Exploring Language Structure: A Student's Guide

Exploring Language Structure: A Student's Guide

by Thomas Payne
     
 

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ISBN-10: 052185542X

ISBN-13: 9780521855426

Pub. Date: 03/31/2006

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Designed for those beginning to study linguistics, this is a lively introduction to two key aspects of the structure of language: syntax (the structure of sentences) and morphology (the structure of words). It shows students in a step-by-step fashion how to analyze the syntax and morphology of any language, by clearly describing the basic methods and techniques

Overview

Designed for those beginning to study linguistics, this is a lively introduction to two key aspects of the structure of language: syntax (the structure of sentences) and morphology (the structure of words). It shows students in a step-by-step fashion how to analyze the syntax and morphology of any language, by clearly describing the basic methods and techniques, and providing almost 100 practical exercises based on data from a rich variety of the world's languages.

Written in an engaging style and complete with a comprehensive glossary, Exploring Language Structure explains linguistic concepts by using clear analogies from everyday life. It introduces a range of essential topics in syntax and morphology, such as rules, categories, word classes, grammatical relations, multi-clause constructions, and typology.

Providing a solid foundation in morphology and syntax, this is the perfect introductory text for beginning students, and will fully prepare them for more advanced courses in linguistic analysis.

Clearly describes the basic methods and techniques for analyzing the syntax and morphology of any language

Contains almost 100 practical exercises based on data from a variety of languages

Provides hundreds of well-glossed examples from languages in all areas of the world

Explains linguistic concepts using clear analogies from everyday life

Provides a solid foundation for more advanced courses in linguistic analysis

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780521855426
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication date:
03/31/2006
Pages:
390
Product dimensions:
6.85(w) x 9.72(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

List of figures x

List of tables xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

A note on transcriptions xvi

List of abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction to morphology and syntax 1

The form-function composite 3

Creativity and recursion 5

Grammar 7

Morphology and syntax 7

Lexicon 9

Three expression types compared 11

Subtypes of lexical expression 12

Classes in the lexicon 14

Some basic concepts in morphology 16

Introduction to the exercises 20

Conceptual outline of chapter 1 25

Exercises 26

2 Morphological processes and conceptual categories 32

Conceptual categories and the problem of labeling 32

The "big ten" morphological processes 40

Methods for representing morphological processes 45

Conceptual outline of chapter 2 54

Exercises 55

3 Morphophonemics 63

Specifying the environments for morphophonemic rules 67

How to pick an underlying form 70

Rule ordering 73

Nasal assimilation in English 75

Types of morphophonemic rules 78

Possession in Asheninka 81

Summary of notational conventions 83

Conceptual outline of chapter 3 85

Exercises 85

4 Word classes 93

Nouns 94

Verbs 104

Adjectives 116

Adverbs 117

Other word classes 118

Conceptual outline of Chapter 4 126

Exercises 127

5 Exploring subclasses 133

Methodology 134

Conceptual outline of Chapter 5 144

Exercises 144

6 Constituent structure 152

A note about syntactic formalisms 152

Syntax 153

Tests for constituent structure 158

Phrase structure rules 165

Constituent structure trees 166

Ambiguity 180

Conceptual outline of chapter 6 182

Exercises 183

7 Language typology 189

Morphological typology 190

Syntactic typology 191

Examples of an OV and aVO language 194

Pragmatic constituent order languages 198

How to analyze the syntactic typology of a language 202

Conceptual outline of chapter 7 204

Exercises 204

8 Grammatical relations 210

Grammatical relations within noun phrases 211

Grammatical relations in clauses 212

Systems for organizing grammatical relations 216

Analyzing grammatical relations systems 221

Split systems 223

Conceptual outline of chapter 8 229

Exercises 229

9 Voice and valence 237

Valence-decreasing constructions 241

Valence-increasing constructions 258

Combinations of valence-related constructions 272

Conceptual outline of chapter 9 275

Exercises 277

10 Multi-clause constructions 288

Serial verbs 288

Complement clauses 289

Adverbial clauses 295

Clause chains and switch-reference 298

Relative clauses 299

Coordination 307

Conceptual outline of chapter 10 310

Exercises 311

Glossary 320

References 349

Subject and language index 357

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