Exchanges: A Global History Reader / Edition 1

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Overview

This impressive collection of readings illustrates that the history of the world is as much about the relationships among societies as it is about transformations and continuities within societies.

Exchanges: A Global History Reader is designed as an introduction to the discipline of world history. Unlike other source collections, Exchanges helps students look beyond strictly delineated regionalism and chronological structures to understand history as a product of ongoing debate. Structured around a series of interconnected themes and debates, and pairing both primary and secondary sources, Exchanges challenges both students and teachers to rethink history.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321355089
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 9/1/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 360
  • Sales rank: 1,376,542
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

What Is World History?: An Introduction for Students of

the Premodern World 1

Questions and Connections: The World before c. 1500 C.E. 2

Geography and Periodization 2

Sources 5

Themes in Premodern World History 7

Civilization: A Student’s Introduction 10

The Evolution of the Term Civilization 11

• 1. FERDNAND BRAUDEL, A History of Civilizations 11

The “Clash of Civilizations” 12

• 2. SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON, “The Clash of Civilizations?” 13

An Afrocentric Critique of Civilization 13

• 3. CHEIKH ANTA DIOP, The African Origin of Civilization:

Myth or Reality 13

A Transnational Critique of Civilization Theory 16

• 4. ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, Toward Humano- and Eco-centrism:

Unity in Diversity, Not Clash in Civilizations 17

Part 1

Interrogating the Origins and Development

of Civilization and City-State Societies

(c. 8000—600 B.C.E.) 19

Chapter 1 The Natural Environment and Human

Beings: Constraints and Advantages 24

The Importance of Geography in History 26

• 5. FERNAND BRAUDEL, A History of Civilizations 26

The Physical Environment of Early Mesopotamia 27

• 6. J. N. POSTGATE, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy

at the Dawn of History 28

Gilgamesh and the Great Flood 29

• 7. The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sandars 30

Hymn to Hapy 31

• 8. Hymn to Hapy 32

iii

The Physical Environment of Mesoamerica 34

• 9. Popol Vuh, translated by Dennis Tedlock 35

Chapter 2 The Origins of Agriculture and Civilization 38

The First Farmers 40

• 10. JARED DIAMOND, Location, Location, Location:

The First Farmers 41

The Eloquent Peasant 43

• 11. The Eloquent Peasant 44

Agriculture 45

• 12. FRANCESCA BRAY, Agriculture 45

Complex Food Systems in Mesoamerica 47

• 13. JOHN S. HENDERSON, The World of the Ancient Maya 47

Complex Food Systems in Africa 49

• 14. DAVID L. SCHOENBRUN, We Are What We Eat: Ancient Agriculture

between the Great Lakes 50

Conversations with Ogotemêlli 52

• 15. MARCEL GRIAULE, Conversations with Ogotemmêli:

An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas 52

Cultural Heroes and the Origins of Agriculture 53

• 16. Han Shu 24, translated by Nancy Lee Swann 54

Chapter 3 The City: Its Origins and Nature 56

Early Mesopotamian Cities 58

• 17. J. N. POSTGATE, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy

at the Dawn of History 59

Uruk, a Mesopotamian City 60

• 18. The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by N. K. Sandars 61

Cities in Mesoamerica 62

• 19. OCTAVIO PAZ, Food of the Gods 63

• 20. RICHARD M. LEVENTHAL AND CHARLES H. HOWARTH, JR., “Copan:

Ancient City of the Maya” 64

The Origins of the Polis 66

• 21. ANTHONY SNODGRASS, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment 66

The Polis of Athens 68

• 22. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by

Rex Warner 68

Humans as Polis Dwellers 69

• 23. ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle, translated by

Ernest Barker 70

iv Contents

Chapter 4 Consolidation and Fragmentation of Power: The

Urban Context 72

The Unification of Egypt 74

• 24. BARRY J. KEMP, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization 74

The Memphite Theology 75

• 25. Memphite Theology 76

Shang Oracle Bones 77

• 26. DAVID N. KEIGHTLEY, Shang Oracle-Bone Inscriptions 77

The King of the Road 78

• 27. ”The King of the Road”: A Self-Laudatory Shulgi Hymn 79

Lordship in Mesoamerica 80

• 28. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated

by Dennis Tedlock 81

Citizenship in Ancient Greece 81

• 29. ANTHONY SNODGRASS, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment 82

Constitution of the Athenians 83

• 30. ARISTOTLE, Aristotle’s Constitution of Athens and Related Texts,

translated by Kurt von Fritz and Ernst Kapp 83

A North Indian City 85

• 31. The Ra¯ma¯ yan.

a of Va¯ lm¯iki: An Epic of Ancient India,

translated by Robert P. Goldman 85

Chapter 5 Order and Chaos: Threats to Cities and

Civilization 87

Rise and Fall of the Ancient World 89

• 32. CHESTER G. STARR, Rise and Fall of the Ancient World 89

The Laws of Ur-Nammu 91

• 33. Laws of Ur-Nammu 91

Justice in the city 92

• 34. PLATO, Protagoras and Meno, translated by W. K. C. Guthrie 93

The Judgment of the Dead 94

• 35. The Judgment of the Dead 95

Warfare and Human Sacrifice 96

• 36. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated

by Dennis Tedlock 97

The Curse of Agade 98

• 37. The Curse of Agade 98

Nomads from the Steppes 100

• 38. Shi Jing 178 100

Contents v

The Nomadic Point of View–The Case of Dinah 101

• 39. Genesis 34, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 102

Part 1 Conclusion 104

Part 2

Transition and Transformation: From Islands

of Culture to Regional “World Systems”

(600 B.C.E.—300 C.E.) 107

Chapter 6 Ancient Religions: Cosmology, Cosmogony,

and Right Ritual 112

The Nature of Polytheism 114

• 40. YEHEZKEL KAUFMANN, The Religion of Israel: From Its Beginnings

to the Babylonian Exile, translated by Moshe Greenberg 114

A Greek Account of the Birth of the Gods 117

• 41. HESIOD, Theogony, translated by Richmond Lattimore 117

A Mayan Account of the Birth of the Universe 120

• 42. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated

by Dennis Tedlock 120

Vedic Understandings of the Cosmic System 122

• 43. The Laws of Manu, translated by Wendy Doniger 123

• 44. The Ramayana, translated by R. K. Narayan 124

Humans and the Cosmos 125

• 45. The Laws of Manu, translated by Wendy Doniger 125

• 46. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life, translated

by Dennis Tedlock 126

Contrasting Monotheism and Henotheism 129

• 47. The Great Hymn to the Aten 129

• 48. Psalm 104, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 132

Chapter 7 The Axial Age: New Reflections on Society,

Religion, and Knowledge 134

The Axial Age Defined 136

• 49. KARL JASPERS, The Origin and Goal of History, translated

by Michael Bullock 136

The Axial Age Refined 138

• 50. ARNALDO MOMIGLIANO, Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenization 139

The Birth of History in Greece 139

• 51. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated

by Rex Warner 140

vi Contents

The Birth of Philosophy in China 141

• 52. CONFUCIUS, The Analects of Confucius, translated by Simon Leys 142

A New Vision of Righteous Living from South Asia 144

• 53. Buddha’s First Sermon, version produced

by Maitreya Sangha 145

The New Jerusalem 146

• 54. Nehemiah 3:1—7; 8:1—8; 13:1—27 and Isaiah 43; 44:28—45:22;

and 66, The New Oxford Annotated Bible 146

A Mesoamerican Axial Age 153

• 55. DAVID DREW, The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings 153

Chapter 8 The New Politics and Culture–The Consequences

of the New Vision 157

The Unification of China 159

• 56. SIMA QIAN, Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson 160

• 57. CHO-YUN, HSU, The Changing Relationship between Local

Society and the Central Political Power in the Former

Han: 206 B.C.—8 A.D. 162

The Invention of Greek Democracy 164

• 58. THUCYDIDES, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated

by Rex Warner 164

• 59. ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle, translated by Ernest Barker 166

The Limits of Hellenism 167

• 60. ALAN E. SAMUEL, The Shifting Sands of History: Interpretations

of Ptolemaic Egypt 167

The Universal Cities of the Roman Empire 168

• 61. GREG WOOLF, Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial

Civilization in Gaul 169

• 62. AELIUS ARISTIDES, To Rome 171

A Buddhist Empire in South Asia 172

• 63. A´SOKA, Rock Edicts, rendered by Ven. S. Dhammika 172

Chapter 9 Carriers of Exchange 177

Cultural Exchange in Mesoamerica 178

• 64. OCTAVIO PAZ, The Power of Ancient Mexican Art 179

The Orientalizing Revolution in Greece 180

• 65. WALTER BURKERT, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence

on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, translated by Margaret

E. Pinder and Walter Burkert 181

Cultural Diffusion in China and Africa 182

• 66. ELIZABETH ISICHEI, A History of African Societies to 1870 182

Contents vii

• 67. WILLIAM WATSON, The Chinese Contribution to Eastern

Nomad Culture in the Pre-Han and Early Han Periods 184

Changing North—East African Trade Patterns 185

• 68. The Autobiography of Harkhuf 186

• 69. The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea, translated by Lionel Casson 187

Palmyra Caravan Tariffs 188

• 70. Palmyra Caravan Tariffs 189

Immigrants as a Cultural Force in China 190

• 71. SIMA QIAN, Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson 191

The Lion Capital 192

• 72. The A´soka Capital, Sarnath, India [Third century B.C.E.] 193

The Diffusion of Greek Art in the Ancient World 193

• 73. JOHN BOARDMAN, The Diffusion of Classical Art in

Antiquity 194

• 74. Greco-Buddhist art 196

Part 2 Conclusion 199

Part 3

The Transformation and Rebirth of World Systems

(c. 2001 C.E.—1000 C.E.) 203

Chapter 10 The Fall of Empires 207

Eurasian Collapse–A Continental Crisis 208

• 75. BARRY K. GILLS, AND ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, World System Cycles,

Crises, and Hegemonic Shifts, 1700 B.C. to 1700 A.D. 209

The Sack of Rome 211

• 76. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO, Letter 138, to Marcellinus, translated

by Wilfrid Parsons 212

Luxuries and Decline 213

• 77. IBN KHALDÛN, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History,

translated by F. Rosenthal 213

Ecological Collapse 215

• 78. JARED DIAMOND, Ecological Collapses of Past Civilizations 216

The Fall of the Roman Empire 217

• 79. A. H. M. JONES, The Decline of the Ancient World 218

The Conquest of the Sâsânian Empire 221

• 80. MARSHALL HODGSON, The Venture of Islam: Conscience

and History in a World Civilization 222

The Fall of Teotihuacan 224

• 81. RENÉ MILLON, The Last Years of Teotihuacan

Dominance 224

viii Contents

Environmental Problems: Aksum and the Maya 226

• 82. STUART MUNRO HAY, Aksum: An African Civilization

in Late Antiquity 227

• 83. T. PATRICK CULBERT, The Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization 228

Chapter 11 Migrations of the First Millennium 230

The Huns 232

• 84. AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, The Later Roman Empire,

translated by Walter Hamilton 232

The Huna in India 235

• 85. ROMILA THAPAR, The Image of the Barbarian in Early India 235

The Angles and Saxons Come to Britain 236

• 86. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History of the English People 236

Barbarians in Mesoamerica 237

• 87. MICHAEL D. COE, Mexico 237

The Expansion of the Bantu 239

• 88. CHRISTOPHER EHRET, An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern

Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400 239

Challenging the Master Narrative 240

• 89. LESTER LITTLE, Cypress Beams, Kufic Script, and Cut Stone:

Rebuilding the Master Narrative of European History 241

Chapter 12 The Heirs of Empires: Rebuilding the

State System 244

Europe after Rome 246

• 90. PATRICK J. GEARY, Before France and Germany: The Creation and

Transformation of the Merovingian World 246

The Propaganda of Lineage 248

• 91. Liber Historiae Francorum, translated by Bernard S. Bachrach 249

The Unification of China 249

• 92. ARTHUR F. WRIGHT, The Sui Dynasty 250

Advice to a Future Emperor 252

• 93. Emperor Taizong on Effective Government 252

Japan and the Creation of a State 255

• 94. KENNETH G. HENSHALL, A History of Japan: From Stone Age

to Superpower 256

• 95. The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604 A.D. 257

Chapter 13 The Diffusion of Culture 261

Buddhism in China 262

• 96. ERIC ZÜRCHER, Buddhism: Its Origin and Spread in Words,

Maps and Pictures 263

Contents ix

• 97. J. K. FAIRBANK AND MERLE GOLDMAN, China: A New History 264

• 98. MOZI, The Disposition of Error 265

Two faces of Christianity 267

• 99. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History of the English People 268

• 100. CHARLEMAGNE, Capitulary Concerning the Regions of Saxony,

translated by P. D. King 269

New Crops in Spain 270

• 101. THOMAS F. GLICK, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early

Middle Ages 271

The Spread of Arabic 272

• 102. ANWAR G. CHEJNE, The Arabic Language: Its Role in History 272

To Make or Not to Make Ceramics 274

• 103. JAN VANSINA, How Societies Are Born: Governance in

West Central Africa before 1600 274

Part 3 Conclusion 276

Part 4

The Medieval World System, 1000—1500 279

Chapter 14 Global Trade Networks 285

The Islamic World as the Hub of Eurasian Trade 287

• 104. AL-QALQASHAND¯I, Subh al-a ‘sha¯, translated

by Bernard Lewis 287

Rebuilding Europe: The Origins of Its Hegemony 288

• 105. JANET L. ABU-LUGHOD, Before European Hegemony: The World

System A.D. 1250—1350 289

Eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean, and Beyond 290

• 106. CHAPURUKHA M. KUSIMBA, The Rise and Fall of Swahili States 291

Marco Polo and the Post System in the Mongol Empire 291

• 107. MARCO POLO AND RUSTICELLO DE PISA, The Travels of Marco Polo,

translated by Ronald Latham 292

Markets in China and India 293

• 108. CH’OE PU, Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea,

translated by John Meskill 293

• 109. ABD-ER-RAZZÁK, Narrative of the Voyage 294

Tribute and Gift Exchange in the Americas 294

• 110. DAVID DREW, The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings 295

• 111. Records of Tribute Received by the Aztec

Capital, 1502—1520 296

x Contents

Chapter 15 Exploration and Conquest 299

Vikings in North America 301

• 112. Groelendinga Saga, translated by Magnus Magnusson

and Hermann Pálsson 301

The Crusades 303

• 113. The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres, Book I, translated by

Martha E. McGinty 303

The Portuguese in the Atlantic 304

• 114. GOMES EANNES DE AZURARA, The Chronicle of the Discovery and

Conquest of Guinea, translated by Charles Raymond Beazley

and Edgar Prestage 305

The Kingdom of Songhay 306

• 115. ROLAND OLIVER AND ANTHONY ATMORE, Medieval

Africa, 1250—1800 307

The Mongols 309

• 116. IBN KATHIR, The Fall of Baghdad (1258), translated by

Bernard Lewis 309

• 117. A Mongol Governor, translated by Patricia Ebrey 311

Ambassadors, Post Systems, and Lame Conquerors 312

• 118. Clavijo: Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403—1406, translated by

Guy le Strange 313

Conquest in the New World 314

• 119. INGA CLENDINNEN, Aztecs: An Interpretation 315

• 120. JUAN DE BETANZOS, Narrative of the Incas, translated by Roland

Hamilton and Dana Buchanan 316

Chapter 16 Exchanges of Inventions, Ideas,

and Disease 319

China: Hotbed of Inventions 320

• 121. JOSEPH NEEDHAM, Science and Civilisation in China 321

• 122. DAVID LANDES, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why

Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor 323

The Perpetual Motion Machines of India 324

• 123. LYNN WHITE, JR., Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of

Western Medieval Technology 324

The Chess Queen 325

• 124. MARILYN YALOM, Birth of the Chess Queen 326

Networks of Disease 327

• 125. WILLIAM H. MCNEILL, Plagues and Peoples 328

Contents xi

• 126. IBN AL-WARD¯I, Risa¯lah al-naba’ ‘an al-waba’, translated by

Michael Dols 329

• 127. GABRIELE DE’ MUSSIS, Historia de Morbo, translated

by Rosemary Horrox 330

Chapter 17 Exchanges and Perceptions of the Other 333

Russia Searches for a Monotheistic Religion 334

• 128. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, translated

by S.H. Cross and O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor 335

Muslims and Crusaders 336

• 129. USA¯MAH IBN-MUNQIDH, Kita¯ b al-I’tiba¯ r, translated by Philip K. Hitti 337

Mali in the Fourteenth Century 338

• 130. IBN BATTU¯TA, Rihla, translated by J. F. P. Hopkins and N. Levtzion 339

The Mongols through the Eyes of Their Neighbors 340

• 131. WILLIAM OF RUBRUCK, The Journal of Friar William of Rubruck 341

• 132. LI CHIH-CH’ANG, The Travels of an Alchemist, translated by

Arthur Waley 342

The Old and the New World Confront Each Other 343

• 133. DIEGO DE LANDA, Yucatan Before and After the Conquest,

translated by William Gates 344

• 134. GORDON BROTHERSTON, Image of the New World: The American

Continent Portrayed in Native Texts 345

Part 4 Conclusion 348

Chapter 18 Transition: Bridging the Divide in World History 350

Credits 355

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