Exercises in Oral Radiography Techniques: A Laboratory Manual for Essentials of Dental Radiography / Edition 3

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This is a student supplement associated with:

Essentials of Dental Radiography, 9/e
Evelyn M. Thomson, Old Dominion University

Orlen Johnson

ISBN: 0138019398

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780138019440
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/13/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 384
  • Sales rank: 936,716
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Winner of the 2001 Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics, Joseph E. Stiglitz is the author of Making Globalization Work; Globalization and Its Discontents; and, with Linda Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War. He was chairman of President Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers and served as senior vice president and chief economist at the World Bank. He teaches at Columbia University and lives in New York City.

Carl E. Walsh is professor of economics at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is widely known for his research in monetary economics and is the author of a leading graduate text, Monetary Theory and Policy (MIT Press). Before joining the Santa Cruz faculty, Professor Walsh was senior economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, where he continues to be a visiting scholar.

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Table of Contents

Preface XXV
Part 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 1 Modern Economics 3
Internet Connection: Tracking the Digital Economy 6
What Is Economics? 6
Thinking Like an Economist: Incentives and the Price of AOL 9
Internet Connection: Auction Sites 11
The Three Major Markets 15
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics: The Two Branches of Economics 17
The Science of Economics 18
Why Economists Disagree 19
Review and Practice 21
Chapter 2 Thinking Like an Economist 25
The Basic Competitive Model 25
e-Insight: Markets, Exchange, and e-Commerce 27
Incentives and Information: Prices, Property Rights, and Profits 29
Alternatives to the Price System 32
Opportunity Sets and Trade-Offs 34
Costs 37
Thinking Like an Economist: Trade-Offs 39
Internet Connection: Internet Resources for Economists 40
Case in Point: The Opportunity Cost of Attending College 40
Internet Connection: The Economists' Voice 43
Review and Practice 45
Appendix Reading Graphs 47
Part 2 Perfect Markets 51
Chapter 3 Demand, Supply, and Price 53
The Role of Prices 53
Demand 54
Case in Point: Gasoline Prices and the Demand for SUVs 59
Fundamentals of Demand, Supply, and Price 1 61
Supply 61
e-Insight: The Demand for Computers and Information Technology 62
Fundamentals of Demand, Supply, and Price 2 67
Law of Supply and Demand 67
Fundamentals of Demand, Supply, and Price 3 70
Price, Value, and Cost 70
Internet Connection: The Demand and Supply in the Oil Market 71
Review and Practice 72
Chapter 4 Using Demand and Supply 77
The Price Elasticity of Demand 77
The Determinants of the Elasticity of Demand 80
The Price Elasticity of Supply 82
International Perspective: Comparing Reactions to the Oil Price Shock of 2000 83
Using Demand and Supply Elasticities 85
Shortages and Surpluses 88
Interfering with the Law of Supply and Demand 90
Thinking Like an Economist: Incentives and the Window Tax 90
Case in Point: Rent Control in New York City 93
Internet Connection: Flawed Deregulation 94
Review and Practice 96
Appendix Elasticity and Slope 98
Chapter 5 The Consumption Decision 101
The Basic Problem of Consumer Choice 101
Case in Point: The Fate of the BTU Tax 107
Internet Connection: What We Consume 109
A Closer Look at the Demand Curve 109
Thinking Like an Economist: Incentives, Income Effects, and Substitution Effects 112
Utility and the Description of Preferences 113
Looking Beyond the Basic Model 118
Review and Practice 122
Appendix Indifference Curves and the Consumption Decision 124
Indifference Curves and Marginal Rates of Substitution 126
Using Indifference Curves to Illustrate Choices 127
Chapter 6 The Firm's Costs 131
Profits, Costs, and Factors of Production 132
Short-Run and Long-Run Cost Curves 141
Internet Connection: Economic Definitions 146
Production with Many Factors 146
Case in Point: The Principle of Substitution and Global Warming 148
Economies of Scope 150
Review and Practice 151
Chapter 7 The Competitive Firm 155
Revenue 155
Costs 156
Internet Connection: Firms' Profit-and-Loss Statements 157
Basic Conditions of Competitive Supply 158
Entry, Exit, and Market Supply 160
Long-Run Versus Short-Run Supply 164
e-Insight: The 2001 Recession: Cutbacks Versus Shutdowns 165
Accounting Profits and Economic Profits 166
Case in Point: Entering the Painting Business and Opportunity Costs 169
The Theory of the Competitive Firm 171
Review and Practice 172
Chapter 8 Labor Markets 175
The Labor Supply Decision 175
Internet Connection: Labor Force Data 176
Thinking Like an Economist: Trade-Offs 179
Firms and the Demand for Labor 181
Labor Supply, Demand, and the Equilibrium Wage 184
Review and Practice 186
Appendix Indifference Curves and the Labor Supply Decision 188
Chapter 9 Capital Markets 191
Supply in the Capital Market 191
Thinking Like an Economist: Wealth Distribution and Interest Rates 197
Internet Connection: Household Saving 198
Case in Point: Why Is the U.S. Saving Rate So Low? 198
A Behavioral Perspective on Saving 202
Education and Human Capital 203
e-Insight: Financing the New Economy 205
The Basic Competitive Model 206
Review and Practice 207
Appendix A Indifference Curves and the Saving Decision 209
Appendix B Calculating Present Discounted Value 211
Chapter 10 The Efficiency of Competitive Markets 215
Competitive Markets and Economic Efficiency 216
Fundamentals of Competitive Markets 1 218
Fundamentals of Competitive Markets 2 219
Internet Connection: Digital Economist 219
Efficiency 221
Thinking Like an Economist: Exchange and Distribution 224
Fundamentals of Competitive Markets 3 225
General Equilibrium Analysis 227
Thinking Like an Economist: Indirect Trade-Offs and Air Safety for Children 228
Case in Point: The Labor Market and the Widening Wage Gap 230
Case in Point: The Minimum Wage and General Equilibrium 231
Looking Beyond the Basic Model 234
Review and Practice 235
Part 3 Imperfect Markets 237
Chapter 11 Introduction to Imperfect Markets 239
Extending the Basic Competitive Model 240
Fundamentals of Imperfect Markets 1 242
Imperfect Competition and Market Structure 242
Internet Connection: The Federal Trade Commission 245
International Perspective: Trade and Competition 246
Fundamentals of Imperfect Markets 2 246
Imperfect Information 247
e-Insight: Information, Competition, and the Internet 249
Fundamentals of Imperfect Markets 3 251
Externalities 252
Thinking Like an Economist: Incentives and the Environment 253
Fundamentals of Imperfect Markets 4 254
Public Goods 254
Fundamentals of Imperfect Markets 5 255
Looking Ahead 256
Review and Practice 257
Chapter 12 Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition, and Oligopoly 261
Monopoly Output 261
Economies of Scale and Natural Monopolies 267
International Perspective: South Africa, AIDS, and Price Discrimination 268
Assessing the Degree of Competition 270
e-Insight: Network Externalities, the New Economy, and Monopoly Power 272
Equilibrium with Monopolistic Competition 273
Oligopolies 274
Internet Connection: Keeping Track of Oligopolies 281
Thinking Like an Economist: Trade-Offs, American Airlines, and Predation 283
The Importance of Imperfections in Competition 284
Review and Practice 285
Chapter 13 Government Policies Toward Competition 289
The Drawbacks of Monopolies and Limited Competition 289
e-Insight: Using the Internet to Enhance Price Discrimination 293
Policies Toward Natural Monopolies 293
International Perspective: The Darker Side of Privatization 296
Case in Point: California Electricity Deregulation 298
Antitrust Policies 299
Internet Connection: U.S. Department of Justice and Antitrust Laws 301
Thinking Like an Economist: Incentives and the Remedy to the Microsoft Monopoly Problem 302
Case in Point: Coke and Pepsi Play Merger 306
Review and Practice 308
Chapter 14 Strategic Behavior 311
Review of the Prisoner's Dilemma 312
Strategic Behavior in More General Games 316
International Perspective: Beggar-Thy-Neighbor Tariff Policies 317
Internet Connection: The Zero-Sum Game Solver 319
Repeated Games 319
Internet Connection: The Prisoner's Dilemma 321
Case in Point: Banking Panics 322
Sequential Moves 324
Thinking Like an Economist: Information and Thinking Strategically 326
Time Inconsistency 326
Review and Practice 329
Chapter 15 Imperfect Information in the Product Market 333
The Market for Lemons and Adverse Selection 333
The Incentive Problem 337
Case in Point: Buying Health Insurance 341
The Search Problem 342
Thinking Like an Economist: Incentive and Information Problems in the Housing Market 343
e-Insight: Information Technology and Middlemen 344
Internet Connection: Job Search 345
Advertising 347
The Importance of Imperfect Information 350
Review and Practice 351
Chapter 16 Imperfections in the Labor Market 355
Labor Unions 355
Internet Connection: Unions on the Internet 358
Wage Differentials 362
Motivating Workers 364
Case in Point: Minimum Wages 367
e-Insight: Labor Markets and the Internet 369
Review and Practice 371
Part 4 Issues in Public Policy 373
Chapter 17 The Public Sector 375
Why Does the Government Intervene in the Economy? 377
International Perspective: The Size of Government in Different Countries 377
e-Insight: The New Economy and Inequality 381
The U.S. Tax System in Practice 381
Transfers 386
Designing Government Programs 390
Government Failures 391
Current and Recent Controversies in the Economics of the Public Sector 395
Internet Connection: Policy Analysis 400
Review and Practice 401
Chapter 18 Environmental Economics 405
Negative Externalities and Oversupply 405
Policy Responses to Problems in the Environment 407
International Perspective: Global Warming 408
Thinking Like an Economist: Environmental and Economic Trade-Offs 410
Case in Point: Reducing Acid Rain 414
Natural Resources 416
Internet Connection: The National Center for Environmental Economics 416
e-Insight: Information and the Environment 418
Merit Goods and the Environment 418
Review and Practice 419
Chapter 19 International Trade and Trade Policy 423
Trade Between Countries 423
Comparative Advantage 426
Internet Connection: David Ricardo 427
e-Insight: The United States' Comparative Advantage in the Internet Age 429
The Perceived Costs of International Interdependence 432
Thinking Like an Economist: Exchange and the Globalization Controversy 432
Trade Policies 434
International Perspective: Surrogate Countries and Canadian Golf Carts 438
Political and Economic Rationale for Protection 439
Thinking Like an Economist: Distribution and Trade Liberalization 443
e-Insight: Trade Liberalization in Information Technology and Financial Services 444
International Cooperation 445
Case in Point: The Banana War 447
Internet Connection: The World Trade Organization 449
Review and Practice 450
Chapter 20 Technological Change 453
Links Between Technological Change and Imperfect Competition 454
e-Insight: The New Economy and Innovation 455
Thinking Like an Economist: Intellectual Property Rights and Distribution 456
Case in Point: Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin 460
Basic Research as a Public Good 464
Government Promotion of Technological Progress 465
Internet Connection: Competitiveness 468
Technological Change and Economic Growth 468
Review and Practice 469
Chapter 21 A Student's Guide to Investing 473
Investment Alternatives 474
Internet Connection: Calculating Interest Rates 475
Internet Connection: Index Funds 477
Desirable Attributes of Investments 478
Case in Point: PG&E Employees Learn Why Diversification is Important 480
e-Insight: Investing in the New Economy 480
Expectations and the Market for Assets 485
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