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Exchanges: A Global History Reader, Volume 2 / Edition 1

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Overview

This impressive collection of readings illustrates that the history of the world is as much about the relationships among societies as it is about transformations and continuities within societies.

Exchanges: A Global History Reader is designed as an introduction to the discipline of world history. Unlike other source collections, Exchanges helps students look beyond strictly delineated regionalism and chronological structures to understand history as a product of ongoing debate. Structured around a series of interconnected themes and debates, and pairing both primary and secondary sources, Exchanges challenges both students and teachers to rethink history.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321387486
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 9/1/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 360
  • Sales rank: 425,830
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface xiv

Introduction 1

What Is World History? An Introduction for Students of the Recent Past 1

Questions and Connections: The World Since c. 1450 C.E. 2

Periodization 3

Sources 4

Themes in Modern World History 6

Part 1

Debating the "Great Opening": 1450—1600 7

Chapter 1 Was There a Eurasian Advantage over Africa

and the Americas? 11

Rendezvous at Cajamarca 12

> 1. FRANCISCO DE JÉREZ, Reports on the Discovery of Peru, translated

by C.R. Markham 13

Ecological Differentiation 14

> 2. JARED DIAMOND, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fate

of Human Societies 15

Critique of Guns, Germs, and Steel 16

> 3. J. R. MCNEILL, The World According to Jared Diamond 16

A Conversation with Christopher Ehret 17

> 4. A Conversation with Christopher Ehret 18

Chapter 2 Why Not Ming China? 21

The Impact of Zheng He’s Voyages 22

> 5. KU P’O, Afterword, in Ying-Yai Sheng-Lan, or The Overall

Survey of the Ocean’s Shores 23

The Fifteenth-Century Maritime Scene in China 23

> 6. CHANG KUEI-SHENG, The Maritime Scene in China at the Dawn

of Great European Discoveries 24

A Twentieth-Century Chinese Historian’s View of the Early

Ming Dynasty 25

> 7. LI UNG BING, Outlines in Chinese History 26

Shared Problems in Early Modern China and Europe 26

> 8. KENNETH POMERANZ, The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the

Making of the Modern World Economy 27

iii

Chapter 3 Theories of Cultural Exceptionalism 29

Justifying the Spanish Conquest of the Americas 30

> 9. JUAN GINÉS DE SEPULVEDA, Just Causes of War Against

the Indians 30

On the Responsibilities of Spaniards in the Americas 32

> 10. BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS, Apologética historia de las Indias,

translated by Benjamin Keen 33

Culture and The Wealth and Poverty of Nations 33

> 11. DAVID S. LANDES, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why

Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor 34

Critiquing The Wealth and Poverty of Nations 36

> 12. WILLIAM H. MCNEILL, How the West Won 36

Chapter 4 Theories of Military Superiority 39

Ottoman Military Supremacy at the Siege of Constantinople 41

> 13. NICOLO BARBARO, Diary of the Siege of Constantinople 1453 41

Sejara Melayu, or the Portuguese conquest of Malacca 42

> 14. A Malay Account of the Conquest of Malacca 43

Vasco de Gama’s Defeat of the Calecut Fleet 43

> 15. GASPAR CORREA, The Three Voyages of Vasco de Gama and His

Viceroyalty 44

Was There a Naval Arms Gap in the Indian Ocean? 44

> 16. P. J. MARSHALL, Western Arms in Maritime Asia in the Early

Phases of Expansion 45

Warfare in Seventeenth-Century Angola 46

> 17. JOHN K. THORNTON, The Art of War in Angola,

1575—1680 46

Chapter 5 Theories of Political Superiority 49

The Emergence of the Nation-State in Europe 50

> 18. JOSEPH R. STRAYER, On the Medieval Origins

of the Modern State 51

State Systems and the Advantages of Fragmentation 52

> 19. PAUL KENNEDY, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers:

Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 52

The Formulation of English Rule in Ireland 53

> 20. HENRY VI, Letters Patent from Henry VI to the

Lord Lieutenant 54

A Unified Model for Early Modern Eurasia 54

> 21. VICTOR LIEBERMAN, Transcending East-West Dichotomies:

State and Culture Formation in Six Ostensibly Disparate Areas 55

iv Contents

Ming Dynasty Statecraft and Welfare Systems 56

> 22. JUAN GONZALEZ DE MENDOZA, The History of the Great

and Mighty Kingdom of China and the Situation Thereof 57

Sixteenth-Century Confucian Intellectual Challenges

to the State 57

> 23. WANG YANG-MING, Inquiry on the Great Learning 58

Chapter 6 Theories of Economic Change 61

Renaissance Merchant-Capitalists 63

> 24. ROBERT L. REYNOLDS, Europe Emerges: Transition toward

an Industrial World-Wide Society 600—1750 63

Capitalism and the Church in Medieval Europe 65

> 25. RODNEY STARK, How Christianity (and Capitalism)

Led to Science 65

Medici Articles of Association 67

> 26. Medici Article of Association 67

Capitalism in Medieval Islam 69

> 27. SUBHI Y. LABIB, Capitalism in Medieval Islam 69

The Wealth of Mali and the Bankers of Cairo 71

> 28. IBN HAJAR AL-’ASQALANI, The Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa 71

Part 1 Conclusion 74

Part 2

Debating the Age of Revolutions: 1600—1870 76

Chapter 7 Evaluating the Bourgeois Revolution 79

The "European Miracle" Hypothesis 81

> 29. ERIC L. JONES, The European Miracle: Environments, Economies,

and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia 81

Adam Smith on the Global Origins of Britain’s Wealth 83

> 30. ADAM SMITH, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of

the Wealth of Nations 83

The Profitability of American Colonies 86

> 31. KENNETH POMERANZ, The Great Divergence: China, Europe,

and the Making of the Modern World Economy 87

The Importance of Regional Commerce 88

> 32. PATRICK O’BRIEN, European Economic Development:

The Contribution of the Periphery 89

The Difficulties and Rewards of the East Indies Trade 90

> 33. The Fugger Newsletters 91

Contents v

Chapter 8 Locating Nationalism and the Atlantic Revolutions 94

What Is the Third Estate? 97

> 34. EMMANUEL (ABBÉ) SIEYÈS, "Qu’est-ce que le tiers état?"

or "What Is the Third Estate?" 97

Identities and French Nationalism 99

> 35. LIAH GREENFELD, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity 99

Consumption and Identity in the American Revolution 100

> 36. T. H. BREEN, "Baubles of Britain": The American

and Consumer Revolutions of the Eighteenth Century 101

Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress 103

> 37. Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental

Congress 103

Creole Pioneers and Nationalism in Latin America 105

> 38. BENEDICT ANDERSON, Imagined Communities: Reflections

on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism 106

Chapter 9 Connecting the Atlantic Revolutions 108

Linking the Atlantic Revolutions 109

> 39. R. R. PALMER, The World Revolution of the West: 1763—1801 110

de Tocqueville on the American Revolution 111

> 40. ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, L’ancien régime 111

The Haitian Revolution in an Atlantic context 112

> 41. FRANKLIN W. KNIGHT, The Haitian Revolution 113

Declaration of Independence of Haiti 114

> 42. Declaration of Independence of Haiti 114

The Objectives of the Spanish American Revolutionaries 115

> 43. JOHN LYNCH, The Origins of Spanish American Independence 116

Chapter 10 Linking the Industrial Revolution in Africa and Britain 119

Origins of the Industrial Revolution in Britain 121

> 44. PETER MATHIAS, The First Industrial Nation: An Economic

History of Britain 1700—1914 122

The Profits of the Atlantic Slave Trade for Britain 124

> 45. ERIC WILLIAMS, Capitalism & Slavery 124

The English Tradesman 125

> 46. DANIEL DEFOE, The Complete English Tradesman 125

The Price of the Atlantic Slave Trade for Africa 126

> 47. WALTER RODNEY, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa 127

The Evil of Slavery 128

> 48. OTTOBAH CUGOANO, Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery 128

Working Girls in and Great Britain and West Africa 130

> 49. Testimonies of Elizabeth Bentley and Abina Mansah 130

vi Contents

Chapter 11 Exploring Pathways to Revolution and Reform in Asia 133

Diplomacy and Modernization in the Ottoman Empire 136

> 50. THOMAS NAFF, Reform and the Conduct of Ottoman

Diplomacy in the Reign of Selim III, 1789—1807 136

Treaty of Alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire 137

> 51. Treaty of Alliance between England and Turkey,

5 January 1799 138

A Reconsideration of Selim III’s Reforms 139

> 52. KEMAL H. KARPAT, "The Stages of Ottoman History":

A Structural Comparative Approach 139

The Meiji Revolution and Japan’s Modernization 141

> 53. KUWABARA TAKEO, The Meiji Revolution and Japan’s Modernization 141

The Different Experiences of China and Japan in

the Mid-Nineteenth Century 142

> 54. SHIBAHARA TAKUJI, Japan’s Modernization from the Perspective

of International Relations 143

The Meiji Charter Oath 144

> 55. Drafts of the Charter Oath 144

Part 2 Conclusion 147

Part 3

Debating the New Imperialism, 1850—1914 150

Chapter 12 Strategic Explanations 155

European Rivalry and German Imperialism 157

> 56. A. J. P. TAYLOR, Germany’s First Bid for Colonies 1884—1885:

A Move in Bismarck’s European Policy 158

Jules Ferry’s Defense of French Colonialism 158

> 57. JULES FERRY, Speech Before the French Chamber of Deputies,

March 28, 1884 159

The United States’ Naval Power in the Pacific 160

> 58. ALFRED THAYER MAHAN, Effects of Asiatic Conditions upon

International Policies 161

Debating Japanese Intervention in Korea 162

> 59.O —

KUBO TOSHIMICHI, Opinion against the Korean Expedition

Chapter 13 Economic Explanations 165

V.I. Lenin Connects Capitalism and Imperialism 166

> 60. VLADIMIR ILLYICH LENIN, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism 167

Gentlemanly Capitalism 168

> 61. P. J. CAIN AND A. G. HOPKINS, Gentlemanly Capitalism and British

Expansion Overseas II: New Imperialism, 1850—1945 169

Contents vii

A Liberal Interpretation of the Economic Origins of Imperialism 170

> 62. JOHN A. HOBSON, Imperialism: A Study 170

British Misrule and the Impoverishment of India 172

> 63. DADABHAI NAOROJI, Memorandum No.2 on the Moral

Poverty in India and Native Thoughts on the Present British

Indian Policy 172

Chapter 14 Moral Explanations 174

The White Man’s Burden 179

> 64. RUDYARD KIPLING, The White Man’s Burden 177

The Missionary’s Bride 177

> 65. FRANCES ELIZABETH DAVIES, The Missionary’s Bride 178

An "Orientalist" Perspective on Egypt 179

> 66. EVELYN BARING CROMER, Modern Egypt 179

An Egyptian Rejoinder 181

> 67. AHMAD LUTFI- AL-SAYYID, Lord Cromer before History 181

A Civilizing Mission 182

> 68. ALICE CONKLIN, A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea

of Empire in France and West Africa 1895—1930 182

Chapter 15 Technological Explanations 185

Winston Churchill Witnesses the Battle of Omdurman 187

> 69. WINSTON S. CHURCHILL, The River War: An Historical

Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan 187

Guerilla Tactics during the Ndebele Rebellion 188

> 70. NDANSI KUMALO, The Story of Ndansi Kumalo of the

Matabele Tribe, Southern Rhodesia 189

The Diffusion of Technology during the Age of Empires 189

> 71. DANIEL HEADRICK, The Tentacles of Progress: Technology

Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850—1940 190

Chapter 16 The Answer Is in the Periphery 193

African Incitements to British Imperialism? 194

> 72. RONALD ROBINSON AND JOHN GALLAGHER WITH ALICE DENNY, Africa and

the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism in the Dark Continent 195

The Constitution of the Fante Confederation and the Response

of the British Administrator 196

> 73. "Constitution of the New Fantee Confederacy" and a Letter from

Administrator Salmon 197

Man-on-the-Spotism 198

> 74. PHILIP D. CURTIN, The World and the West: The European

Challenge and the Overseas Response in the Age of Empire 199

viii Contents

British Intervention in Malaysia 200

> 75. FRANK SWETTENHAM, British Malaya: An Account of the Origin

and Progress of British Influence in Malaya 201

Part 3 Conclusion 203

Part 4

Debating Global Wars, 1914—1945 205

Chapter 17 The "Long Fuse" of the First World War 210

Imperial Rivalries 213

> 76. JAMES JOLL, The Origins of the First World War 213

Anglo-Russian Reconciliation 214

> 77. Memorandum Respecting the Anglo-Russian Convention 215

Nationalism and the Origins of the First World War 216

> 78. BERNADOTTE E. SCHMITT, The Origins of the First World War 217

The Cult of the Offensive 218

> 79. STEPHEN VAN EVERA, The Cult of the Offensive and the

Origins of the First World War 218

A German General’s Perspective on the Causes of the First World War 220

> 80. HELMUTH VON MOLTKE, Letter to Theobald von Bethman Hollweg 221

Chapter 18 The Joyful Leap to War 223

The Third Balkan War 224

> 81. CLIVE PONTING, Thirteen Days: The Road to the First World War 225

Placing the Blame on Germany 226

> 82. CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE, Report Presented

to the Preliminary Peace Conference 226

Debating German Aggression 228

> 83. JAMES JOLL, The 1914 Debate Continues. Fritz Fischer

and His Critics 228

The Conscription of Colonial Soldiers 231

> 84. JOE LUNN, Memoirs of the Maelstrom: A Senegalese Oral

History of the First World War 232

Woodrow Wilson Justifies the U.S. Entry into the War 234

> 85. WOODROW WILSON, Address to Congress 234

The Zimmermann Telegram 236

> 86. ARTHUR ZIMMERMANN, Decoded Telegram January 8, 1917 236

Chapter 19 The Rise of Fascism and Militarism 238

Benito Mussolini’s Definition of Fascism 240

> 87. BENITO MUSSOLINI, Definition of Fascism 241

Contents ix

"War Guilt" and "Reparations" Clauses of the Versailles

Peace Treaty 242

> 88. The Treaty of Versailles 242

Unemployment and Bankruptcy Figures for Germany 243

> 89. The Nazi Years: A Documentary History 243

Hitler, Fanatic and Opportunist 243

> 90. ALAN BULLOCK, Hitler and the Origins of the Second

World War 244

The Hossbach Memorandum 245

> 91. COLONEL COUNT FRIEDRICH HOSSBACH, Memorandum 246

The Way of Subjects 247

> 92. GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN, The Way of Subjects 247

A Pragmatic Explanation for Japanese Belligerence 248

> 93. JAMES B. CROWLEY, Japan’s Quest for Autonomy: National

Security and Foreign Policy, 1930—1938 249

Chapter 20 Appeasement and Isolationism 251

Haile Selassie’s Appeal to the League Assembly 253

> 94. HAILE SELASSIE, Speech to the League of Nations Assembly 254

Neville Chamberlain Defends the Policy of Appeasement 255

> 95. Parliamentary Debates: House of Commons 255

A Post-War Scholar Attacks Appeasement 257

> 96. JOHN W. WHEELER-BENNETT, Munich: Prologue to Tragedy 257

A Revisionist View of Appeasement 259

> 97. DONALD CAMERON WATT, How War Came: The Immediate

Origins of the Second World War, 1938—1939 259

Roosevelt and the Nazi Threat 260

> 98. ARNOLD A. OFFNER, The United States and National

Socialist Germany 261

Soviet Policy and the Nazi Threat 263

> 99. MAXIM LITVINOV, Address to the Central Executive Committee

of the Soviet Union 264

Chapter 21 The Holocaust 266

An Intentionalist Perspective on the Holocaust 268

> 100. LUCY S. DAWIDOWICZ, The Holocaust and the Historians 268

A Structuralist Interpretation of the Wannsee Conference 270

> 101. CHRISTIAN GERLACH, The Wannsee Conference, the Fate

of the German Jews, and Hitler’s Decision in Principle

to Exterminate All European Jews 271

Protocol of the Wannsee Conference, 20 January 1942 273

> 102. ADOLPH EICHMAN, Protocol of the Wannsee Conference 274

x Contents

The Colonial Origins of Genocide? 275

> 103. SVEN LINDQVIST, Exterminate All the Brutes 276

Order Establishing Concentration Camps in the South African War 277

> 104. LORD KITCHENER, Circular Memorandum N. 29 278

Part 4 Conclusion 280

Part 5

Debating Globalization, Nationalism,

and Modernity, 1945—Present 282

Chapter 22 Perspectives on Decolonization 285

Nationalism in West Africa 287

> 105. JEAN SURET-CANALE AND A. ADU BOAHEN, West Africa 1945—1960 288

Mohandas Gandhi’s Hind Swaraj and "Message to Chinese Women" 289

> 106. MOHANDAS GANDHI, Hind Swaraj, or Indian Home Rule [1910]

and Message to Chinese Women 290

Kwame Nkrumah on Organizing a National Political Movement 292

> 107. KWAME NKRUMAH, I Speak of Freedom: A Statement

of African Ideology 292

Nelson Mandela’s Rivonia Manifesto 294

> 108. NELSON MANDELA, Statement from the Dock at the Rivonia Trial,

Pretoria Supreme Court 295

The International Context of Decolonization 296

> 109. DAVID ABERNETHY, The Dynamics of Global Dominance:

European Overseas Empires, 1415—1980 297

The United Nations’ Declaration on the Granting of Independence 298

> 110. Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial

Countries and Peoples 299

Chapter 23 Perspectives on the Cold War 302

An American Perspective on Soviet Cold War Strategy 304

> 111. GEORGE F. KENNAN, Long Telegram 305

A Soviet Perspective on American Cold War Strategy 306

> 112. NIKOLAI NOVIKOV, Telegram 306

Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of

Viet Nam 307

> 113. HO CHI MINH, Declaration of Independence of the

Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 308

A U.S. Veteran’s Interpretation of the Origins of the

Vietnam War 309

> 114. JAMES WEBB, Why We Fought and Why We Would Do It Again 309

Contents xi

Chapter 24 Perspectives on Globalization 313

An American Century? 315

> 115. DAVID REYNOLDS, American Globalism: Mass, Motion, and

the Multiplier Effect 315

Transnationality 317

> 116. KEITH SUTER, Global Order and Global Disorder: Globalization

and the Nation-State 317

Underdevelopment in Latin America 319

> 117. ANDRE GUNDER FRANK, Capitalism and Underdevelopment

in Latin America: Historical Studies of Chile and Brazil 320

Subcomandante Marcos on the "The Fourth World War" 322

> 118. SUBCOMANDANTE MARCOS, The Fourth World War 322

Interview with Medha Patkar 324

> 119. ROBERT JENSEN, Interview with Medha Patkar 324

Chapter 25 Perspectives on Civilizations and Struggles 327

The Clash of Civilizations? 329

> 120. SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON, The Clash of Civilizations? 329

Edward Said Critiques the "Clash of Civilizations" Thesis 331

> 121. EDWARD W. SAID, The Clash of Ignorance 332

George W. Bush on the Struggle between "Good" and "Evil" 334

> 122. GEORGE W. BUSH, Graduation Speech at the United

States Military Academy 334

Why Multiculturalism? 336

> 123. IMAM FEISAL ABDUL RAUF, Why Multiculturalism? 336

Part 5 Conclusion 340

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