Experiments in General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications / Edition 8

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Overview

All experiments have been carefully revised for accuracy, safety, and cost as well as having been extensively tested. "Laboratory Safety Rules" and chemical disposal instructions optimize lab safety. This lab manual features 38+ experiments and includes a strong qualitative analysis section and several unique experiments including Chemical Reactions, Identification of Common Chemicals, and Free-radical Bromination of Organic Compounds. A useful reference for chemistry laboratories where qualitative analysis or descriptive chemistry plays a significant role.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130176882
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 6/15/2001
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 341
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction.
Evaluation of Experimental Data. The Use of the Laboratory Balance. The Laboratory Notebook. The Prelaboratory Report. The Laboratory Report. Sample Laboratory Experiment Report.

1. Measurements and Density.
2. Formula and Composition of a Hydrate.
3. Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions.
4. Types of Chemical Reactions.
5. The Stoichiometry of a Reaction.
6. Identification of Common Chemicals.
7. Titration of Acids and Bases.
8. Gravimetric and Volumetric Analysis.
9. The Gas Laws.
10. Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant.
11. Thermochemistry: The Heat of Reaction.
12. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Commercial Aspirin.
13. Molecular Models and Covalent Bonding.
14. LeChatelier's Principle in Iron Thiocyanlate Equilibrium.
15. A Kinetic Study of an Iodine Clock Reaction.
16. Determination of an Equilibrium Constant.
17. Determination of Iron in Vitamins.
18. Weak Acids and Bases and Their Salts.
19. Determination of the Ionization Constant of a Weak Acid.
20. Investigation of Buffer Systems.
21. Determination of Acid-Neutralizing Power of Commercial Antacids.
22. Determination of a Solubility Product Constant.
23. Oxidation-Reduction Titration.
24. Electrolysis: Faraday's Law and Determination of Avogadro's Number.
25. An Investigation of Voltaic Cells - The Nernst Equation.
26.Determination of Water Hardness.
27. The Solvay Process: Preparation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3.
28. A Penny's Worth of Chemistry.
29. Polymer Synthesis.
30. Preparation of Co(NH3)5ONOCl2 - Linkage Isomerism.
31. Free Radical Bromination of Organic Compounds.
32. Paper Chromatography: Separation of Amino Acids.
Introduction to Qualitative Analysis (Experiments 33 - 38).

33. Group I: The Soluble Group.
34. Group II: The Chloride Group.
35. Group III: The Hydrogen Sulfide Group.
36. Group IV: The Ammonium Sulfide Group.
37. Group V: The Carbonate Group.
38. Analysis of Common Anions and Their Salts.
Appendix.
International System of Units (SI). Fundamental Constants and Conversions. Common Conversion Factors. Qualitative Analysis Report Forms.

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Preface

When studying beginning chemistry, students are introduced to many theoretical concepts based on conclusions drawn from years of accumulated observations. It is difficult for many of them to appreciate the importance of experimental observation and its relation to theory, especially when they have had limited practical experience. Accordingly, this laboratory manual is designed to provide the beginning chemistry student exposure to the basic techniques of laboratory work and the practical experience necessary to understand and appreciate better the general information presented in the text and lectures.

The experiments in this manual have been selected with a fourfold purpose:

  1. To introduce the student to the fundamentals of physical observation and to the scientific method.
  2. To acquaint the student with several basic quantitative techniques, including gravimetric and volumetric measurement, the care and use of laboratory equipment, and the safe use and handling of chemicals.
  3. To provide empirical verification—that is, information based on observation or experience-of chemical theory in a qualitative and quantitative fashion.
  4. To do the above in close coordination with the ideas and mathematical concepts presented in the eighth edition of General Chemistry by Ralph H. Petrucci and William S. Harwood. Designed to complement the Petrucci/Harwood text, this laboratory manual provides a unified experience in chemistry at the introductory level, both for chemistry majors and for students in closely allied fields.

Each experiment includes an introduction, experimental and waste disposal procedures, report tables for data andresults, questions, a prelaboratory assignment, and space for sample calculations. There are three types of student disposal instructions:

  1. Recycle or reuse: Wastes are collected in labeled bottles for either direct reuse or for further treatment prior to reuse.
  2. Laboratory treatment and disposal: Students will neutralize acids and bases, reduce chemical activity, or filter wastes prior to disposal in a safe and appropriate manner.
  3. Disposal: Wastes are collected in labeled glass disposal bottles, which should be segregated according to chemical compatibility. These will be stored for further treatment or volume reduction by laboratory personnel prior to or for direct disposal by a licensed waste disposal company.

The introduction contains enough of the related principles and learning objectives of the exercise to allow the student to complete the prefab assignment, answer the questions, and carry out the laboratory work. However, time should be allowed beforehand for the laboratory instructor to discuss and demonstrate specific techniques, safety precautions, common problems, and other aspects of that experiment.

Completion of the prelaboratory assignment requires that the student read the experiment and become familiar with the procedure before coming to the laboratory to do the experiment. In this way, students learn to prepare themselves properly for the experiment, make fewer mistakes, and become more efficient in utilization of available time. We believe this to be an essential part of the complete experiment.

Emphasis is placed on experimental precision and on obtaining accurate results. Many experiments involve the determination of some "unknown" quantity. This necessitates good technique and reproducible work. Thus a knowledge of precision and accuracy, which are discussed in the Introduction, is essential. Such knowledge is then used in the laboratory report that accompanies each experiment. The laboratory report often consists simply of the completion of the data tables, sample calculations, and answers to the questions that come with the experiment. The writing of a laboratory report is described in detail in the Introduction.

It should be emphasized that laboratory data should not be recorded originally on the enclosed sheets; rather, they should be recorded in a separate, bound laboratory notebook, which is the original record of all experimental observations and data. A detailed description of the guidelines for the laboratory notebook is also given in the Introduction. The reports are then written from data and the first draft of the answers to questions in the notebook.

Many more experiments are included in this manual than can be used in a normal one-year general chemistry laboratory schedule. For example, there is more than one experiment dealing with several topics such as gases, chemical reactions, equilibria, and acids and bases. With that consideration, however, the sequence of experiments follows closely the order of topics presented in the Petrucci/Harwood text. Experiments can thus be selected which provide application to each topic covered here. In this way, a laboratory program can be designed that follows closely and correlates well with the text. We believe such correlation to be essential to a well-designed, sound introductory chemistry course.

A number of descriptive experiments are included which we believe are unique in a laboratory manual at the introductory level. These include several experiments: 3 and 4 on chemical reactions; 6, "Identification of Common Chemicals"; 18, "Weak Acids and Bases and Their Salts"; 28, "A Penny's Worth of Chemistry"; and 31, "Free Radical Bromination of Organic Compounds." In addition, several traditional descriptive preparations of specific chemicals are included (Experiments 27, 29, and 30). Also, a condensed version of the traditional qualitative analysis scheme is provided that is meaningful and can be completed in about six laboratory periods. Certain other experiments require more time than is available in the normal two- to three-hour laboratory period. These experiments can either be extended over two periods or shortened to the time span available. The instructor's manual provided for this laboratory manual includes such specifics.

Many of the experiments are reduced in scale in an effort to minimize the amount of chemicals required, to increase safety, and to reduce the amount of waste chemicals. We have also included instructions regarding the proper disposal of waste chemicals for each experiment. A completely new set of prelab questions and many report questions have been included in this edition.

It is our conviction that time is valuable and too short in a two- or three-hour session to allow for more than an introductory investigation of most topics. However, a thorough treatment of fundamentals is possible. This is particularly true in a beginning course. The student will have greater opportunity in later courses to experience more advanced methods.

It is essential that students acquire and appreciate sound experimental technique early and learn to apply it with confidence. They will quickly discover that chemistry is still very much an experimental science.

G.S.W.
T.G.G.
L.H.R.

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