Expanding the Reach of Reform: Perspectives from Leaders in the Scale-up of Educational Interventions


How does one spread out a successful educational reform? THe authors recount the scale-ups of a variety of programs, descsribing the challenges they faced and the lessons they drew from their experiences.

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How does one spread out a successful educational reform? THe authors recount the scale-ups of a variety of programs, descsribing the challenges they faced and the lessons they drew from their experiences.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780833036599
  • Publisher: Rand Publishing
  • Publication date: 1/30/2004
  • Pages: 749
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 8.88 (h) x 1.54 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface iii
Dedication vii
Figures xv
Tables xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Abbreviations xxi
Chapter 1 Introduction: Framing the Problem 1
Origins and Purpose of This Book 3
Scale-Up in an Earlier Era of Educational Reforms 5
Environmental Shifts in the 1980s and 1990s 13
Lessons from the Field 15
A Conceptual Framework for Scale-Up 27
Outline of the Remainder of the Book 32
References 34
Chapter 2 Cognitively Guided Instruction: Challenging the Core of Educational Practice 41
The Conceptual Basis for Scaling Up 43
Cognitively Guided Instruction 44
The Development of Children's Mathematical Thinking 46
CGI in the Classroom 50
The Nature of the Professional Development 51
How Change Occurs 51
Teacher and Student Outcomes 53
Challenges 54
Scaling Up 54
Conclusions 71
Making It Work 76
References 77
Chapter 3 The National Writing Project: Scaling Up and Scaling Down 81
The NWP Design 84
A Culture of Risk-Taking 94
Practices of Scaling Down 100
Conclusions 104
References 105
Chapter 4 Impediments to Scaling Up Effective Comprehensive School Reform Models 107
Assumptions About the Context and Nature of Scaling Up Comprehensive School Reform Models 109
Problems in Scaling Up as a Function of the Demands of the Model 111
Effective Models 116
Patterns of Scaling Up and Their Relative Efficiency 120
Special Challenges of Large School Districts 122
Conclusions 130
References 132
Chapter 5 Scaling Up Success For All: Lessons for Policy and Practice 135
Success For All 137
Program Characteristics Affecting Dissemination 139
Obey-Porter Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration 145
Extending Our Reach 147
Organization and Capital 154
District-Level Failures 157
District-Level Implementations 159
Reconciling District Successes and Failures 161
Lessons Learned 162
Policy Implications 164
Recommendations 165
Conclusions 169
References 171
Chapter 6 Taking Education Programs to Scale: Lessons from the Field 175
A Brief History of Project GRAD 176
Project GRAD Program Design Elements 179
How Project GRAD Achieves Results 182
The Effects of Project GRAD to Date 186
Challenges in Scaling Up Project GRAD 190
Funding Concepts and Their Effects on Scale-Up 192
Final Observations on Scaling Up Project GRAD 195
Reference 196
Chapter 7 Reaching for Coherence in School Reform: The Case of America's Choice 197
The Need for Coherent Systems to Drive Up Educational Performance 201
Building Capacity to Operate a Coherent System at Scale: The Story of the America's Choice School Design 213
The Tools Needed for Building Capacity 221
Building Capacity at the School, District, and State Levels 241
The Case for Third-Party Assistance 253
Putting Coherent Systems in Perspective 254
References 258
Chapter 8 A Different Way of Growing 259
Development and Implementation of the Different Ways of Knowing Design Through 1998 261
Responding to New Demands for School Reform Services After 1998: Building Capacity 279
Challenges Associated with Supporting the Goals of the No Child Left Behind Act 291
The Future of Schoolwide Reform: Obtaining the Resources to Support Intermediary Organizations 295
References 297
Chapter 9 Co-nect at the Crossroads: Four Considerations on Getting to Scale 303
The Climate and Conditions for Scaling Up 304
Scaling Success: Attention to Results 310
Scaling the Desirable 318
The Feasibility of Scale 323
Sustaining Reform: Co-nect at the Crossroads 333
Conclusions 346
References 347
Chapter 10 Scaling Up Turning Points Through Autonomous Regional Centers 351
The Turning Points Design 352
A Brief History of the Turning Points Design 357
Creating the Turning Points Network of Regional Centers 363
Looking Ahead: Building on Strengths, Facing New Challenges 376
References 377
Chapter 11 Scaling Up Talent Development High Schools: Lessons Learned from Comprehensive High School Reform 379
What Is Wrong with Comprehensive High Schools, and Why Are They So Difficult to Change? 380
Challenges to Implementing and Scaling Up TDHS 390
Meeting the Challenges 409
It Is Not Too Late for Reforms in High Schools 425
References 429
Chapter 12 Taking High Schools That Work to Scale: The Evolution of a High School Reform Program 433
Linking Career and Technical Education to High School Reform: The Impetus for HTSW 435
Phase I Launching HSTW 437
Phase II Scaling Up HSTW 454
Phase III Increasing Breadth, Depth, Stability, and Financial Resources 462
Achieving Success at Scale: Lessons from the Past and Challenges for the Future 474
Closing Thoughts 484
References 485
Chapter 13 The First Few Years of Edison Schools: Ten Lessons in Getting to Scale 487
Lesson 1 Start with a Proven Reform Model-and Standardize It 489
Lesson 2 Hire and Fire Your Own Principals and Teachers 494
Lesson 3 Build Effective and Efficient Support Systems 497
Lesson 4 Build Site Capacity 500
Lesson 5 Establish Clear and Simple Accountability Systems 502
Lesson 6 Establish Strong Measurement Systems 504
Lesson 7 Get Measurable Results-Fast 506
Lesson 8 Satisfy Your Customers 509
Lesson 9 Adjust To Local Norms 511
Lesson 10 Find a Better Balance of Growth, Systems, and Profitability 513
References 516
Chapter 14 School Districts as Learning Organizations: A Strategy for Scaling Education Reform 517
Providing High-Quality Education for All Students 519
The District as the Target of Reform 522
Building High-Performance School Districts: A Theory of Action 537
Lessons from Experience 549
Closing Thoughts 559
References 560
Chapter 15 Choices and Consequences in the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative: Building the Capacity to Scale Up Whole-School Improvement 565
Scaling Up Capacity for Continuous Improvement 567
Building Capacity in Education Organizations 569
A Focus on Cultural Change 571
Organizational Capacity and Continuous Improvement in Action 572
A Response: BASRC's History and Approach 577
BASRC Results 579
Early Strategic Choices and BASRC's View of Scale 580
Building on the Policy Context: Choices and More Choices 584
Lessons Learned About Scale 598
References 601
Chapter 16 Leveraging the Market to Scale Up School Improvement Programs: A Fee-for-Service Primer for Foundations and Nonprofits 603
My Vantage Point 605
Philanthropy's Challenge 606
How NAS Came to the Fee-For-Service Strategy 610
Pursuing a Fee-for-Service Dissemination Strategy 617
Are Developers Ready for Scale? 622
The Role of Foundations in Attaining Scalability 635
Conclusions 645
Reference 646
Chapter 17 Summary: Toward a More Systematic Approach to Expanding the Reach of Educational Interventions 647
Further Elaboration of the Scale-Up Process 648
Core Tasks in the Scale-Up Process 652
Conclusions 681
References 684
A Contributors 687
B Program Descriptions and Contact Information 701
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