Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education / Edition 5

Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education / Edition 5

3.8 6
by William L. Heward

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ISBN-10: 0133669564

ISBN-13: 9780133669565

Pub. Date: 11/28/1995

Publisher: Macmillan Publishing Company, Incorporated

Long recognized as the market leader for its innovation, strong research base, and accessibility, William L. Heward's Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, Eighth Edition, continues this tradition of excellence. The research-based practices and standards-based applications presented in this edition give readers the knowledge, insight, and tools


Long recognized as the market leader for its innovation, strong research base, and accessibility, William L. Heward's Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, Eighth Edition, continues this tradition of excellence. The research-based practices and standards-based applications presented in this edition give readers the knowledge, insight, and tools to help them become exceptional teachers in a variety of settings. These practices and applications are presented through the following themes: Exceptional Teachers Engage Students in Classroom Instruction: Exceptional Teachers Multimedia CD-ROM: This interactive CD-ROM, specifically created by the author for this text, includes 54 video clips with supporting commentary, artifacts, and discussion questions created in collaboration with dozens of general education and special education teachers-and their students-at six schools. The content of the CD-ROM is integrated throughout the text. Featured Teacher essays: Each chapter begins with an essay written by a master teacher featured for his or her work in special education. Drawn from urban, suburban, and rural schools, these stories reflect the joys, challenges, and realities of teaching exceptional children and allow readers to observe master teachers at work. Exceptional Teachers Use Effective, Research-Based Strategies: Research-based "Teaching & Learning" features: These essays describe teaching strategies validated by research as required by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and IDEA. Each feature includes step-by-step tips on how to begin using the strategy in the classroom. Related resources and questions for reflection are provided on the Companion Website atwww.prenhall.com/heward, "Tips for Beginning Teachers" features: Each chapter culminates with practical, quick tips for beginning teachers, offered by the master teacher featured in the chapter, on how to avoid common pitfalls in the classroom. Exceptional Teachers Are Culturally Responsive: Diversity & Exceptionality features: These essays, appearing throughout the book, describe strategies for working with students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Chapter 3: Working with Parents and Families in a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Society.

Other Notable Distinctions of the Eighth Edition: Coverage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education (IDEA) Improvement Act, Chapter 7: Autism Spectrum Disorders, Expanded connections with CEC Standards and PRAXIS II exams: Margin notes link text to the Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC) Performance-Based Standards for Beginning Special Education Teachers. NEW! PRAXIS Study Grid. This matrix shows where content areas of the PRAXIS II test, Special Education Core Principles, are discussed in the text.

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Macmillan Publishing Company, Incorporated
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Table of Contents

Prologue: A Personal View of Special Education     2
Foundations for Understanding Special Education     5
The Purpose and Promise of Special Education     6
Who Are Exceptional Children?     10
How Many Exceptional Children Are There?     11
Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children?     13
Labeling and Eligibility for Special Education     13
Alternatives to Labeling     16
Why Are Laws Governing the Education of Exceptional Children Necessary?     16
An Exclusionary Past     16
Separate Is Not Equal     18
Equal Protection     18
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act     19
Six Major Principles of IDEA     19
Other Provisions of IDEA     21
Key Features Introduced by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004     24
Legal Challenges Based on IDEA     28
Related Legislation     32
No Child Left Behind Act     33
What Is Special Education?     37
Special Education as Intervention     38
Special Education as Instruction     39
Defining Features of Special Education     41
Current and Future Challenges     43
Close the Research-to-Practice Gap     44
Increase the Availability and Intensity of Early Intervention and Prevention Programs     45
Improve Students' Transition from School to Adult Life     45
Improve the Special Education-General Education Partnership     45
Planning and Providing Special Education Services     52
The Process of Special Education     56
Prereferral Intervention     56
Evaluation and Identification     57
Program Planning     63
Placement     63
Review and Evaluation     63
Collaboration and Teaming     65
Collaboration     65
Teaming     66
Co-Teaching     67
Individualized Education Program     68
IEP Team     69
IEP Components     69
IEP Functions and Formats     70
Problems and Potential Solutions     71
Least Restrictive Environment     76
A Continuum of Services     76
Determining the LRE     77
Inclusive Education     79
Arguments For and Against Full Inclusion     81
Where Does Special Education Go from Here?     89
Collaborating with Parents and Families in a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Society     96
Support for Family Involvement     99
Parents: Advocating for Needed Change     99
Educators: Striving for Greater Effectiveness     100
Legislators: Mandating Parent and Family Involvement     101
Understanding Families of Children with Disabilities     101
The Impact of a Child with Disabilities on the Family     102
The Many Roles of the Exceptional Parent     102
Changing Needs as Children Grow     107
Developing and Maintaining Family-Professional Partnerships     108
Principles of Effective Communication     108
Identifying and Breaking Down Barriers to Parent-Teacher Partnerships     111
Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families     114
Understanding and Respecting Cultural Differences     114
Providing Culturally Responsive Services to Families     116
Methods of Home-School Communication     117
Parent-Teacher Conferences     111
Written Messages     121
Other Forms of Parent Involvement     126
Parents as Teachers     126
Parent Education and Support Groups     127
Parent to Parent Groups      128
Parents as Research Partners     128
How Much Parent Involvement?     129
Current Issues and Future Trends     130
Educational Needs of Exceptional Students     735
Mental Retardation     136
Definitions     140
Definition in IDEA     141
AAMR's Definition Based on Needed Supports     142
Identification and Assessment     142
Assessing Intellectual Functioning     142
Assessing Adaptive Behavior     145
Characteristics     145
Cognitive Functioning     146
Adaptive Behavior     148
Positive Attributes     148
Prevalence     149
Causes and Prevention     149
Causes     149
Prevention     151
Educational Approaches     154
Curriculum Goals     156
Instructional Methods     159
Educational Placement Alternatives     165
Current Issues and Future Trends     169
The Evolving Definition of Mental Retardation     169
Acceptance and Membership     170
Learning Disabilities     178
Definitions     182
The IDEA Definition      182
The NJCLD Definition     182
Operationalizing the Federal Definition     183
Characteristics     184
Reading Problems     184
Written Language Deficits     188
Math Underachievement     189
Social Skills Deficits     190
Attention Problems and Hyperactivity     190
Behavioral Problems     190
The Defining Characteristic     191
Prevalence     191
Causes     192
Brain Damage or Dysfunction     192
Heredity     193
Biochemical Imbalance     193
Environmental Factors     193
Assessment     194
Standardized Tests     194
Criterion-Referenced Tests     194
Informal Reading Inventories     195
Curriculum-Based Measurement     195
Direct Daily Measurement     196
Educational Approaches     197
Explicit Instruction     198
Content Enhancements     203
Educational Placement Alternatives     206
Regular Classroom     206
Consultant Teacher     208
Resource Room     208
Separate Classroom     209
Current Issues and Future Trends     209
Redefining Learning Disabilities as Inadequate Response to Instruction     209
Will the Student with Real Learning Disabilities Please Stand Up?     211
Should All Students with Learning Disabilities Be Educated in the Regular Classroom?     212
Maintaining a Positive Focus     212
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders     218
Definitions     221
IDEA Definition of Emotional Disturbance     222
CCBD Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders     222
Characteristics     223
Externalizing Behaviors     224
Internalizing Behaviors     225
Academic Achievement     225
Intelligence     228
Social Skills and Interpersonal Relationships     228
Prevalence     228
Causes     232
Biological Factors     232
Environmental Factors     233
A Complex Pathway of Risks     235
Identification and Assessment     236
Screening Tests     236
Projective Tests     238
Direct Observation and Measurement of Behavior     238
Functional Behavioral Assessment      239
Educational Approaches     239
Curriculum Goals     239
Behavior Management     241
Fostering Strong Teacher-Student Relationships     247
A Focus on Alterable Variables     250
Educational Placement Alternatives     251
Current Issues and Future Trends     252
Serving All Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders     252
Preventing Emotional and Behavioral Disorders     253
Disciplining Students with Disabilities     253
Improving Services for Youth in the Juvenile Corrections System     254
Developing Wraparound Systems of Comprehensive Care     254
Challenges, Achievements, and Advocacy     255
Autism Spectrum Disorders     260
Definitions     264
Definitions of Autism Spectrum Disorders in DSM-IV     264
Educational Definition of Autism in IDEA     267
Characteristics     268
Impaired Social Relationships     268
Communication and Language Deficits     268
Intellectual Functioning     269
Unusual Responsiveness to Sensory Stimuli     270
Insistence on Sameness and Perseveration     270
Ritualistic and Unusual Behavior Patterns      270
Problem Behavior     271
Positive Attributes and Strengths of Students with ASD     271
Screening and Diagnosis     271
Screening     272
Diagnosis     273
Prevalence     273
Causes     274
Educational Approaches     275
Critical Importance of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention     275
Applied Behavior Analysis     277
Strategies to Help Children with Autism Cope with Social Situations and Increase Their Independence in the Classroom     280
Educational Placement Alternatives     281
Regular Classroom     281
Resource Room     284
Current Issues and Future Trends     284
Distinguishing Unproven Interventions from Evidence-Based Treatments     285
Why Do Fads Thrive?     289
Communication Disorders     298
Definitions     301
Communication     301
Language     302
Speech     304
Normal Development of Speech and Language     305
Communication Disorders Defined     308
Communication Differences Are Not Disorders     310
Characteristics     310
Speech Sound Errors     310
Fluency Disorders     311
Voice Disorders     312
Language Impairments     313
Prevalence     314
Causes     314
Causes of Speech Impairments     315
Causes of Language Disorders     315
Identification and Assessment     315
Screening and Teacher Observations     316
Evaluation Components     316
Educational Approaches     319
Treating Speech Sound Errors     319
Treating Fluency Disorders     321
Treating Voice Disorders     322
Treating Language Disorders     322
Augmentative and Alternative Communication     324
Educational Placement Alternatives     328
Monitoring     328
Pull-out     328
Collaborative Consultation     330
Classroom-Based     330
Self-Contained Classroom     333
Community-Based     333
Combination     333
Current Issues and Future Trends     333
Speech-Language Therapist or Language-Related Education Consultant?     333
Changing Populations     334
Across-the-Day Interventions      334
Deafness and Hearing Loss     338
Definitions     342
How We Hear     342
The Nature of Sound     345
Characteristics     346
English Literacy     346
Speaking     347
Academic Achievement     347
Social Functioning     350
Prevalence     350
Types and Causes of Hearing Loss     351
Types and Age of Onset     351
Causes of Congenital Hearing Loss     352
Causes of Acquired Hearing Loss     353
Identification and Assessment     354
Assessment of Infants     354
Pure-Tone Audiometry     354
Speech Audiometry     356
Alternative Audiometric Techniques     356
Degrees of Hearing Loss     356
Technologies and Supports     357
Technologies That Amplify or Provide Sound     357
Supports and Technologies That Supplement or Replace Sound     361
Educational Approaches     364
Oral/Aural Approaches     365
Total Communication     368
American Sign Language and the Bilingual-Bicultural Approach     370
Educational Placement Alternatives      372
Postsecondary Education     374
Current Issues and Future Trends     374
Blindness and Low Vision     380
Definitions     383
Legal Definition of Blindness     384
Educational Definitions of Visual Impairments     385
Age at Onset     385
Characteristics     386
Cognition and Language     386
Motor Development and Mobility     387
Social Adjustment and Interaction     387
Prevalence     388
Types and Causes of Visual Impairments     389
How We See     389
Causes of Visual Impairments     390
Educational Approaches     391
Special Adaptations for Students Who Are Blind     391
Special Adaptations for Students with Low Vision     397
Expanded Curriculum Priorities     402
Educational Placement Alternatives     405
Itinerant Teacher Model     405
Residential Schools     412
Current Issues and Future Trends     413
Specialization of Services     413
Emerging Technology and Research     413
Fighting against Discrimination and for Self-Determination     415
Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD     420
Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments     424
Definitions     424
Prevalence     425
Types and Causes     425
Cerebral Palsy     425
Spina Bifida     427
Muscular Dystrophy     430
Spinal Cord Injuries     430
Epilepsy     431
Diabetes     433
Asthma     434
Cystic Fibrosis     435
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome     435
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder     436
Definition and Diagnosis     437
Academic Achievement and Comorbidity with Other Disabilities     438
Eligibility for Special Education     439
Prevalence     439
Causes     440
Treatment     440
Characteristics     443
Variables Affecting the Impact of Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments on Educational Performance     444
Educational Approaches     446
Teaming and Related Services     446
Environmental Modifications     448
Assistive Technology     450
Special Health Care Routines      451
Independence and Self-Esteem     453
Educational Placement Alternatives     454
Inclusive Attitudes     455
Current Issues and Future Trends     456
Related Services in the Classroom     456
New and Emerging Technologies for Persons with Severe Physical Disabilities     458
Animal Assistance     459
Employment, Life Skills, and Self-Advocacy     459
Low Incidence Disabilities: Severe/Multiple Disabilities, Deaf-Blindness, and Traumatic Brain Injury     466
Severe and Multiple Disabilities     469
Severe Disabilities     469
Profound Disabilities     471
Multiple Disabilities     473
Deaf-Blindness     473
Characteristics of Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities     474
Prevalence of Severe and Multiple Disabilities     476
Causes of Severe and Multiple Disabilities     476
Traumatic Brain Injury     477
Definition     477
Prevalence of Traumatic Brain Injury     477
Types and Causes of Traumatic Brain Injury     478
Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury     479
Educational Approaches     481
Curriculum: What Should Be Taught?     481
Instructional Methods: How Should Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities Be Taught?     487
Where Should Students with Severe Disabilities Be Taught?     495
The Challenge and Rewards of Teaching Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities     501
Giftedness and Talent   Jane Piirto   William L. Heward
Definitions     512
Federal Definitions     512
Other Key Contemporary and Complementary Definitions     513
Characteristics     515
Individual Differences Among Gifted and Talented Students     517
Creativity     518
Prevalence     519
Identification and Assessment     521
Multicultural Assessment and Identification     524
Gifted and Talented Girls     526
Gifted and Talented Boys     527
Gifted and Talented Students with Disabilities     527
Educational Approaches     529
Curricular Goals     529
Differentiating Curriculum: Acceleration and Enrichment     530
Lesson Differentiation in the Regular Classroom     532
Curriculum Differentiation Outside the Classroom     535
Instructional Models and Methods     536
Educational Placement Alternatives and Ability Grouping     541
Special Schools     541
Self-Contained Classrooms     541
Resource Room or Pull-Out Programs     542
Regular Classroom     542
Ability Grouping     543
Current Issues and Future Trends     546
Special Education Across the Life Span     553
Early Childhood Special Education     554
The Importance of Early Intervention     558
Defining Early Intervention     558
Examining the Effectiveness of Early Intervention     558
IDEA and Early Childhood Special Education     563
Early Intervention for Infants and Toddlers     563
Special Education for Preschoolers     566
Screening, Identification, and Assessment     567
Screening Tools     567
Diagnostic Tools     571
Program Planning and Evaluation Tools     572
Curriculum and Instruction in Early Childhood Special Education     572
Curriculum and Program Goals     572
Developmentally Appropriate Practice     576
Selecting IFSP/IEP Goals and Objectives     577
Instructional Adaptations and Modifications     577
Preschool Activity Schedules      580
A Supportive Physical Environment     581
Service Delivery Alternatives for Early Intervention     581
Hospital-Based Programs     583
Home-Based Programs     583
Center-Based Programs     584
Combined Home-Center Programs     585
Current Issues and Future Trends     585
Families: Most Important of All     586
Transitioning to Adulthood     592
How Do Former Special Education Students Fare as Adults?     596
Completing High School     596
Employment     597
Postsecondary Education     597
Overall Adjustment and Success     598
Transition Services and Models     599
Will's Bridges Model of School-to-Work Transition     599
Halpern's Three-Dimensional Model     599
Definition of Transition Services in IDEA     599
Individualized Transition Plan     600
Transition Teaming     601
Beginning Transition Activities and Career Education Early     605
Employment     608
Competitive Employment     609
Supported Employment     609
Sheltered Employment     615
Postsecondary Education      616
Residential Alternatives     618
Group Homes     618
Foster Homes     619
Apartment Living     619
Supported Living     620
Institutions     621
Recreation and Leisure     622
The Ultimate Goal: A Better Life     626
Quality of Life     626
Misguided and Limiting Presumptions     627
Self-Advocacy and Self-Determination     627
Still a Long Way to Go     628
Postscript: Developing Your Own Personal View of Special Education     634
Coverage of Content Areas for PRAXIS II Test     A-1
Glossary     G-1
References     R-1
Name Index     I-1
Subject Index     I-14
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Exceptional Children 3.8 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 6 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
this book was required for a college class, not really an easy read.
vandoren3 More than 1 year ago
I have used the 8th and now the 9th edition of Heward's textbook in classes for alternative certification for public school teachers - both general and special education. The references to CEC are especially helpful for prospective new teachers to become familiar with national advocacy for students with disabilities and students in G&T programs. Highly recommended for history, pedagogy, exposition of personal experiences, real world professional situations, and teaching strategies. Includes interesting and provocative projects throughout. Highly recommended.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
We are using the text in our class and I find it very interesting and informative. The text is definitely college level reading but it isn't bad for a textbook. There are a lot of pictures and interesting bylines inserted and there is a glossary and index that are helpful. For someone who has begun working with exceptional children I have found it a good book to use a reference. The lab series included helps with has pre and post tests that help review the information. The homework section doesn't help me with reviewing what I have read.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago