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More About This Textbook
Overview
The author explores evolution algebras, which lie between algebras and dynamical systems. Readers learn the foundations of evolution algebras theory and its applications in nonMendelian genetics and Markov chains. They’ll also discover evolution algebras’ connections with other mathematical fields, including graph theory, group theory, shastic processes, dynamical systems, knot theory, 3manifolds, and the IharaSelberg zeta function.
Editorial Reviews
From the Publisher
From the reviews:
"The book introduces a new class of nonassociative algebras, called evolution algebras, and discusses in detail many applications of evolution algebras in stochastic processes and genetics. … The book under review is suitable both for graduate students and researchers with interest in the theoretical biology, genetics, Markov process, graph theory, and nonassociative algebras and their applications. The text contains a clear, detailed and selfcontained exposition of evolution algebras."(Fouad Zitan, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1136 (14), 2008)
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Motivations
2.1. Examples from Biology
2.1.1 Asexual propagation
2.1.2. Gametic algebras in asexual inheritance
2.1.3. The WrightFisher model
2.2. Examples from Physics
2.2.1. Particles moving in a discrete space
2.2.2. Flows in a discrete space (networks)
2.2.3. Feynman graphs
2.3. Examples from Topology
2.3.1. Motions of particles in a 3manifold
2.3.2. Random walks on braids with negative probabilities
2.4. Examples from Probability Theory
2.4.1. Shastic processes
3. Evolution Algebras
3.1. Definitions and Basic Properties
3.1.1. Departure point
3.1.2. Existence of unity elements
3.1.3. Basic definitions
3.1.4. Ideals of an evolution algebra
3.1.5. Quotients of an evolution algebra
3.1.6. Occurrence relations
3.1.7. Several interesting identities
3.2. Evolution Operators and Multiplication Algebras
3.2.1. Evolution operators
3.2.2. Change of generator sets (Transformations of natural bases)
3.2.3. "Rigidness" of generator sets of an evolution algebra
3.2.4. The automorphism group of an evolution algebra
3.2.5. The multiplication algebra of an evolution algebra
3.2.6. The derived Lie algebra of an evolution algebra
3.2.7. The centroid of an evolution algebra
3.3. Nonassociative Banach Algebras
3.3.1. Definition of a norm over an evolution algebra
3.3.2. An evolution algebra as a Banach space
3.4. Periodicity and Algebraic Persistency
3.4.1. Periodicity of a generator in an evolution algebra
3.4.2. Algebraic persistency and algebraic transiency
3.5. Hierarchy of an Evolution Algebra
3.5.1. Periodicity of a simple evolution algebra
3.5.2. Semidirectsum decomposition of an evolution algebra
3.5.3. Hierarchy of an evolution algebra
3.5.4. Reducibility of an evolution algebra
4. Evolution Algebras and Markov Chains
4.1. Markov Chain and Its Evolution Algebra
4.1.1. Markov chains (discrete time)
4.1.2. The evolution algebra determined by a Markov chain
4.1.3. The ChapmanKolmogorov equation
4.1.4. Concepts related to evolution operators
4.1.5. Basic algebraic properties of Markov chains
4.2. Algebraic Persistency and Probabilistic Persistency
4.2.1. Destination operator of evolution algebra M(X)
4.2.2. On the loss of coefficients (probabilities)
4.2.3. On the conservation of coefficients (probabilities)
4.2.4. Certain interpretations
4.2.5. Algebraic periodicity and probabilistic periodicity
4.3. Spectrum Theory of Evolution Algebras
4.3.1. Invariance of a probability flow
4.3.2. Spectrum of a simple evolution algebra
4.3.3. Spectrum of an evolution algebra at zeroth level
4.4. Hierarchies of General Markov Chains and Beyond
4.4.1. Hierarchy of a general Markov chain
4.4.2. Structure at the 0th level in a hierarchy
4.4.3. 1th structure of a hierarchy
4.4.4. kth structure of a hierarchy
4.4.5. Regular evolution algebras
4.4.6. Reduced structure of evolution algebra M(X)
4.4.7. Examples and applications
5. Evolution Algebras and NonMendelian Genetics
5.1. History of General Genetic Algebras
5.2. NonMendelian Genetics and Its Algebraic Formulation
5.2.1. Some terms in population genetics
5.2.2. Mendelian versus nonMendelian genetics
5.2.3. Algebraic formulation of nonMendelian genetics
5.3. Algebras of Organelle Population Genetics
5.3.1. Heteroplasmy and homoplasmy
5.3.2. Coexistence of triplasmy
5.4. Algebraic Structures of Asexual Progenies of Phytophthora infestans
5.4.1. Basic biology of Phytophthora infestans
5.4.2. Algebras of progenies of Phytophthora infestans
6. Further Results and Research Topics
6.1. Beginning of Evolution Algebras and Graph Theory
6.2. Further Research Topics
6.2.1. Evolution algebras and graph theory
6.2.2. Evolution algebras and group theory and knot theory
6.2.3. Evolution algebras and IharaSelberg zeta function
6.2.4. Continuous evolution algebras
6.2.5. Algebraic statistical physics models and applications
6.2.6. Evolution algebras and 3manifolds
6.2.7. Evolution algebras and phylogenetic trees, coalescent theory
6.3. Background Literature
References
Index