Experimental Methods for Engineers / Edition 6

Experimental Methods for Engineers / Edition 6

by Jack Philip Holman, J. P. Holman
     
 

ISBN-10: 0070296669

ISBN-13: 9780070296664

Pub. Date: 09/28/1993

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

This market leader offers the broadest range of experimental measurement techniques available for mechanical and general engineering applications. Complete with clear descriptions of the general behavior of different measurement techniques for pressure,flow,temperature,etc.,this text emphasizes the use of uncertainty analysis and statistical data analysis in the

Overview

This market leader offers the broadest range of experimental measurement techniques available for mechanical and general engineering applications. Complete with clear descriptions of the general behavior of different measurement techniques for pressure,flow,temperature,etc.,this text emphasizes the use of uncertainty analysis and statistical data analysis in the estimation of accuracy of measurements.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780070296664
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
09/28/1993
Series:
Mechanical Engineering Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
616
Product dimensions:
6.64(w) x 9.57(h) x 1.17(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction
1(5)
Basic Concepts
6(39)
Introduction
6(1)
Definition of Terms
6(1)
Calibration
7(1)
Standards
8(3)
Dimensions and Units
11(6)
The Generalized Measurement System
17(3)
Basic Concepts in Dynamic Measurements
20(11)
System Response
31(1)
Distortion
31(1)
Impedance Matching
32(3)
Experiment Planning
35(10)
Analysis of Experimental Data
45(69)
Introduction
45(1)
Causes and Types of Experimental Errors
46(1)
Error Analysis on a Commonsense Basis
47(2)
Uncertainty Analysis
49(7)
Evaluation of Uncertainties for Complicated Data Reduction
56(1)
Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data
57(5)
Probability Distributions
62(4)
The Gaussian or Normal Error Distribution
66(9)
Probability Graph Paper
75(2)
The Chi-Square Test of Goodness of Fit
77(7)
Method of Least Squares
84(4)
The Correlation Coefficient
88(2)
Standard Deviation of the Mean
90(2)
Student's t-Distribution
92(6)
Graphical Analysis and Curve Fitting
98(1)
General Considerations in Data Analysis
99(3)
Summary
102(12)
Basic Electrical Measurements and Sensing Devices
114(96)
Introduction
114(1)
Forces of Electromagnetic Origin
115(4)
Waveform Measures
119(2)
Basic Analog Meters
121(7)
Basic Digital Meters
128(2)
Basic Input Circuits
130(14)
Amplifiers
144(4)
Differential Amplifiers
148(1)
Operational Amplifiers
149(5)
Transformers
154(1)
Power Supplies
155(2)
Signal Conditioning
157(12)
The Electronic Voltmeter (EVM)
169(1)
Digital Voltmeters
170(1)
The Oscilloscope
171(5)
Oscilloscope Selection
176(3)
Oscillographs
179(3)
Counters---Time and Frequency Measurements
182(1)
Transducers
183(1)
The Variable-Resistance Transducer
183(1)
The Differential Transformer (LVDT)
183(4)
Capacitive Transducers
187(3)
Piezoelectric Transducers
190(1)
Photoelectric Effects
191(1)
Photoconductive Transducers
192(3)
Photovoltaic Cells
195(1)
Ionization Transducers
196(1)
Magnetometer Search Coil
196(2)
Hall-Effect Transducers
198(1)
Digital Displacement Transducers
199(1)
Comparison of Analog and Digital Instruments
200(1)
Summary
201(9)
Displacement and Area Measurements
210(19)
Introduction
210(1)
Dimensional Measurements
210(2)
Gage Blocks
212(1)
Optical Methods
213(3)
Pneumatic Displacement Gage
216(2)
Area Measurements
218(1)
The Planimeter
219(3)
Graphical and Numerical Methods for Area Measurement
222(2)
Surface Areas
224(5)
Pressure Measurement
229(31)
Introduction
229(3)
Dynamic Response Considerations
232(3)
Mechanical Pressure-Measurement Devices
235(4)
Dead-Weight Tester
239(1)
Bourdon-Tube Pressure Gage
240(1)
Diaphragm and Bellows Gages
241(4)
The Bridgman Gage
245(1)
Low-Pressure Measurement
246(1)
The McLeod Gage
246(2)
Pirani Thermal-Conductivity Gage
248(2)
The Knudsen Gage
250(1)
The Ionization Gage
251(1)
The Alphatron
252(1)
Summary
253(7)
Flow Measurement
260(64)
Introduction
260(1)
Positive-Displacement Methods
261(3)
Flow-Obstruction Methods
264(4)
Practical Considerations for Obstruction Meters
268(10)
The Sonic Nozzle
278(2)
Flow Measurement by Drag Effects
280(7)
Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Anemometers
287(4)
Magnetic Flowmeters
291(2)
Flow-Visualization Methods
293(2)
The Shadowgraph
295(1)
The Schlieren
296(3)
The Interferometer
299(2)
The Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA)
301(4)
Smoke Methods
305(1)
Pressure Probes
306(6)
Impact Pressure in Supersonic Flow
312(1)
Summary
313(11)
The Measurement of Temperature
324(68)
Introduction
324(1)
Temperature Scales
325(1)
The Ideal-Gas Thermometer
325(1)
Temperature Measurement by Mechanical Effects
326(5)
Temperature Measurement by Electrical Effects
331(22)
Temperature Measurement by Radiation
353(6)
Effect of Heat Transfer on Temperature Measurement
359(12)
Transient Response of Thermal Systems
371(2)
Thermocouple Compensation
373(4)
Temperature Measurements in High-Speed Flow
377(2)
Summary
379(13)
Thermal-and Transport-Property Measurements
392(40)
Introduction
392(1)
Thermal-Conductivity Measurements
393(4)
Thermal Conductivity of Liquids and Gases
397(3)
Measurement of Viscosity
400(7)
Gas Diffusion
407(4)
Calorimetery
411(4)
Convection Heat-Transfer Measurements
415(3)
Humidity Measurements
418(3)
Heat-Flux Meters
421(2)
pH Measurement
423(9)
Force, Torque, and Strain Measurements
432(30)
Introduction
432(1)
Mass Balance Measurements
433(3)
Elastic Elements for Force Measurments
436(4)
Torque Measurements
440(3)
Stress and Strain
443(2)
Strain Measurements
445(1)
Electrical-Resistance Strain Gages
446(4)
Measurement of Resistance Strain-Gage Outputs
450(1)
Temperature Compensation
451(2)
Strain-Gage Rosettes
453(3)
The Unbonded Resistance Strain Gage
456(6)
Motion and Vibration Measurement
462(31)
Introduction
462(1)
Two Simple Vibration Instruments
462(3)
Principles of the Seismic Instrument
465(6)
Practical Considerations for Seismic Instruments
471(2)
Sound Measurements
473(20)
Thermal-and Nuclear-Radiation Measurements
493(26)
Introduction
493(1)
Detection of Thermal Radiation
493(6)
Measurement of Emissivity
499(3)
Reflectivity and Transmissivity Measurements
502(1)
Solar Radiation Measurements
503(2)
Nuclear Radiation
505(1)
Detection of Nuclear Radiation
506(1)
The Geiger-Muller Counter
506(2)
Ionization Chambers
508(1)
Photographic Detection Methods
508(1)
The Scintillation Counter
509(1)
Neutron Detection
509(2)
Statistics of Counting
511(8)
Air-Pollution Sampling and Measurement
519(29)
Introduction
519(1)
Units for Pollution Measurement
519(1)
Air-Pollution Standards
520(1)
General Air-Sampling Train
521(4)
Gas Sampling Techniques
525(3)
Particulate Sampling Techniques
528(6)
Sulfur Dioxide Measurements
534(4)
Combustion Products Measurements
538(5)
Opacity Measurements
543(1)
Odor Measurement
544(4)
Data Acquisition and Processing
548(27)
Introduction
548(1)
The General Data Acquisition System
548(4)
Signal Conditioning Revisited
552(3)
Data Transmission
555(2)
Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion
557(9)
Data Storage and Display
566(1)
The Program as a Substitute for Wired Logic
567(4)
Summary and Glossary
571(4)
Report Writing and Presentations
575(23)
Introduction
575(1)
Some General Comments
575(4)
Types of Reports
579(2)
Contents of a Report
581(7)
Graphical Presentations
588(3)
Miscellaneous Helpful Hints
591(1)
Word Processors and Computers
592(1)
Processing of Reports
593(1)
Oral Presentations
593(1)
Planning Sessions and Conferences
594(4)
Appendix 598(11)
Index 609

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