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A Principled Approach: Strategies and interventions are based on six core values for working with students with exceptionalities: envisioning great expectations; enhancing positive contributions; building on strengths; acting on choices; expanding relationships; and ensuring full citizenship.
Real People, Real Issues: Every student in each chapter's opening vignette is a real person. Within each chapter as well as in the My Voice and Making a Difference boxes, real people's stories are integrated to provide additional insight into the exceptional lives of students with disabilities, their families, and their teachers.
A Focus on Inclusion: While acknowledging the very real challenges of inclusion, the authors believe that the great majority of students with disabilities can receive an appropriate education in general education classrooms if programs and classrooms are designed for individualized instruction, if supplementary supports and services are available, and if educators are prepared to work in inclusive environments. This book prepares educators to make inclusion work.
Practical Ideas for Today's Classrooms: Newly organized chapters spotlight curricular goals and teaching methods, which are demonstrated in the Programs in Practice section of each categorical chapter. Into Practice boxes also share best practices for inclusive education.
The Most Current Coverage: New coverage of important topics such as behavior management, assistive technology, and universal design as well as an increased focus on collaboration and early intervention. Hundredsof new references and resources have been added.
Integrated Multimedia: State-of-the-art topical coverage is matched with new, integrated technology features:
|Ch. 1||Overview of Today's Special Education||2|
|Ch. 2||Implementing IDEA's Principles||40|
|Ch. 3||Special Education Today: Inclusion and Collaboration||72|
|Ch. 4||Learning Disabilities||104|
|Ch. 5||Emotional or Behavioral Disorders||144|
|Ch. 6||Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder||180|
|Ch. 8||Mental Retardation||260|
|Ch. 9||Severe and Multiple Disabilities||300|
|Ch. 11||Other Heath Impairments||368|
|Ch. 12||Physical Disabilities||404|
|Ch. 13||Traumatic Brain Injury||438|
|Ch. 14||Communication Disorders||480|
|Ch. 15||Hearing Loss||516|
|Ch. 16||Blindness and Low Vision||556|
When we wrote the second edition of this book, we set out our vision for special education. It's worth repeating here. We hope you will adopt it as your own:
When principles and values guide teaching techniques and when the techniques are at a state-of-the-art level, no challenge that confronts students, families, schools, communities, or policy leaders is too daunting.
You will find our six values in Chapter 1 and indeed elsewhere throughout our book. They are
Every chapter returns to these six principles. Sometimes, these principles will be explicit. Sometimes, implicit. Look for them, and incorporate them into your life as a teacher and as a citizen. You will be surprised what a difference you will make when you put these values behind your techniques.
This is not a book of fiction. There are no imagined characters here. Every student, every teacher, every parent, every friend is real. To tell their stories serves a powerful didactic purpose: to describe, in their own words and through these snapshots of their lives,how special education benefits each and every one of them. These students, teachers, family members, and friends show you what can happen—how exceptional lives can be made all the more exceptional—when you approach them on the basis of principles and state-of-the-art teaching techniques.
What an exciting time this is. A turn of the century, yes; a new millennium, yes. But those are hackneyed milestones. The real milestones are small and sometimes hard to find; yet iii when they are laid out consecutively, one after the other, they create a path that was unimagined when special education began as a discipline nearly a century ago. There is no need to go that far back. Indeed, the markers to the schools of today were first laid twenty-five years ago when Congress enacted the federal special education law. Today's schools are indeed the legacies of the past, but, more, they are the creatures of imaginative educators, policy leaders, family members, and, yes, students themselves. If you want to teach in today's schools and be ready to teach in tomorrow's, we invite you into the exceptional lives that we portray here. Each life, each school . . . those are the milestones of the recent past and of the immediate future. And they are the focus of this book.
When we wrote the first edition of this book (copyright 1995), we were clear about one thing: we favored including students with disabilities in the classes that students without disabilities attended. When we wrote the second edition (1999), we were equally keen on inclusion. But in both editions, we were clear about this one caveat: no inclusion without support. When Congress amended the federal education law in 1997, it reinforced the law's presumption that students with disabilities should be educated with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate for the students with disabilities. This edition shows you the many ways that Congress strengthened the inclusion provisions; it also shows you how to practice inclusion and the benefits—and limitations—of inclusion. What's really behind inclusion? Granted, it is a technique for more appropriately educating students with disabilities; and, yes, it is a civil right. But most of all, it is the path toward a different America—one in which everyone is valuable, without regard to their disabilities or great giftedness.
Almost certainly, you are familiar with public buildings constructed some 50 or more years ago. The county courthouse. The city library. The school you attended. Remember what they looked like from the outside? Were there ramps for people in wheelchairs? Doubtful. Remember what they looked like inside? Were there elevators with lights and bells to alert you to the- elevator's movement? Doubtful. Were they designed so that everyone—repeat: everyone—could come into them and use them, whether or not the person had a disability? Doubtful.
In that kind of "built environment," inclusion was nearly impossible. Full citizenship was elusive. Relationships could not be made and solidified. Great expectations excluded those individuals who were excluded from the environment. The positive contributions and strengths that people with disabilities could make were limited. So were their choices about how to live their lives.
Nearly three decades ago, Congress asked America to change. Open the buildings. Create opportunities. And that's exactly what Americans did. And as we changed the "built environment," we began to understand something profound about the "teaching environment," about the curriculum. It was this: a curriculum that excludes students with disabilities is just as limiting as a building that excludes them. Our response was to change the curriculum, so that it now can accommodate students with so many different types of strengths and needs without denying any single one of them the benefit of being educated with the others. We call this universal design—the design of the curriculum so that it yields benefits to everyone, universally. You will read about this new approach in our book; it is a state-of-the-art technique that we believe should accompany the six values you have just read about.
By collaborating with each other, students, their families, teachers and other professionals can ensure that every child with a disability and every supremely gifted or talented child can have an appropriate education, one that benefits them and in turn benefits society as a whole. None of us is independent; we are all interdependent. That is why, when it comes to education, we have to collaborate with each other. Remember your study groups? That's collaboration. In special education, we call it cooperative learning. A different name, but the same game: working together so that everyone benefits.
As authors of this textbook, we strive to provide you with the most current information about state-of-the-art interventions and instructional practices for individuals with special needs. This manner of reporting the most current information about best practices has led us to make technology a cornerstone of this textbook as well.
With coverage of the latest hardware, software, and assistive technologies that students learn more and better, and help teachers teach more effectively, we continue to advance this book into the twenty-first century.
The First three chapters are the foundation for the rest of the book. They tell a bit about history, a little more about the law that Congress passed in 1975 and that it amended in 1997, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and a great deal about today's schools—about how they evaluate students and then provide them with an appropriate education. Having laid the foundation (Chapters 1 through 3), we build on it (Chapters 4 through 16) by describing the education of various types of "categories" of students with disabilities.
You will find that Chapters 4 through 16 have the same "flavor" and format. Their similar flavor comes from the six values that crop up in each. Their similar format is their structure, which is- the shared across all of the "categorical" chapters. By using a similar format, we can introduce you to real students, families, and teachers, emphasizing their common characteristics and describing special education services as they are now organized. Each of the categorical chapters follows this order:
The following special features highlight the people who have exceptionalities and those who work to improve their lives.
Several ancillaries supplement this text:
This book is the product of collaboration. That's true in several senses. First, it focuses on collaboration in schools and models that very trait. Second, it is collaborative in the sense that people with disabilities, their families, and many professionals opened their lives to us, allowing us to bring them to the center stage of each chapter, where, as actors in a play, they inspire, inform, and personalize our concepts, lessons, and approaches. We wish to thank those people who inspired and encouraged our writing. Third, it is a collaboration of professionals serving in various roles—as authors, editors, and producers.
There is one person who, beyond all others, has inspired the Turnbulls. Unable to write a single word of text, he nonetheless is an indispensable source of our knowledge, our greatest teacher, and the focal point of all of our work: "JT" Thank you, Jay Turnbull.
Because Amy and Kate Turnbull, JT's younger sisters, have taught us so much about the possibilities of inclusion, the reality about and hope for families, and the myriad ways of bringing this book's six principles to life on an everyday basis, we also honor them with this text and our gratitude.
Marilyn Shank expresses appreciation to her father, Joe Shank, for his ongoing encouragement and wisdom. Other family members, including Tom and Kathy Shank, Wade and Jennifer Wilkes, and Matthew Shank, also supported her efforts. In addition, Rud and Ann Turnbull—her co-authors, mentors, and friends—have served as exemplars of the values for people with exceptionalities she now shares through her teaching and writing. Finally, she thanks all her students she has taught through the years for teaching her more than she could ever hope to teach them.
Sean Smith is a new author on this project. Having joined the Department of Special Education, The University of Kansas, in the fall of 1999, we turned to him in the summer of 2000 and pleaded, "Bail us out." By that, we meant very simply that we needed help in meeting our deadlines. Sean showed his mettle: He eagerly accepted the job of writing the chapters on learning disabilities and traumatic, brain injury, and of contributing significantly to the chapter on emotional or behavioral disorders. Just as that chapter was in its final-draft phase in the early fall of 2000, he, his wife Kris, and their daughter Bridget welcomed a new Smith into the world, Nolan. To young Nolan may all of the knowledge and wisdom that all of us have be given, for he himself has a disability.
For Sean, his wife, Kris, was an integral part of the writing process. Her belief in his ability and her continuous support and flexibility allowed for Sean to plug away as he captured his chapters. His extended family, especially Mary, Jack, and Edna Kohnke, were also critical supporters offering encouragement and insight. Finally, his children, Bridget and Nolan, are the center of his life and his greatest teachers.
For Dorothy Leal, her husband, Bill, was a support beyond measure. His encouragement and wisdom, as well as computer expertise, kept her going in her various roles as special education novice, general education spokesperson, and author. Her children, Jonathan and jenny, were also an appreciative audience; and her friends Dow and Lois Robinson were mentors who provided inspiration, focus, and perspective.
Behind every writing team are the editorial and production staff who ensure that authors' references and grammar are accurate, their spelling correct, their permissions secured, and their manuscripts fit to go into production. First and foremost, Lois Weldon never once flinched as we piled manuscript upon manuscript onto her already loaded-down desk. In addition to her technical expertise in preparing the manuscript and its various illustrations and figures, Lois always did whatever was necessary to help us meet deadlines and to accomplish what seemed like insurmountable tasks. Lois is our reliable ally in every way, and we express our heartfelt appreciation to her. Ben Furnish once again served as a copyeditor's copyeditor, coming on board on the latest of notice and with his usual good cheer, eagle eyes, and compulsion for accuracy. Mary Woodward was our permissions sleuth and also was extremely helpful in securing photographs and in following-up with the families featured in the vignettes. Jeri Urban and Amber Olson assisted us in organizing references. With their superb senses of humor, indomitable strength and stamina, and never-failing tolerance of authors' multiple, frequently repetitive, and overlapping demands, each of these competent and diligent colleagues aided in the preparation of seemingly endless drafts of chapters, kept our work product and even our offices and lives organized, and helped design illustrative features that appear throughout.
At Merrill/Prentice Hall, our publisher, we have had the benefit of an effective, tolerant, and loyal team. When we approached delinquency in timelines or textual accuracy and fluency, they were admonishing; when we went astray of our goals and concepts, they were redirecting. In all matters, they were consummate professionals. They are Ann Davis, executive editor; Gianna Marsella, development editor; Linda Montgomery, former development editor; Jeff Johnston, vice president and editor-in-chief; Nancy Ritz, photographic researcher; and Sheryl Langner, production editor. We benefited immeasurably from the judicious editing that Luanne Dreyer Elliott brought to our work; more than that, she assured consistency of presentation and organization throughout a large book, thereby making the book more didactically effective and reader-friendly. If this book is as attractive as it is informative, each of these good colleagues deserve much of the credit.
A collective expression of gratitude is insufficient, so a few more words are in order. Ann Davis initially conceived the idea of a focus on the real lives of today's students; Ann's extensive and informed perspective about publishing and about special education helped shape the first and second editions' content, tone, and design—in a word, she made this book possible by soliciting us to write it and by helping us make it more readable and durable in the marketplace. Her contributions survive into this third edition, of course.
Gianna Marsella has the title "development editor," but the title does not describe what she really did: hold our feet to the deadline fires while also providing good cheer and positive reinforcement, reorganize the draft text when it needed that external oversight, serve as 4r% effective liaison between the other authors and the contributors on the one hand and the two lead authors on the other, and remain available 24/7 to work systematically and without pause to ensure excellence and timeliness in all that we have written.
Before she herself accepted a significant promotion within Merrill/Prentice Hall, Linda Montgomery pointed out how we could make our categorical chapters more integrated, thematic, and mutually consistent. Her proposal for reworking them was right on the mark and contributed to the connectedness of the vignettes, characteristics, evaluation, and effective practices and program sections in each of those chapters. We thank her, too, for bringing one of the vignette families to our attention.
Our colleagues at other universities have contributed mightily. Sandy Lewis at Florida State University prepared the chapter on visual impairments, Chapter 16. Joyce McNeill, Learning Specialist, Spanish Fort, Alabama contributed her knowledge of communication impairments (Chapter 14) and Barbara Schirmer at Kent State University did likewise with respect to hearing impairments (Chapter 15). To Sandy, Joyce, and Barbara, the simple phrase, "we are greatly indebted," seems hardly enough, but we hope it suffices; their knowledge is powerful, and so too is their ability to model one of this book's features, namely, the power of collaboration.
Others played their important roles. The families, students, and professionals in each vignette were unfailingly generous. They helped us bridge the geographical gaps between us; we know a few of them, face to face, but we do not know many of the others in the same way. Yet, each has become an indispensable part of the whole. It is as though each of them, sensing that they will make a difference to you, the reader, tacitly agreed to become members of a larger, extended community—the community of families, students, and disabilities affected by disability and giftedness, and the community who, though so affected, nonetheless persevere and teach us all. Their lessons are encapsulated in the six values that permeate the book.
Similarly, many professionals have contributed. For their considerate reviews, we thank Carole W Brown, Catholic University of America; Lee Courtnage, University of Northern Iowa; Sheila Drake, Kansas Wesleyan University; Anne Y Gallegos, New Mexico State University; Ann Candler Lotven, Oklahoma State University; Marjorie Montague, University of Miami; Jerry Neal, Missouri Valley College; RaeLynne Rein, University of California at Los Angeles; and Wayne H. Swanger, University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh.