Exploring Black Philanthropy: New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising / Edition 1

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Exploring Black Philanthropy

By Patrick Rooney

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7879-8085-4

Chapter One

Editors' Notes

This issue of New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising is based on the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Philanthropy held in Indianapolis on August 26-27, 2004. Scholars, donors, fundraisers, and other practitioners came together to discuss and reflect on current and historical issues surrounding black philanthropy. The chapter authors address the theoretical, practical, and applied factors supporting and confronting black philanthropy.

Emmett Carson leads this issue with a provocative delineation of the past, present, and future of black philanthropy. In Chapter One, he challenges us to consider what black philanthropy has meant and how we will react when it changes as black culture, society, and values change. He points out that black leaders may not be happy about all of the changes. For example, as more black families join the middle and upper socioeconomic groups, their philanthropy may shift from nonprofits focused on black issues and black religious groups to a more comprehensive set of nonprofits.

Charles Stephens was invited to give the annual lecture honoring the career of Arthur C. Frantzreb and addressed professionalism in black philanthropy. In Chapter Two, he delineates three C's required to achieve full professional status: a common curriculum, a common code of ethics, and a comprehensively accepted certification. While hepoints out that the profession as a whole is making great progress toward meeting these criteria, he challenges us on the role of the black professional in this mix, noting that minorities constitute less than 10 percent of membership in the Association of Fundraising Professionals and only 3 percent of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education. Less than 1 percent of fundraising professional certifications are held by blacks.

Combining results from a survey, a set of interviews, and Web searches of black megachurches (those with more than twenty-five hundred members), Cheryl Hall-Russell finds several important recurring trends that shape their philanthropy. She notes in Chapter Three that most of the members are middle class. There has been an emphasis on bringing males back into the church and supporting black businesses. A majority of the churches have their own K-8 schools. Most had community development corporations and were major employers in their communities.

Felinda Mottino and Eugene Miller report in Chapter Four on African American donors in the New York metropolitan region. They interviewed 166 minority donors in the region, including 58 African American donors. They review the attitudes and motivations about philanthropy in these groups with a special focus on pre- and post-civil rights legislation. They report conspicuous differences in giving levels and communities of interest between the pre-and post-Civil rights era donors.

John Havens and Paul Schervish extend their wealth transfer model to African American households in Chapter Five. They find that in 2001, African Americans constituted 12.4 percent of all households in the United States, earned 7.1 percent of total personal income, and owned 2.5 percent of net worth, while contributing 5.4 percent of total household giving.

Richard Steinberg and Mark Wilhelm review in Chapter Six differences in religious and secular giving by race and ethnicity using the Center on Philanthropy Panel Study (COPPS). This is the largest data set (N = 7,400) that has ever asked about philanthropy in the United States. They use this very rich data set to look for differences in both the average levels of giving by race and ethnicity but also after controlling for differences in income and education.

In Chapter Seven, Sheila Suess Kennedy revisits some of the issues surrounding church and state and the Charitable Choice provisions of the 1996 welfare reform law. This law permitted legal discrimination in hiring to preserve the religious nature of the organization. She points out that some of these provisions were attacked from both the political left and right. Others expressed concerns about regulatory burdens. Kennedy also discusses the three C's of charitable choice: capacity, commitment, and constitutionality.

In Chapter Eight, Jacqueline Copeland-Carson outlines trends in black philanthropy that stem from the African diaspora. She proposes a more expansive notion of black philanthropy to include diverse practices of native-born black Americans as well as those of contemporary immigrants to the United States from Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America. She regrets the paucity of studies of either African or black philanthropy in a diasporan context and offers her observations as suggestive of areas for future research, not as definitive conclusions or prescriptions for action.

Una Okonkwo Osili and Dan Du, also using COPPS data, ask whether the philanthropic behaviors of immigrants differ from those of native-born Americans. Using this large national data set, they find no significant difference in either the incidence or levels of giving between immigrants and all others. However, immigrants are significantly more likely to transfer funds to their friends and families from home.

John Stanfield delineates a personal biography of becoming a researcher of race philanthropy and appeals for research to outline policy strategies and civic participation practices for a multiracial society. Chapter Ten is situated in the context of the evolution of African American studies and the role of sociology in these studies in the postwar era.

Alice Green Burnette delivered the annual Donikian Family Lecture at the symposium, "Hopscotching in the Neighborhood." This playfully serious analysis, completing this issue in Chapter Eleven, discusses the nine steps to raising money in the black community. These range from understanding the technical aspects of fundraising and the socioeconomic demographics of one's donors to more qualitative issues like understanding the depth and texture of relationship building in the black community.

This special issue of New Directions focuses on varied aspects of black philanthropy, an important topic to our philanthropic society both today and in the future. We have viewed this topic through several lenses: practice, history, economics, sociology, and constitutional law. Each of these brings different aspects of black philanthropy into focus. It is our hope that collectively, we have provided a comprehensive and interesting combination of chapters that help illuminate these issues. Patrick Rooney Lois Sherman Editors

PATRICK ROONEY is director of research at the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University.

LOIS SHERMAN is publications and Web site manager at the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University.


Excerpted from Exploring Black Philanthropy by Patrick Rooney Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Editors’ Notes (Patrick Rooney, Lois Sherman).

1. Black philanthropy’s past, present, and future(Emmett D. Carson)
The CEO of the Minneapolis Foundation offers two definitions ofblack philanthropy and a discussion of its nature as a concept thatadapts based on its environment.

2. Professionalism in black philanthropy: We have a chance toget it right (Charles R. Stephens)
Adherence to the three C’s—a common curriculum, acommon code of ethics, and a comprehensively acceptedcertification—forms the basis of fully professional practicein fundraising.

3. The African American megachurch: Giving and receiving(Cheryl Hall-Russell)
This study of several dozen African American megachurches focusedon social outreach programs, economic development investment,growth trends, spiritual and theological philosophies, andchallenges facing the church.

4. Philanthropy among African American donors in the New Yorkmetropolitan region: A generational analysis (Felinda Mottino,Eugene D. Miller)
African American donors in the New York metropolitan area tend tobe more affluent and better educated than the population ingeneral. They also hold attitudes about philanthropy that are bothsimilar to and sharply different from traditional approaches.

5. Wealth transfer estimates for African American households(John J. Havens, Paul G. Schervish)
The amount of wealth that will be transferred between generationsof African Americans in the next half-century is limited by thereality of comparatively lower assets and a low rate of growth inwealth.

6. Religious and secular giving, by race and ethnicity(Richard Steinberg, Mark Wilhelm)
Data on charitable practices, formerly lacking and now becomingavailable through the Center on Philanthropy Panel Study, aretapped for fresh insights on differences in the philanthropy ofracial and ethnic groups.

7. Government shekels and government shackles revisited:Questions for church and state (Sheila Suess Kennedy)
Faith-based organizations entering into government contracts fordelivery of social services should be aware of the potentialproblems that accompany the benefits and of the three C’sthat require careful consideration: capacity, commitment, andconstitutionality.

8. Promoting diversity in contemporary black philanthropy:Toward a new conceptual model (JacquelineCopeland-Carson)
In a call for a more inclusive model of black philanthropy in theUnited States, Copeland-Carson argues that the focus is too limitedwhen black philanthropy is viewed only as the giving traditions ofnative-born African Americans.

9. Immigrant assimilation and charitable giving (Una OkonkwoOsili, Dan Du)
Descriptions of how ethnicity and cultural traditions affect givingpatterns are extended to the practices of immigrants, whose givingis based on experiences in their country of origin.

10. Race philanthropy: Personalities, institutions, networks,and communities (John H. Stanfield)
This personal recounting of becoming a researcher of racephilanthropy includes an appeal for research to outline policystrategies and civic participation practices for a multiracialsociety that is also a multiracial


11. Hopscotching in the neighborhood (Alice GreenBurnette)
To win at hopscotch, a player cannot step on a line and skip asquare, because all squares must be navigated sequentially. Ittakes a lot of skill and dexterity in order to win—athopscotch and at fundraising in the black community.


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