Experimental Embryology of Vascular Plants

Experimental Embryology of Vascular Plants

by B. M. Johri

ISBN-10: 0387103341

ISBN-13: 9780387103341

Pub. Date: 07/28/1982

Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC

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Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- Scope of the Present Work.- Some Landmarks.- Nutrient Media.- Polyembryony.- References.- 2. Experimental Embryology of Pteridophytes.- Initiation of Antheridia.- Spermatogenesis.- Initiation of Archegonia.- Oogenesis.- Cytological Characteristics.- Biochemical Characteristics.- Maturation of the Egg.- Fertilization.- Attraction of the Sperm.- Penetration of the Egg.- Pattern of Development in Fern Embryos.- Regulation of Developmental Patterns in Fern Embryos.- Surgical Experiments.- Growth of Isolated Embryos.- Biochemical Studies.- References.- 3. Experimental Embryology of Gymnosperms.- Embryogenic Types.- Culture of Embryos.- Developmental Potential of Proembryos.- Experiments with Full-term (Mature) Embryos.- Adventitious Embryo Development.- Culture of Gametophytes.- Microspores and Microgametophytes.- Megagametophytes.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 4. Flower Culture.- Differentiation in Floral Bud Cultures: Herbaceous Species.- Differentiation in Floral Bud Cultures: Woody Species.- Callusing of Floral Explants and Differentiation.- Reversal of Floral Explants to Vegetative Condition.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 5. Anther Culture.- Methods of Culture.- Nutritional and Hormonal Conditions for Androgenesis.- Developmental Stage of Microspore and Other Factors for Pollen Division.- Ontogeny of Pollen Embryoids.- Ploidy Status of Androgenic Plants.- Pollen Plantlets from Haploid, Triploid, and Tetraploid Species.- Androgenic Plantlets from Haploid Datura.- Pollen Plantlets from Triploid and Tetraploid Datura.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 6. Ovary, Ovule, and Nucellus Culture.- Ovaries.- Effect of Growth Substances.- Role of Floral Organs.- Incompatibility Barriers in Hybridization.- Induction of Polyembryony.- Culture of Ovaries of Apomictic Species.- Ovules.- Effect of Growth Substances.- Effect of Physical Factors.- Ovule Culture in Hybridization.- Culture of Unfertilized Ovules.- Nucellus.- Culture of Nucellus from Fertilized Ovules.- Culture of Nucellus from Unfertilized Ovules.- Factors Affecting Nucellar Embryogenesis in Vitro.- Nucellar Embryogenesis in Vitro in Species Other than Citrus.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 7. Pollen-Pistil Interaction and Control of Fertilization.- The Pollen Grain.- The Pistil.- Pollen-Pistil Interaction.- Pollen Tube Growth.- Chemotropism.- Fertilization.- Incompatibility.- Factors Involved in Recognition.- Pollen-Wall Proteins.- Stigma-Surface Proteins.- Sequence of Recognition and Rejection.- Intraspecific Incompatibility.- Interspecific Incompatibility.- Mechanism of Inhibition.- Intraspecific Incompatibility.- Interspecific Incompatibility.- Methods of Overcoming Incompatibility.- Recognition Pollen/Mentor Pollen.- Intra-Ovarian Pollination and Test-Tube Fertilization.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8. Endosperm Culture.- Culture of Immature Endosperm.- Culture of Mature Endosperm.- Embryo Factor.- Histological and Cytological Studies.- Growth Requirements.- Physical Factors.- Chemical Factors and Differentiation.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 9. Embryo Culture.- Culture of Differentiated and Mature Embryos.- Culture of Proembryos.- Role of Natural Plant Extracts.- Coconut Milk.- Other Endosperm and Plant Extracts.- Chemical Factors of Endosperm Extracts.- Effect of Protein Preparations.- Role of High Osmotic Concentration.- Effect of Growth Hormones.- Comparative Growth of Embryos in Vivo and in Vitro.- Culture of Embryonal Segments.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 10. Protoplast Culture.- Isolation of Protoplasts.- Mechanical Method.- Enzymatic Method.- Culture of Protoplasts.- Procedure.- Nutrient Media.- Cell Wall Formation and Division.- Regeneration in Protoplast Cultures.- Embryogenesis.- Organogenesis.- Applications.- Somatic Cell Fusion and Hybridization.- Uptake of Micromolecules and Transfer of Genetic Information.- DNA Uptake.- Uptake of Virus Particles.- Bacterial Uptake and Nitrogen Fixation.- Chloroplast Transplantation.- Concluding Remarks.- Isolation of Protoplasts.- Regeneration in Protoplast Cultures.- Somatic Cell Fusion, Hybrids and Selection System.- References.- Plant Index.

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