Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States / Edition 1

Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States / Edition 1

by Albert O. Hirschman
     
 

An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for… See more details below

Overview

An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for the customer to switch to the competing product, and the other, “voice,” is for members or customers to agitate and exert influence for change “from within.”

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780674276604
Publisher:
Harvard University Press
Publication date:
01/28/1970
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
176
Sales rank:
277,445
Product dimensions:
5.26(w) x 8.26(h) x 0.49(d)

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction and Doctrinal Background

    • Enter “exit” and “voice”
    • Latitude for deterioration, and slack in economic thought
    • Exit and voice as impersonations of economics and politics


  • 2. Exit

    • How the exit option works
    • Competition as collusive behavior


  • 3. Voice

    • Voice as a residual of exit
    • Voice as an alternative to exit


  • 4. A Special Difficulty in Combining Exit and Voice
  • 5. How Monopoly Can Be Comforted by Competition
  • 6. On Spatial Duopoly and the Dynamics of Two-Party Systems
  • 7. A Theory of Loyalty

    • The activation of voice as a function of loyalty
    • Loyalist behavior as modified by severe initiation and high penalties for exit
    • Loyalty and the difficult exit from public goods (and evils)


  • 8. Exit and Voice in American Ideology and Practice
  • 9. The Elusive Optimal Mix of Exit and Voice
  • Appendixes

    • A. A simple diagrammatic representation of voice and exit
    • B. The choice between voice and exit
    • C. The reversal phenomenon
    • D. Consumer reactions to price rise and quality decline in the case of several connoisseur goods
    • E. The effects of severity of initiation on activism: design for an experiment (in collaboration with Philip G. Zimbardo and Mark Snyder)


  • Index

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