The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives / Edition 4

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Now featured in a Classics Edition with a new Foreword by Donald Boch, The Expanded Family Life Cycle integrates theory and current research with clinical guidelines and cases by two of the most-respected authors, teachers, and clinicians in the field of family therapy, Betty Carter and Monica McGoldrick.

This classic Family Therapy text provides “and more comprehensive way to think about human development and the life cycle,” reflecting changes in society away from orientation toward the nuclear family, toward a more diverse and inclusive definition of “family.”

This expanded view of the family includes the impact of issues at multiple levels of the human system: the individual, family households, the extended family, the community, the cultural group, and the larger society. The text features a ground-breaking integration of individual male and female development in systemic context; our increasing racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity; the emergence of men's movements and issues; the growing visibility of lesbian and gay families; and the neglected area of social class.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205747962
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 8/17/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 552
  • Sales rank: 92,561
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Monica McGoldrick, M.A., M.S.W, Ph.D. (h.c.), is the Director of the Multicultural Family Institute in Highland Park, NJ, and on Psychiatry Faculty of the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Her other books include: Ethnicity and Family Therapy, 3rd ed; Genograms: Assessment and Intervention, 3rd ed. Living Beyond Loss: 2nd ed; Revisioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice, 2nd ed; and The Genogram Journey: Reconnecting with your Family- to be published by W. W. Norton in the Fall of 2010,whichtranslates her ideas about family relationships for a popular audience, using examples such as Beethoven, Groucho Marx, Sigmund Freud and the Kennedys.

She received her BA from Brown University, a Masters in Russian Studies from Yale University, and her M.S.W and an Honorary Doctorate from Smith College School for Social Work. Dr. McGoldrick is known internationally for her writings and teaching on topics including culture, class, gender, loss, family patterns (genograms), remarried families, and sibling relationships. Her clinical videotape demonstrating the use of the life cycle perspective with a multicultural remarried family dealing with issues of unresolved mourning has become one of the most widely respected videotapes available in the field.

Betty Carter, M.S.W., founder and Director Emerita (1977-1997) of the Family Institute of Westchester in White Plains, New York, spent over 30 years as a family therapy clinician, supervisor, teacher, and director of a major training institute. She received awards from the American Family Therapy Academy, Hunter College School of Social work, and the American Association of marriage and Family Therapy Research and Education Foundation. With her colleagues Peggy Papp, Olga Silverstein and Marianne Walters she co-founded the Women’s Project in Family Therapy, which promoted a feminist revisioning of family therapy and received awards from both the Family Therapy Academy and the AAMFT. Their work culminated in a book on gender-sensitive family therapy practice: The Invisible Web: Gender Patterns in Family Therapy Relationships.

In 1996 Betty Carter authored a trade book on couples, Love, Honor and Negotiate: Building Partnerships That Last a Lifetime. She published numerous professional book chapters and journal articles, along with educational videotapes produced by Steve Lerner for Guilford Press. Married to her husband Sam, a musician, for over 50 years, Betty has two sons and three grandchildren. She has said that of all her ideas she always loved the family life cycle framework most “because it contains all the other ideas and has room for more.”

Nydia Garcia-Preto, M.S.W., is the Associate Director at the Multicultural Family Institute in Highland Pk., NJ where she also has a Private Practice. Ms. Garcia-Preto was formerly a Visiting Professor at the Rutgers Graduate School of Social Work, and for many years the Director of the Adolescent Day Hospital, at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. She received her MSW from Rutgers Graduate School of Social Work and her BA in Sociology at Rider College. A highly respected family therapist, author, and teacher, and organizational trainer, she has publications in textbooks and journals on issues of cultural competence, Puerto Rican and Latino families, Latinas, immigration, ethnic intermarriage, and families with adolescents. She is co-editor of the most recent edition of Ethnicity and Family Therapy. Ms. Garcia-Preto received the Frantz Fanon, M.D. Award from the Post Graduate Center for Mental Health for her work Puerto Rican and Latino adolescents and families, and the Social Justice Award from The American Family Therapy Academy. She and her colleagues at MFI have developed many training for many years on multiculturalism in clinical work, and organizational consulting on cultural competence.


Constance Ahrons, Ph.D., Professor emerita and former director of the Marriage and Family Therapy Doctoral Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Private practice in San Diego.

Carol Anderson, MSW, Ph.D., Professor, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA. Editor, Family Process.

Marie Anderson, MSW, Mental health with low income populations, Pittsburgh, PA.

Deidre Ashton, MSSW, LCSW, Faculty/Supervisor, Center for Family, Community, and Social Justice, Inc. Princeton, NJ. Faculty, Ackerman Institute for the Family, New York, NY. Couple and Family Therapist, Princeton Family Institute, Princeton, NJ.

Kathy Berliner, LCSW, Marriage and Family Therapist. Former faculty Family Institute of Westchester.

Ellen Berman, MD, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Lynne Blacker, LCSW, Clinical Coordinator, Family Intervention Services, Morristown, NJ

Celia Jaes Falicov, Ph.D., Private Practice, San Diego, CA., Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA

Richard H. Fulmer, Ph.D., Postocostoral Programs in Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY. Private practice, New York, NY

Alison Heru, MD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, University of Colorado, Denver

Paulette Moore Hines, Ph.D., Director, Office of Prevention Services & Research, a division of UBHC-University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ.

Evan Imber-Black, Ed.D., Faculty, Ackerman Institute for Family Therapy, New York, NY

Demaris Jacobs, Ph.D., Former faculty Family Institute of Westchester

Jodie Kilman, Ph.D., Core faculty of the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, Boston, MA; founding member of the Boston Institute for Culturally Accountable Practice

Tracey Laszloffy, Ph.D., Private practice, Norwich, CT

Steve Lerner, Ph.D., Private Practice, Topeka, KS

Matthew Mock, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, John F. Kennedy University; Private Clinical and Consulting Practice, Berkeley, California; former Director, Center for Multicultural Development, California Institute for Mental Health (CIMH) and Drector, Family, Youth, Childern's and Multicultural Services, City of Berkeley, California.
Barbara Petkov, LMFT, Ed.S., Private practice, Highland Park; Alumni, MFI, Core Faculty MFI. Experience with children, adolescents, couples and families. Certified in EMDR. Trainer in cultural diversity
Sueli Petry, Ph.D., Alumna & Faculty of MFI. Experience with Latino families and with survivors of sexual abuse. Publications on Genograms, Brazilian families
John Rolland, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Chicago and Co-Director, Chicago Center for Family Health, Chicago, IL.
Mary Anne Ross, BA, COPSA Institute for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders, CMHC Piscataway University of Medicine and Dentistry of N.J.
Natalie Schwartzberg, LCSW, Marriage and Family Therapist. Former faculty Family Institute of Westchester.
Froma Walsh, MSW, Ph.D., Co-Founder, Chicago Center for Family Health, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Professor, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Editor, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Marlene Watson, Ph.D., Associate Professor and the Director of Programs in Couple and Family therapy at Drexel University in Philadelphia
David Wohlsifer, LCSW, Ph.D., Private Practice, Bala Psychological Resources, Bala Cynwyd, PA; Adjunct Professor, Bryn Mawr College, Graduate School of Social Work; Social Research, Univ. of Pennsylvania’s School of Social Policy and Practice

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Table of Contents

Most chapters include “Conclusions,” “Concluding Remarks,” and an “Introduction.”



1. Overview: The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives, Betty Carter and Monica McGoldrick.

The Family Life Cycle.

The Family as a System Moving through Time.

The Individual in the Family and in History.

The Vertical and Horizontal Flow of Stress in the Life Cycle.

Anxiety and Symptom Development.

The Changing Family Life Cycle.

The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual Development.

Contemporary Families.

Our Life Cycles Unfold in the Context of the Community of Our Connectedness.

The Larger Society.

The Changing Structure of Families.


The Political and Economic System.

The American Family of the Future.

Clinical Implications: The Multicontextual Framework.

Assessing Individual Development.

Assessing the Immediate Family Household(s).

Assessing the Extended Family.

Assessing the Family's Community and Social Connections.

Assessing the Impact on Clients Hierarchy and Power Inequality in the Larger Social Structures of Society.

A Method of Including the Sociocultural Context in Family Therapy.

2. Self in Context: The Individual Life Cycle in Systemic Perspective, Monica McGoldrick and Betty Carter.

Redefining the Dimensions of Human Development.

Developing a Self in Context.

The Myths of Complete Autonomy and Self-Determination.

Developing a Mature Interdependent Self.

It Takes a Village.

Gendered Development: From Adam's Rib.

Developing a Self in a Nonaffirming Environment.

Our Multiple Intelligences.

The Connected Self.

Countering Unequal Gender, Class, Cultural, and Racial Socialization.

The Individual Life Cycle in Context.

The "Slings and Arrows" as Individual, Family, and Community Intersect.

Developing an Autonomous and Emotionally Connected Self.

3. History, Genograms, and the Family Life Cycle: Freud in Context, Monica McGoldrick.

Using Genograms to Track Family History through the Family Life Cycle.

Courtship and Marriage of Freud's Parents: The Joining of Families.

The Transition to Parenthood and Families with Young Children.

Families with Adolescents.

Families at Midlife: Launching Children and Moving on.

Marriage: The Next Generation.

Parenthood: The Next Generation.

Families in Later Life.

4. Culture and the Family Life Cycle, Paulette Moore Hines, Nydia Garcia Preto, Monica McGoldrick, Rhea Almeida, and Susan Weltman.

Life Cycle Stages.

African American Families.

Latino Families.

Irish Families.

Asian Indian Families.

Jewish Families.

5. Social Class and the Family Life Cycle, Jodie Kliman and William Madsen.

Understanding Social Class.

Class Influences on the Family Life Cycle: Challenges and Possibilities.

Three Families.

Therapeutic Implications of the Intersection of Class and the Family Life Cycle.

6. Women and the Family Life Cycle, Monica McGoldrick.

Women's Changing Life Cycle Roles.

Women and Education.

Women and Work.

Women in Families.

Women in the Middle: Women and Caretaking.

Women's Exclusion from Power under the Law and Societal Expectations.

Women and Marriage.

Becoming Mothers.


Launching Children and Moving on.

Older Families.

Women and Their Friendship Networks.

Women and Loss.

That the Bumble Bee Should Fly: Affirming Women through the Life Cycle.

7. Men in Transition: The "New Man," Elliott J. Rosen.

The New Man and the Legacy of Masculinity.

Is There a “New Man?”

Men and Power.

Men, Friendship, and the Men's Movements.

Men and Their Relationships throughout the Family Life Cycle.

8. The Latino Family Life Cycle, Celia Jaes Falicov.

Family Organization, Migration, and the Family Life Cycle.

The Family with Young Children: Relatedness or Autonomy?

The Family with School-Age Children: Brave in a New World.

Adolescence: Between Two Worlds.

Young Adulthood: Staying Home and Courtship.

Marriage: Separating or Returning to the Fold?

Middle Age: A Full Nest.

The Elderly: Losses but a Shared Life.

Dying and Grieving.

9. Siblings through the Life Cycle, Monica McGoldrick, Marlene Watson, and Waymon Benton.

The Importance of Sibling Relationships through the Life Cycle.

Age Spacing.

Gender Differences.

Birth-Order Effects in Sibling Relationships.

Life Cycle Issues in Families with Disabled Siblings.

Sibling Positions and Parenting.

Siblings and Adolescent Relationships.

Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood.

Sibling Positions and Marital Relationships.

Sibling Relationships in Midlife.

Sibling Relationships after the Death of Parents.

Other Factors that Intersect with Sibling Patterns: Culture, Class, and Race.

Rules of Thumb for Sibling Relationships through the Life Cycle.

10. Migration and The Family Life Cycle, Miguel Hernandez and Monica McGoldrick.

The Migration Experience.

Changes in Social Networks.

Changes in Socioeconomic Status.

Changes in Culture.

Life Cycle Phase at the Time of Migration.

11. Death and the Family Life Cycle, Monica McGoldrick and Froma Walsh.

Family Adaptation to Loss.

Timing of Loss in the Family Life Cycle.

Loss at Different Life Cycle Stages.

Death in Divorced and Remarried Families.

Varied Life Course: Challenges of Hidden and Stigmatized Losses.

12. Creating Meaningful Rituals for New Life Cycle Transitions, Evan Imber-Black.

Creating Rituals as a Developmental Task for Couples.

Contemporary Life Cycle Transitions.

The Emergence of Symptoms.

Therapeutic Rituals.

Discussion of the Ritual.

Healing Rituals

Identity Redefinition Rituals.

Designing and Implementing Rituals for Idiosyncratic Life Cycle Transitions.


13. Becoming an Adult: Leaving Home and Staying Connected, Richard Fulmer.

Young Adulthood: Developmental Tasks.

Young Adulthood in the 1990's.

Late Adolescence or Early Young Adulthood: Age 18-21.

Issues for the Family.

Young Adulthood for Heterosexual Men.

Young Adulthood for Heterosexual Women.

Young Adulthood for Gay Men.

Young Adulthood for Lesbians.

The Poor Get Poorer: The Last Two Decades.

14. Becoming a Couple, Monica McGoldrick.

Marriage in Our Times.

Fusion and Intimacy.

Gay and Lesbian Couples.

The Wedding.


Patterns with Extended Family.


Sibling Issues in Couple Formation.

Cultural Differences.

Issues in Marital Adjustment.

15. Becoming Parents: The Family with Young Children, Betty Carter.

Gender Issues in Parenting.


Alternate Pathways to Parenthood.

Clinical Guidelines.

16. Transformation of the Family System during Adolescence, Nydia Garcia Preto.

The Sociocultural Context.

Developing a Gender Identity.

Changes in the Family Structure.

Therapeutic Interventions.

17. The Launching Phase of the Life Cycle, Lynn Blacker.


Gender Issues: Men and Women at Midlife.

Midlife Marriages.

Midlife Divorces.

Midlifers at Work.

Redefining Family Relationships at Midlife.

Friendships at Midlife.

Gays and Lesbians at Midlife.


18. Families in Later Life: Challenges and Opportunities, Froma Walsh.

The Graying of the Family.

Later-Life Transitions and Challenges.

Successful Aging.

Clinical Challenges and Opportunities: A Resiliency-Based Approach.

19. The Family Life Cycle of African American Families Living in Poverty, Paulette Moore Hines.

Factors Influencing Diversity, Functioning, and Resilience through the Life Cycle.

Characteristics of the Family Life Cycle.

Assessment and Treatment Considerations.

Stages of the Family Life Cycle.

Avoiding Therapist Burnout.

20. Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Family Life Cycle, Thomas W. Johnson and Patricia Colucci.


Leaving Home/Single Young Adulthood.



Midlife/Later Life.

21. The Single Adult and the Family Life Cycle, Kathy Berliner, Demaris Jacob, and Natalie Scwartzberg.

Setting the Clinical Stage.

The Single Person's Life Cycle.

22. The Divorce Cycle: A Major Variation in the American Family Life Cycle, Betty Carter and Monica McGoldrick.

Gender Issues in Divorce.


The Divorce and Postdivorce Family Emotional Process.

Family Emotional Process of the Transition to Remarriage.

23. Divorce: An Unscheduled Family Transition, Constance R. Ahrons.

The Context of Divorce.

Divorce as a Multidimensional Process.

The Transitions Framework.

Clinical Overview.

24. Single-Parent Families: Strengths, Vulnerabilities, and Interventions, Carol M. Anderson.

Changing Prevalence and Pathways.

The Adaptation of Children in Single-Parent Families through the Life Cycle.

Validating the History and Present of Single-Parent Family Experiences.

Engaging Single-Parent Families in Therapy.

The Significance of the Social Context: Kin and Nonkin Networks.

Recognizing and Mobilizing Strengths.

Reinforcing the Mother's Authority.

Addressing Special Life Cycle Issues of Single-Parent Families.

25. Remarried Families, Monica McGoldrick and Betty Carter.

A New Paradigm of Family.

Stepfamily Formation Following Death.

Gays and Lesbians in Stepfamilies.

Money in Remarried Families.

Predictable Emotional Issues in Remarriage.

The Process of Remarriage.

The Impact of Remarriage at Various Phases of the Family Life Cycle.

Spouses at Same Life Cycle Phase.

Stepfamilies and Young Children.

Stepfamilies with Adolescents.

The Impact of Remarriage in Later Life Cycle Phases.

Family Therapy with Remarried Families: Clinical Procedures and Illustrations.

Key Presenting Triangles in Remarried Families.


26. Coaching at Various Stages of the Life Cycle, Betty Carter and Monica McGoldrick.

System Interactions.

Fusion versus Differentiation.


Distancing and Cut-Off.


The Role of the Coach.



Opening Up a Closed System.

Engagement and System Mapping.

Planning: Learning about the System and One's Own Role in It.


The Single Young Adult.

The Young Couple.

Families with Young Children.

Families with Adolescents.

The Couple at or Past the Launching Stage.

Elderly Clients.

Coaching Single Parents.

Coaching Remarried Family Members.

Coaching Minority-Group Clients.

Guidelines for the Therapist.

27. Alcohol Problems and the Family Life Cycle, Jacqueline Hudak, Jo Ann Krestan, and Claudia Bepko.

Addiction in Context.

The Family Life Cycle: A Long-Term Perspective on Alcohol Use.

Self-Help Groups.

Bias against the Alcoholic.

The Impact of Race and Culture.

Addiction: Staging and Life Cycle Issues in Assessment.

The Family with Adolescents.

The Unattached Young Adult.

New Couples.

Couples at Any Stage.

Domestic Violence.

After Sobriety.

Gay and Lesbian Couples.

New Parents.

Children in Alcoholic Families.

Early Warning Signs for Children at Risk.

When a Parent Gets Sober.

Launching Children and Moving on.

The Family in Later Life: Addiction and the Elderly.


Summary and Conclusions.

28. Violence and the Family Life Cycle, Monica McGoldrick, Mary Ann Broken Nose, and Mildred Potenza.

Why Intervention Must Address Social Accountability.

Young Adulthood.

Newly Formed Couple Relationships.

Families with Young Children.

Families with Adolescents.

Families at Midlife.

Older Families.

29. Chronic Illness and the Family Life Cycle, John S. Rolland.

The Social Context of Illness and Disabilities.

Psychosocial Typologies of Illness.

Time Phases of Illness.

Interface of the Illness, Individuals, and Family Life Cycles.

Multigenerational Experiences with Illness, Loss, and Crisis.

30. Interactions between the Therapist's and Client's Life Cycle Stages, Steve Lerner.

Dimensions of Similarity between Therapist and Client.

Brief Scenarios: Complex Therapist-Family Life Cycle Interactions.

Families with Young Children: A Complex Intersection.

She Nurtures/He Earns: The Therapist's Transition Gets in the Way.

The Long-Term View: Working with One Family Over Successive Life Cycle Stages.

Working with Loss: A Link between Life Cycle Stages.

Name Index.

Subject Index.

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