Evolution and Adaptation of Terrestrial Arthropods

Overview

This book is intended as a textbook for 3rd year undergraduate students, as well as postgraduate students. It comprises a review of the current opinion regarding the evolution and adaptation of terrestrial arthropods, beginning with the paleontological, embryological, morphological and physiological evidence. The implication of size is then considered in relation to life on land. A discussion of insect phylogeny and the origin of flight is followed by an account of evolutionary trends in reproduction. Further ...

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Overview

This book is intended as a textbook for 3rd year undergraduate students, as well as postgraduate students. It comprises a review of the current opinion regarding the evolution and adaptation of terrestrial arthropods, beginning with the paleontological, embryological, morphological and physiological evidence. The implication of size is then considered in relation to life on land. A discussion of insect phylogeny and the origin of flight is followed by an account of evolutionary trends in reproduction. Further chapters cover adaptations to extreme environments, dispersal and migration, defensive mechanisms and, finally, present arguments for the success of the terrestrial arthropods in general.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540181880
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 4/6/1988
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 141
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.33 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Palaeontology and Phytogeny.- 1.1 The Earliest Arthropodan Fossils.- 1.2 The First Terrestrial Arthropods.- 1.3 Evolution in the Arthropods.- 1.3.1 Embryological Considerations.- 1.3.2 Comparative Morphology.- 1.3.3 Monophyletic or Polyphyletic Origins.- Further Reading.- 2 Implications of Live on Land.- 2.1 The Significance of Size.- 2.1.1 Size, Skeletons and Allometry.- 2.1.2 Allometric Growth.- 2.2 Water Relations.- 2.3 The Conquest of the Land.- 2.4 The Integument.- 2.4.1 The Endocuticle.- 2.4.2 The Exocuticle.- 2.4.3 The Epicuticle.- 2.5 Growth and Ecdysis.- 2.6 Respiration: Lung-Books and Tracheae.- 2.7 Nutrition and Excretion.- 2.7.1 Nutrition.- 2.7.2 Excretion.- 2.8 Ecological Considerations of Size.- Further Reading.- 3 The Conquest of the Land by Crustacea.- 3.1 Types of Adaptation.- 3.2 Transition from Water to Land in Amphipoda.- 3.3 Transition from Water to Land in Decapoda.- 3.4 Transition from Water to Land in Isopoda.- 3.4.1 Morphology.- 3.4.2 Physiology.- 3.4.3 Behaviour.- 3.5 Conclusion.- Further Reading.- 4 Insect Phytogeny and the Origin of Flight.- 4.1 Ancestry of Insects.- 4.2 The Origin of Wings.- 4.2.1 Aptelota and the Ancestry of Spiders.- 4.3 Paranoial Theory.- 4.4 Tracheal Gill Theory.- 4.5 Selection for Flight.- 4.6 Phytogeny of the Lower Insect Orders.- 4.6.1 Fossil Evidence.- 4.6.2 Palaeoptera and Neoptera.- 4.7 Wing Venation.- 4.8 The ‘Panorpoid Complex’.- 4.9 Insect Flight.- Further Reading.- 5 Evolutionary Trends in Reproduction.- 5.1 Spermatophores and Their Phylogenetic Significance.- 5.2 Functions of Aggregation and Courtship.- 5.2.1 Aggregation and Swarming in Insects.- 5.2.2 Courtship.- 5.3 Indirect Spermatophore Transfer via the Substrate.- 5.3.1 Arachnida.- 5.3.2 Uniramia.- 5.4 Indirect Sperm Transfer.- 5.4.1 Arachnida.- 5.4.2 Insecta.- 5.5 Direct Copulation with Free Sperm.- 5.6 Haemocoelic Insemination.- 5.7 Conclusion.- Further Reading.- 6 Adaptations to Extreme Environments.- 6.1 Desert Adaptations.- 6.1.1 Morphological Adaptations.- 6.1.2 Physiological Adaptations.- 6.1.3 Behaviour and Rhythmic Activity.- 6.2 Forest Adaptations.- 6.2.1 Cryptozoa.- 6.2.2 Flying Insects.- 6.3 Arctic and Alpine Adaptations.- 6.4 Littoral and Aquatic Adaptations.- 6.4.1 Respiratory Adaptations.- 6.4.2 Plastron Respiration.- 6.5 Cavernicolous Adaptations.- 6.6 Suspended Animation.- 6.6.1 Diapause.- 6.6.2 Cryptobiosis.- Further Reading.- 7 Dispersal and Migration.- 7.1 Migration in Relation to Habitat.- 7.1.1 The Evolution of Arthropod Migration.- 7.1.2 Types of Migratory Movement.- 7.2 Migration in Relation to Population Dynamics.- 7.3 Migration Without Flight.- 7.3.1 Mass Migration on the Ground.- 7.3.2 Ballooning.- 7.3.3 Phoresy.- 7.4 Meteorological Aspects of Air-Born Insect Migration.- 7.4.1 Locusts.- 7.5 Orientation During Migration.- 7.5.1 Butterflies.- 7.5.2 Night-Flying Moths.- 7.5.3 Time-Compensated Celestial Navigation.- 7.6 Migration and Diapause.- 7.6.1 Physiology.- Further Reading.- 8 Defensive Mechanisms.- 8.1 Concealment from Vertebrate Predators.- 8.1.1 Cryptic Coloration.- 8.1.2 Protective Resemblance.- 8.1.3 Disguise with the Aid of Adventitious Materials.- 8.2 Advertisement with Respect to Vertebrate Predators.- 8.2.1 Aposematic Coloration.- 8.2.2 Mimicry.- 8.2.3 Thanatosis and Deflection of Attack.- 8.2.4 Deimatic Behaviour.- 8.3 Chemical Defences.- 8.3.1 Venoms.- 8.3.2 Repugnatorial Fluids.- 8.3.3 Urticating Hairs.- 8.4 Defences Against Small Invertebrate Enemies.- 8.5 Avoidance of Parasites.- Further Reading.- 9 The Success of Terrestrial Arthropods.- 9.1 Criteria of Success.- 9.2 Reasons for Success.- 9.3 Adaptability.- 9.3.1 Evolution of Sucking Mouthparts.- 9.3.2 Ectoparasitic Adaptations.- 9.4 Conclusion.- Further Reading.

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