of Preventing Special Education?
    Charles R. Greenwood, Debra Kamps, Barbara Terry, and Deborah Linebarger
III Secondary Intervention
  1. An Implementation of a Tiered Intervention Model: Reading Outcomes and Neural Correlates
    Carolyn A. Denton, Jack M. Fletcher, Panagiotis G. Simos, Andrew C. Papanicolaou, and Jason L. Anthony
  2. Layers of Intervention that Affect Outcomes in Reading
    Rollanda E. O'Connor
IV Tertiary Intervention
  1. The Nature and Role of the Third Tier in a Prevention Model for Kindergarten Students
    Beth A. Harn, Edward J. Kame'enui, and Deborah C. Simmons
  2. Preventing Early Reading Difficulties through Intervention in Kindergarten and First Grade: A Variant of the Three-Tier Model
    Frank R. Vellutino, Donna M. Scanlon, Sheila G. Small, Diane P. Fanuele, and Joan Sweeney
V Implementation of the Three-Tier Model
  1. Considerations When Implementing Response to Intervention with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
    Janette Klingner, Audrey McCray Sorrells, and Manuel Barrera
  2. Teacher Rules in Implementing Intervention
    Diane Haager and Jennifer Mahdavi
  3. Historical Perspectives and Current Trends in Problem Solving: The Minneapolis Story
    Doug Marston, Amy Reschly, Matthew Lau, Andrea Canter, and Paul Muyskens
  4. What Are the Issues in Response to Intervention Research?
    Deborah L. Speece and Caroline Y. Walker

Appendix of General References


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