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Experimental Methodology / Edition 10
     

Experimental Methodology / Edition 10

by Larry B. Christensen
 

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ISBN-10: 0205484735

ISBN-13: 9780205484737

Pub. Date: 07/05/2006

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

This book presents a reader-friendly introduction to the basic principles of experimental psychological research.

Experimental Methodology is organized so that each chapter focuses on a specific step in the research process. The book provides instruction in experimental research as well as non-experimental approaches such as ex-post facto research,

Overview

This book presents a reader-friendly introduction to the basic principles of experimental psychological research.

Experimental Methodology is organized so that each chapter focuses on a specific step in the research process. The book provides instruction in experimental research as well as non-experimental approaches such as ex-post facto research, correlational research, and survey research. Also included are qualitative research approaches such as ethnography and phenomenology.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205484737
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
07/05/2006
Series:
MySearchLab Series for Psychology Series
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
544
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.00(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Scientific Research

Chapter Review

Introduction

Methods

Tenacity

Intuition

Authority

Rationalism

Empiricism

Science

Induction

Hypothesis Testing

Naturalism

Kuhn and Paradigms

Lakatos and Research Programs

Feyerabend’s Anarchists Theory of Science

What is Science?

Pseudoscience

Overuse of ad hoc Hypotheses to Escape Refutation

Absence of Self-Correction

Reversed burden of Proof

Emphasis on Confirmation rather than Refutation

Overreliance on Testimonials and Anecdotal Evidence

Use of Obscurantist language

Absence of “Connectivity” with Other Disciplines

Advantage of Scientific Research

Characteristics of Scientific Research

Control

Operation

Replication

Objectives of Scientific Research

Description

Explanation

Prediction

Control

Basic Assumption Underlying Scientific Research

Reality in Nature

Rationality

Regularity

Discoverability

The Role of Theory in Scientific Research

The Role of the Scientist in Research

Curiosity

Patience

Objectivity

Change

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Test

Challenge Exercises

2. Nonexperimental Research Approaches

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Nonexperimental Quantitative Research

Correlational Study

Ex Post Facto Study

Longitudinal Study and Cross-Sectional Study

Naturalistic Observation

Meta Analysis

The Survey

Methods of Data Collection

Questionnaire Construction

Response Bias

Qualitative Research

Phenomenology

Ethnography

Ethnographic Methods

Entry and Group Acceptance

Data Collection, Analysis, Report Writing

Case Study

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

3. The Experimental Research Approach

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Causation

Cause

Effect

Causal Relationship

The Psychological Experiment

Advantages of the Experimental Approach

Causal Inference

Control

Ability of Manipulate Variables

Disadvantages of the Experimental Approach

Does Not Test Effects of Nonmanipulated Variables

Artificiality

Inadequate Method of Scientific Inquiry

Experimental Research Settings

Field Experimentation

Laboratory Experimentation

Internet Experiments

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

4. Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Sources of Research Ideas

Everyday Life

Practical Issues

Past Research

Theory

Gender Bias in Research Ideas

Ideas Not Capable of Scientific Investigation

Review of the Literature

Getting Started

Defining Objectives

Doing the Search

Books

Psychological Journals

Computerized or Electronic Databases

Internet Resources

Obtaining Resources

Additional Information Sources

Feasibility of the Study

Formulating the Research Problem

Defining a Research Problem

Specificity of the Question

Formulating Hypotheses

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

5. Ethics

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Research Ethics: What Are They?

Relationship between Society and Science

Professional Issues

Treatment of Research Participants

Ethical Dilemmas

Ethical Guidelines

Respect for Persons and their Autonomy

Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

Justice

Trust

Fidelity and Scientific Integrity

APA Ethical Standards for Research

Ethical Issues to Consider When Conducting Research

Institutional Approval

Informed Consent

Dispensing with Informed Consent

Informed Consent and Minors

Passive versus Active Consent

Deception

Debriefing

Coercion and Freedom to Decline Participation

Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy

Ethical Issues in Electronic Research

Informed Consent and Internet Research

Privacy and Internet Research

Debriefing and Internet Research

Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report

Authorship

Writing the Research Report

Ethics of Animal Research

Animal Rights

Alternatives to the Use of Animals

Safeguards in the Use of Animals

Animal Research Guidelines

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

6. Variables Used in Experimentation

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Types of Variables

The Independent Variable

Variation

Presence versus Absence

Amount of a Variable

Type of a Variable

Establishing Variation in the Independent Variable

Experimental Manipulation

Individual Difference Manipulation

Constructing the Independent Variable

Number of Independent Variables

The Dependent Variable

Response to be Used as the Dependent Variable

Reducing Participant Error

Number of Dependent Variables

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

7. Reliability and Validity in Experimental Research

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Relationship Between Reliability and Validity

Experimental Reliability

Reliability and the Number and Identification of the Participants

Reliability and the Ability and Characteristics of the Researcher

Reliability and the Independent Variable

Reliability and the Dependent Variable

Measurement Error

Methods of Assessing Reliability

Successive Measurement

Simultaneous Measurement

Internal Consistency

Experimental Validity

Statistical Conclusion Validity

Internal Validity

Threats to Internal Validity

History

Maturation

Instrumentation

Testing

Regression Artifact

Attrition

Selection

Additive and Interactive Effects

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

8. Construct and External Validity in Experimental Research

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Construct Validity

Assessing Construct Validity

Content Validity

Criterion-Related Validity

Other Sources of Evidence of Construct Validity

Threats to Construct Validity

Reactivity to the Experimental Situation

Participant Effect

Conditions Producing a Positive Self-Presentation Motive

Implication for Research

Experimenter Effects

Experimenter Attributes

Experimenter Expectancies

Mediation of Expectancy

Magnitude of the Expectancy Effect

External Validity

Population Validity

Ecological Validity

Temporal Validity

Treatment Variation Validity

Outcome Validity

Cautions in Evaluating the External Validity of Experiments

Relationship Between Internal and External Validity

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

9. Control Techniques

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Randomization

Matching

Matching by Holding Variables Constant

Matching by Building the Extraneous Variable into the Research Design

Matching by Yoked Control

Matching by Equating Participants

Precision Control

Frequency Distribution Control

Counterbalancing

Intrasubject Counterbalancing: The ABBA Technique

Intragroup Counterbalancing

Incomplete Counterbalancing

Control of Participation Effects

Double Blind Placebo Model

Deception

Procedural Control, or Control of Participant Interpretation

Control of Experimenter Effects

Control of Recording Errors

Control of Experimenter Attribute Errors

Control of Experimenter Expectancy Error

The Blind Technique

The Partial Blind Technique

Automation

Likelihood of Achieving Control

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

10. Experimental Research Design

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Research Designs with Threats to Internal Validity

One-Group Posttest-Only Design

One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design

Nonequivalent Posttest-Only Design

Requirements of Experimental Research Designs

Pretesting Participants

Experimental Research Designs

Posttest-Only Design

Between-Participants Posttest-Only Design

Within-Participants Posttest-Only Design

Combining Between- and Within-Participants Designs

Pretest-Posttest Design

Choice of a Research Design

Research Question

Control

Between-versus Within-Participants Design

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

11. Quasi-Experimental Designs

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design

Outcomes with Rival Hypohteses

Outcome I: First Increasing Treatment Effect

Outcome II: Increasing Treatment and Control Groups

Outcome III: Second Increasing Treatment Effect

Outcome IV: Crossover Effect

Causal Inference from the Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design

Time-Series Design

Interrupted Time-Series Design

Regression Discontinuity Design

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

12. Single-Case Research Designs

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Single-Case Designs

ABA Design

Interaction Design

Multiple-Baseline Design

Changing-Criterion Design

Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs

Baseline

Changing One Variable at a Time

Length of Phases

Criteria for Evaluating Change

Experimental Criterion

Therapeutic Criterion

Rival Hypotheses

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

13. Data Collection

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Research Participants

Obtaining Animals (Rats)

Obtaining Human Participants

Gender Bias

Sample Size

Power

Apparatus and/or Instruments

Instructions

Scheduling of Research Participants

Procedure

Pilot Study

Institutional Approval

Data Collection

Consent to Participate

Debriefing, or Postexperimental Interview

Debriefing Functions

How to Debrief

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

14. Hypothesis Testing

Chapter Preview

Introduction

Testing the Hypothesis

The Mean

Standard Deviation

Selection of a Statistical Test

Independent Samples t-Test

Significance Level

Analysis of Variance

One-Way Analysis of Variance

Analysis of Variance Summary Table

Interpreting the Results of the Analysis of Variance

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Rejecting versus Failing to Reject the Null Hypothesis

Potential Error in the Statistical Decision-Making Process

Correlation

Computation in Correlation

Interpretation of Correlation

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Practice Tests

Challenge Exercises

15. The Research Report

Chapter Preview

Introduction

The APA Format

Preparation of the Research Report

Writing Style

Language

Specificity

Labels

Participation

Specific Issues

Editorial Style

Italics

Abbreviation

Headings

Quotations

Numbers

Physical Measurements

Presentation of Statistical Results

Tables

Figures

Figure Captions

Reference Citations

Reference List

Typing

Ordering of Manuscript Pages

Submission of the Research Report for Publication

Acceptance of the Manuscript

Presenting Research Results at Professional Conferences

Oral Presentation

Poster Presentation

Summary

Key Terms and Concepts

Related Internet Sites

Appendices

A. Answers to Practice Tests

B. Critical Values of t

C. The 5 Percent and 1 Percent Values for the F-Distribution

D. Table of Random Numbers

References

Index

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