Expertise in Context

Overview

Computerized "expert systems" are among the best-known applications of artificial intelligence. But what is expertise? The nature of knowledge and expertise, and their relation to context, is the focus of active discussion and controversy among psychologists, philosophers,computer scientists, and other cognitive scientists. The questions reach to the very foundations of cognitive theory.The twenty-three original essay in this volume discuss the essential nature of expert knowledge, as well as such questions as ...

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Overview

Computerized "expert systems" are among the best-known applications of artificial intelligence. But what is expertise? The nature of knowledge and expertise, and their relation to context, is the focus of active discussion and controversy among psychologists, philosophers,computer scientists, and other cognitive scientists. The questions reach to the very foundations of cognitive theory.The twenty-three original essay in this volume discuss the essential nature of expert knowledge, as well as such questions as how "expertise" differs from mere "knowledge," the relation between the individual and group processes involved in knowledge in general and expertise in particular, the social and other contexts of expertise, how expertise can be assessed, and the relation between human and computer expertise.Contributors : N. M. Agnew, D. Bertram, S. Bringsjord,N. Charness, W. Clancey, H. M. Collins, T. M. Converse, R. L. Coulson, D. DuBois, K. A. Ericsson, P.

J. Feltovich, K. M. Ford, N. D. Geddes, K. J. Hammond, C. C. Hayes, P. J. Hayes, H. Hexmoor, C. T.

Kulik, H. E. Kyburg, M. LaFrance, F. J. Lerch, G. F. Luger, M. Miller, M. Minsky, K. O'Hara, A. L.

Patalano, V. L. Patel, D. Perlis, M. J. Prietula, M. F. Ramoni, A. T. Rappaport, C. M. Seifert, N.

Shadbolt, V. L. Shalin, S. C. Shapiro, R. J. Spiro, E. W. Stein, C. R. Stern, R. J. Sternberg, M. A.

Szczepkowski, C. M. Zeitz

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Paul J. Feltovich is Professor of Medical Education and Psychiatry at Southern IllinoisUniversity School of Medicine. He is the coeditor of Expertise in Context (AAAIPress/MIT Press, 1997).

Kenneth M. Ford is Founder and Director of the Florida Institute for Human and MachineCognition (IHMC) in Pensacola.

Robert R. Hoffman is Senior Research Scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and MachineCognition.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgment
Introduction
1 Cognitive and Developmental Factors in Expert Performance
2 Some Concrete Advantages of Abstraction: How Experts' Representations Facilitate Reasoning
3 Cognitive Models of Directional Inference in Expert Medical Reasoning
4 Experience and Expertise: The role of Memory in Planning for Opportunities
5 Issues of Expert Flexibility in Contexts Characterized by Complexity and Change
6 Cognitive Conceptions of Expertise
7 Metaphors for Expertise: How Knowledge Engineers Picture Human Expertise
8 A Look at Expertise from a Social Perspective
9 Expertise in Dynamic, Physical Task Domains
10 Expertise in Context: Personally Constructed, Socially Selected, and Reality-Relevant?
11 The Conceptual Nature of Knowledge, Situations, and Activity
12 RAT-Tale: Sociology's Contribution to Understanding Human and Machine Cognition
13 Model-Based Expert Systems and the Explanation of Expertise
14 A Study of Solution Quality in Human Expert and Knowledge-Based System Reasoning
15 Abduction and Abstraction in Diagnosis: A Schema-Based Account
16 Integrating Skill and Knowledge in Expert Agents
17 Toward Automated Expert Reasoning and Expert-Novice Communication
18 The Turing Effect: The Nature of Trust in Expert Systems Advice
19 Interpreting Generic Structures: Expert Systems, Expertise, and Context
20 An Argument for the Uncomputability of Infinitary Mathematical Expertise
21 Expertise and Context in Uncertain Inference
22 Negative Expertise
23 Context, Cognition, and the Future of Intelligent Infostructures
24 A General Conceptual Framework for Conceiving of Expertise and Expert Systems
Index
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