Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools / Edition 3

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A Principled Approach: Strategies and interventions are based on six core values for working with students with exceptionalities: envisioning great expectations; enhancing positive contributions; building on strengths; acting on choices; expanding relationships; and ensuring full citizenship.

Real People, Real Issues: Every student in each chapter's opening vignette is a real person. Within each chapter as well as in the My Voice and Making a Difference boxes, real people's stories are integrated to provide additional insight into the exceptional lives of students with disabilities, their families, and their teachers.

A Focus on Inclusion: While acknowledging the very real challenges of inclusion, the authors believe that the great majority of students with disabilities can receive an appropriate education in general education classrooms if programs and classrooms are designed for individualized instruction, if supplementary supports and services are available, and if educators are prepared to work in inclusive environments. This book prepares educators to make inclusion work.

Practical Ideas for Today's Classrooms: Newly organized chapters spotlight curricular goals and teaching methods, which are demonstrated in the Programs in Practice section of each categorical chapter. Into Practice boxes also share best practices for inclusive education.

The Most Current Coverage: New coverage of important topics such as behavior management, assistive technology, and universal design as well as an increased focus on collaboration and early intervention. Hundredsof new references and resources have been added.

Integrated Multimedia: State-of-the-art topical coverage is matched with new, integrated technology features:

  • New Multimedia My Voice, Multimedia Making a Difference, and Multimedia Into Practice feature boxes have links to the companion website and ABC/Prentice Hall video library.
  • Six new segments have been added to the ABC/Prentice Hall video library, for a total of 22 current and issues-based segments.
  • An upgraded companion website.
  • New companion website margin notes direct readers to online links where they can find more information about chapter topics.
  • New Into Practice with Technology feature boxes appear in each categorical chapter.
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Editorial Reviews

This text introduces concepts, people, and relationships important to special education, and features many real-life vignettes of special education students, families, and teachers. There is a focus on inclusion of disabled students in general education classrooms. After an overview of special education and a chapter on implementing IDEA, chapters cover various disabilities including behavioral disorders, autism, severe and multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injury, and blindness. There is also a chapter on giftedness. This edition contains new material on topics such as behavior management, assistive technology, and universal design, and an increased focus on collaboration. A Web site and video library are linked to the text. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130308535
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 3/1/2001
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 704
  • Product dimensions: 8.22 (w) x 10.68 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Overview of Today's Special Education 2
Ch. 2 Implementing IDEA's Principles 40
Ch. 3 Special Education Today: Inclusion and Collaboration 72
Ch. 4 Learning Disabilities 104
Ch. 5 Emotional or Behavioral Disorders 144
Ch. 6 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 180
Ch. 7 Giftedness 222
Ch. 8 Mental Retardation 260
Ch. 9 Severe and Multiple Disabilities 300
Ch. 10 Autism 336
Ch. 11 Other Heath Impairments 368
Ch. 12 Physical Disabilities 404
Ch. 13 Traumatic Brain Injury 438
Ch. 14 Communication Disorders 480
Ch. 15 Hearing Loss 516
Ch. 16 Blindness and Low Vision 556
Glossary 597
References 605
Name Index 641
Subject Index 653
Photo Credits 673
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Our Vision

When we wrote the second edition of this book, we set out our vision for special education. It's worth repeating here. We hope you will adopt it as your own:

When principles and values guide teaching techniques and when the techniques are at a state-of-the-art level, no challenge that confronts students, families, schools, communities, or policy leaders is too daunting.

A Value-Based Book

You will find our six values in Chapter 1 and indeed elsewhere throughout our book. They are

  • Envisioning great expectations for students
  • Enhancing their positive contributions to schools and communities
  • Building on their inherent strengths
  • Enabling them to make and act on their own choices
  • Encouraging them to expand their relationships with people who have and do not have disabilities
  • Honoring their rights and ensuring especially that they have rights and opportunities to be full citizens of this country.

Every chapter returns to these six principles. Sometimes, these principles will be explicit. Sometimes, implicit. Look for them, and incorporate them into your life as a teacher and as a citizen. You will be surprised what a difference you will make when you put these values behind your techniques.

Features of the Text

Real People, Real Issues

This is not a book of fiction. There are no imagined characters here. Every student, every teacher, every parent, every friend is real. To tell their stories serves a powerful didactic purpose: to describe, in their own words and through these snapshots of their lives,how special education benefits each and every one of them. These students, teachers, family members, and friends show you what can happen—how exceptional lives can be made all the more exceptional—when you approach them on the basis of principles and state-of-the-art teaching techniques.

Emphasis on Today's Schools

What an exciting time this is. A turn of the century, yes; a new millennium, yes. But those are hackneyed milestones. The real milestones are small and sometimes hard to find; yet iii when they are laid out consecutively, one after the other, they create a path that was unimagined when special education began as a discipline nearly a century ago. There is no need to go that far back. Indeed, the markers to the schools of today were first laid twenty-five years ago when Congress enacted the federal special education law. Today's schools are indeed the legacies of the past, but, more, they are the creatures of imaginative educators, policy leaders, family members, and, yes, students themselves. If you want to teach in today's schools and be ready to teach in tomorrow's, we invite you into the exceptional lives that we portray here. Each life, each school . . . those are the milestones of the recent past and of the immediate future. And they are the focus of this book.


When we wrote the first edition of this book (copyright 1995), we were clear about one thing: we favored including students with disabilities in the classes that students without disabilities attended. When we wrote the second edition (1999), we were equally keen on inclusion. But in both editions, we were clear about this one caveat: no inclusion without support. When Congress amended the federal education law in 1997, it reinforced the law's presumption that students with disabilities should be educated with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate for the students with disabilities. This edition shows you the many ways that Congress strengthened the inclusion provisions; it also shows you how to practice inclusion and the benefits—and limitations—of inclusion. What's really behind inclusion? Granted, it is a technique for more appropriately educating students with disabilities; and, yes, it is a civil right. But most of all, it is the path toward a different America—one in which everyone is valuable, without regard to their disabilities or great giftedness.

Universal Design

Almost certainly, you are familiar with public buildings constructed some 50 or more years ago. The county courthouse. The city library. The school you attended. Remember what they looked like from the outside? Were there ramps for people in wheelchairs? Doubtful. Remember what they looked like inside? Were there elevators with lights and bells to alert you to the- elevator's movement? Doubtful. Were they designed so that everyone—repeat: everyone—could come into them and use them, whether or not the person had a disability? Doubtful.

In that kind of "built environment," inclusion was nearly impossible. Full citizenship was elusive. Relationships could not be made and solidified. Great expectations excluded those individuals who were excluded from the environment. The positive contributions and strengths that people with disabilities could make were limited. So were their choices about how to live their lives.

Nearly three decades ago, Congress asked America to change. Open the buildings. Create opportunities. And that's exactly what Americans did. And as we changed the "built environment," we began to understand something profound about the "teaching environment," about the curriculum. It was this: a curriculum that excludes students with disabilities is just as limiting as a building that excludes them. Our response was to change the curriculum, so that it now can accommodate students with so many different types of strengths and needs without denying any single one of them the benefit of being educated with the others. We call this universal design—the design of the curriculum so that it yields benefits to everyone, universally. You will read about this new approach in our book; it is a state-of-the-art technique that we believe should accompany the six values you have just read about.


By collaborating with each other, students, their families, teachers and other professionals can ensure that every child with a disability and every supremely gifted or talented child can have an appropriate education, one that benefits them and in turn benefits society as a whole. None of us is independent; we are all interdependent. That is why, when it comes to education, we have to collaborate with each other. Remember your study groups? That's collaboration. In special education, we call it cooperative learning. A different name, but the same game: working together so that everyone benefits.


As authors of this textbook, we strive to provide you with the most current information about state-of-the-art interventions and instructional practices for individuals with special needs. This manner of reporting the most current information about best practices has led us to make technology a cornerstone of this textbook as well.

With coverage of the latest hardware, software, and assistive technologies that students learn more and better, and help teachers teach more effectively, we continue to advance this book into the twenty-first century.

Text Organization

The First three chapters are the foundation for the rest of the book. They tell a bit about history, a little more about the law that Congress passed in 1975 and that it amended in 1997, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and a great deal about today's schools—about how they evaluate students and then provide them with an appropriate education. Having laid the foundation (Chapters 1 through 3), we build on it (Chapters 4 through 16) by describing the education of various types of "categories" of students with disabilities.

Chapter Format

You will find that Chapters 4 through 16 have the same "flavor" and format. Their similar flavor comes from the six values that crop up in each. Their similar format is their structure, which is- the shared across all of the "categorical" chapters. By using a similar format, we can introduce you to real students, families, and teachers, emphasizing their common characteristics and describing special education services as they are now organized. Each of the categorical chapters follows this order:

  • Vignettes. We begin each chapter with a vignette, a short portrait of real students, real families, and real educators. The students in these vignettes represent a wide range of cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups, and they live in a wide variety of geographic locations.
  • Categorical Information. Next, we define the exceptionality, describe its characteristics, and identify its causes and prevalence. At the beginning of each chapter, you get a sharp picture of the exceptionality, framed in its most basic dimensions.
  • Evaluation Procedures. Now, we take you into teachers' working environments, explaining how and why they evaluate students (does the student described in the vignette have a disability?) and then provide special education and related services to them (if so, what should schools do about it?). You will notice that the process of evaluation is the same, no matter what the student's "category" is. That is because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act sets out a standardized process. But the tools—the evaluation instruments—vary by category. We describe one for each category, one state-of-the-art way for deter. mining whether a student is exceptional, and if so what kind of education should be provided. Many of these evaluation tools, however, are suitable for students across various categories, a fact we note as appropriate.
  • Establishing Effective Teaching Practices. In the last section of each chapter, we address four major issues facing teachers in today's schools. Veteran users of this textbook will notice changes in this section that make the book more applied, more pragmatic, and more responsive to the realities of the inclusive classroom. First, we write about the curriculum and curricular goals that are appropriate for students in the "category" that is the topic of the chapter. Second, we describe in practical terms how to implement instruction, especially in inclusive settings, featuring the universal design curriculum that is most appropriate for the students. Third, we illustrate how model schools provide that curriculum at four different age-levels: early intervention and early childhood, elementary, middle and secondary, and transitional and post-secondary. Finally, we write about inclusion and collaboration, those techniques that make an exceptional student's education truly exceptional.
  • A Vision for the Future and Chapter Summary. Having begun each chapter with a vignette describing the student today, we wrap up the narrative with a projection, looking toward the student's future and imagining it as it can be if educators and schools do as we suggest. We end by summarizing the main points of the chapter.

Special Chapter Features

The following special features highlight the people who have exceptionalities and those who work to improve their lives.

  • Feature Boxes. Throughout each chapter are personal accounts of persons with exceptionalities or those who are involved in their education. These accounts are boxes that describe best instructional practices. "My Voice" boxes provide first-person descriptions of the unique joys, challenges, and triumphs associated with special education. "Making a Difference" boxes profile individuals who, through example and effort, are changing the lives of people with disabilities. "Into Practice" boxes exemplify best practices in teaching and highlight programs that support students in general and special education.
  • Multimedia Feature Boxes. These features take the form of "My Voice," "Making a Difference," and "Into Practice" boxes but go one step further to link readers to multimedia resources on video and on the Internet. Integrated into these multimedia feature boxes are links to the segments from the accompanying ABC News Video library that illustrate people living exceptional lives and the issues they face, and to our Companion Website, where students can find on-line resources.
  • Into Practice with Technology. New to this edition, "Into Practice with Technology" boxes feature various high-tech, low-tech, and assistive technology solutions used to educate and meet the unique needs of students with exceptionalities. This feature, present in each chapter, addresses the increasingly important role all kinds of technology plays in and efficiently
  • Inclusion Tips. "Inclusion Tips" feature boxes present strategies that facilitate successful interaction between exceptional students and their classrooms peers and describe a wide variety of ways for students, parents, teachers, administrators, and general classroom and special education teachers to work together to support the inclusion of students with exceptionalities in classrooms and communities. Instructors who recall "Collaboration Tips" from the last edition will now find these feature boxes on the Companion Website.
  • Figures. Each chapter has figures illustrating its narrative content. In every categorical chapter, an assessment figure synthesizes practices of screening, identification, evaluation, and special education programming.
  • Margin Notes. Each chapter has margin notes that cross-reference other portions of the book or tell you how to get more information from our Companion Website.


Several ancillaries supplement this text:

  • ABC News Video Library—Exceptional Lives, Exceptional Issues, Volumes 1 and 2. Integrated into the multimedia feature boxes are video selections from recent ABC news programs. These video segments highlight people living exceptional lives and the issues they face, and are sure to spark lively and reflective class discussions. For this edition, six new segments have been added to the ABC News Video Library, for a total of twenty-two segments.
  • Student Study Guide. A Student Study Guide helps students understand, analyze, and evaluate the chapter concepts and prepare for in-class lectures and presentations. Each chapter in the Student Study Guide covers instructional objectives, key issues, and focus questions, and provides a guided review of the chapter content and vocabulary. Self-check quizzes (with a complete answer key) help students measure their comprehension and prepare for exams. Application exercises and ideas for completing individual or group projects are also included to encourage authentic, concrete learning experiences.
  • PowerPoint Slides/Transparency Masters. These visual aids display, summarize, and help explain core information presented in the textbook. They can be downloaded from our Companion Website, customized or presented as is, and used as PowerPoint slide presentations or as transparency masters for overhead projectors.
  • Instructor's Manual. The Instructor's Manual includes brief chapter overviews, introductory information about the students featured in the chapter vignettes, instructional objectives, and Chapter-at-a-Glance charts that align the focus questions with the content—all of which help the instructor to present material in an organized and authoritative manner. Each chapter also has a presentation outline that includes instructions for using the PowerPoint Slides/Transparency Masters. To allow for more flexibility in instruction and provide opportunities for authentic learning and assessment, the Instructor's Manual lists ideas for individual and group projects, in-class activities, and relevant books and videos.
  • Test Bank. Research indicates that students learn better when they are held accountable for what they have learned. To consistently analyze, synthesize, and evaluate the information we study is an inherent part of our growth as human beings. That is why we have developed a bank of over fifty test questions per chapter in a variety of formats (including true-false, multiple choice, short answer, and essay) that match the issues, questions, and projects assigned and discussed. A note: The Student Study Guide/Companion Website has sample quizzes that are similar in spirit and structure to the test items that appear in the Test Bank; however, they are different test questions.
  • Companion Website. The Companion Website, located at http://www.prenhall.com/turnbull, is a valuable resource for both the professor and the student.
  • For the Professor—"The Faculty Lounge." The Faculty Lounge is a passcode-protected area of the Companion Website for professors only It houses the online version of the Instructor's Manual, as well as PowerPoint slides of the transparency masters that can be downloaded and customized. The "CW Activities—Instructor's Key" provides instructional guidance for incorporating the Companion Website activities for students into teaching, and professors across the country using this textbook can share successful teaching strategies using the instructor's message board and chat room. The Companion Website also features a syllabus builder that allows instructors to create and customize syllabi on-line. To obtain a passcode to enter the Faculty Lounge, contact your local Prentice Hall sales representative. (Call faculty services at 1-800-526-0485 if you do not know your local sales representative.)
  • For the Student. The Companion Website helps students gauge their understanding of chapter content through the use of guided chapter reviews and interactive multiple-choice chapter quizzes. It also provides links to websites mentioned in the text and a variety of other on-line resources (such as IEP forms and collaboration charts, a children's literature and video resource list, and streaming videos), as well as web-based activities for reflection and problem solving. Additionally, students can collaborate and communicate with one another using the message board and chat tools.


This book is the product of collaboration. That's true in several senses. First, it focuses on collaboration in schools and models that very trait. Second, it is collaborative in the sense that people with disabilities, their families, and many professionals opened their lives to us, allowing us to bring them to the center stage of each chapter, where, as actors in a play, they inspire, inform, and personalize our concepts, lessons, and approaches. We wish to thank those people who inspired and encouraged our writing. Third, it is a collaboration of professionals serving in various roles—as authors, editors, and producers.

There is one person who, beyond all others, has inspired the Turnbulls. Unable to write a single word of text, he nonetheless is an indispensable source of our knowledge, our greatest teacher, and the focal point of all of our work: "JT" Thank you, Jay Turnbull.

Because Amy and Kate Turnbull, JT's younger sisters, have taught us so much about the possibilities of inclusion, the reality about and hope for families, and the myriad ways of bringing this book's six principles to life on an everyday basis, we also honor them with this text and our gratitude.

Marilyn Shank expresses appreciation to her father, Joe Shank, for his ongoing encouragement and wisdom. Other family members, including Tom and Kathy Shank, Wade and Jennifer Wilkes, and Matthew Shank, also supported her efforts. In addition, Rud and Ann Turnbull—her co-authors, mentors, and friends—have served as exemplars of the values for people with exceptionalities she now shares through her teaching and writing. Finally, she thanks all her students she has taught through the years for teaching her more than she could ever hope to teach them.

Sean Smith is a new author on this project. Having joined the Department of Special Education, The University of Kansas, in the fall of 1999, we turned to him in the summer of 2000 and pleaded, "Bail us out." By that, we meant very simply that we needed help in meeting our deadlines. Sean showed his mettle: He eagerly accepted the job of writing the chapters on learning disabilities and traumatic, brain injury, and of contributing significantly to the chapter on emotional or behavioral disorders. Just as that chapter was in its final-draft phase in the early fall of 2000, he, his wife Kris, and their daughter Bridget welcomed a new Smith into the world, Nolan. To young Nolan may all of the knowledge and wisdom that all of us have be given, for he himself has a disability.

For Sean, his wife, Kris, was an integral part of the writing process. Her belief in his ability and her continuous support and flexibility allowed for Sean to plug away as he captured his chapters. His extended family, especially Mary, Jack, and Edna Kohnke, were also critical supporters offering encouragement and insight. Finally, his children, Bridget and Nolan, are the center of his life and his greatest teachers.

For Dorothy Leal, her husband, Bill, was a support beyond measure. His encouragement and wisdom, as well as computer expertise, kept her going in her various roles as special education novice, general education spokesperson, and author. Her children, Jonathan and jenny, were also an appreciative audience; and her friends Dow and Lois Robinson were mentors who provided inspiration, focus, and perspective.

Behind every writing team are the editorial and production staff who ensure that authors' references and grammar are accurate, their spelling correct, their permissions secured, and their manuscripts fit to go into production. First and foremost, Lois Weldon never once flinched as we piled manuscript upon manuscript onto her already loaded-down desk. In addition to her technical expertise in preparing the manuscript and its various illustrations and figures, Lois always did whatever was necessary to help us meet deadlines and to accomplish what seemed like insurmountable tasks. Lois is our reliable ally in every way, and we express our heartfelt appreciation to her. Ben Furnish once again served as a copyeditor's copyeditor, coming on board on the latest of notice and with his usual good cheer, eagle eyes, and compulsion for accuracy. Mary Woodward was our permissions sleuth and also was extremely helpful in securing photographs and in following-up with the families featured in the vignettes. Jeri Urban and Amber Olson assisted us in organizing references. With their superb senses of humor, indomitable strength and stamina, and never-failing tolerance of authors' multiple, frequently repetitive, and overlapping demands, each of these competent and diligent colleagues aided in the preparation of seemingly endless drafts of chapters, kept our work product and even our offices and lives organized, and helped design illustrative features that appear throughout.

At Merrill/Prentice Hall, our publisher, we have had the benefit of an effective, tolerant, and loyal team. When we approached delinquency in timelines or textual accuracy and fluency, they were admonishing; when we went astray of our goals and concepts, they were redirecting. In all matters, they were consummate professionals. They are Ann Davis, executive editor; Gianna Marsella, development editor; Linda Montgomery, former development editor; Jeff Johnston, vice president and editor-in-chief; Nancy Ritz, photographic researcher; and Sheryl Langner, production editor. We benefited immeasurably from the judicious editing that Luanne Dreyer Elliott brought to our work; more than that, she assured consistency of presentation and organization throughout a large book, thereby making the book more didactically effective and reader-friendly. If this book is as attractive as it is informative, each of these good colleagues deserve much of the credit.

A collective expression of gratitude is insufficient, so a few more words are in order. Ann Davis initially conceived the idea of a focus on the real lives of today's students; Ann's extensive and informed perspective about publishing and about special education helped shape the first and second editions' content, tone, and design—in a word, she made this book possible by soliciting us to write it and by helping us make it more readable and durable in the marketplace. Her contributions survive into this third edition, of course.

Gianna Marsella has the title "development editor," but the title does not describe what she really did: hold our feet to the deadline fires while also providing good cheer and positive reinforcement, reorganize the draft text when it needed that external oversight, serve as 4r% effective liaison between the other authors and the contributors on the one hand and the two lead authors on the other, and remain available 24/7 to work systematically and without pause to ensure excellence and timeliness in all that we have written.

Before she herself accepted a significant promotion within Merrill/Prentice Hall, Linda Montgomery pointed out how we could make our categorical chapters more integrated, thematic, and mutually consistent. Her proposal for reworking them was right on the mark and contributed to the connectedness of the vignettes, characteristics, evaluation, and effective practices and program sections in each of those chapters. We thank her, too, for bringing one of the vignette families to our attention.

Our colleagues at other universities have contributed mightily. Sandy Lewis at Florida State University prepared the chapter on visual impairments, Chapter 16. Joyce McNeill, Learning Specialist, Spanish Fort, Alabama contributed her knowledge of communication impairments (Chapter 14) and Barbara Schirmer at Kent State University did likewise with respect to hearing impairments (Chapter 15). To Sandy, Joyce, and Barbara, the simple phrase, "we are greatly indebted," seems hardly enough, but we hope it suffices; their knowledge is powerful, and so too is their ability to model one of this book's features, namely, the power of collaboration.

Others played their important roles. The families, students, and professionals in each vignette were unfailingly generous. They helped us bridge the geographical gaps between us; we know a few of them, face to face, but we do not know many of the others in the same way. Yet, each has become an indispensable part of the whole. It is as though each of them, sensing that they will make a difference to you, the reader, tacitly agreed to become members of a larger, extended community—the community of families, students, and disabilities affected by disability and giftedness, and the community who, though so affected, nonetheless persevere and teach us all. Their lessons are encapsulated in the six values that permeate the book.

Similarly, many professionals have contributed. For their considerate reviews, we thank Carole W Brown, Catholic University of America; Lee Courtnage, University of Northern Iowa; Sheila Drake, Kansas Wesleyan University; Anne Y Gallegos, New Mexico State University; Ann Candler Lotven, Oklahoma State University; Marjorie Montague, University of Miami; Jerry Neal, Missouri Valley College; RaeLynne Rein, University of California at Los Angeles; and Wayne H. Swanger, University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh.

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