Exploring Prehistory: How Archaeology Reveals Our Past / Edition 2

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Overview

This new introduction to archaeology integrates world prehistory with discussion of archeological methods and techniques. It introduces archaeological methods gradually and in context through the use of Archaeology in Practice boxes which give students a more complete understanding of the tools archaeologists use to uncover the past and the reasons why they use those tools. Comprehensive Case Studies focus not just on specific sites but also on why these sites are important in the broader archaeological context. Exploring Prehistory has been developed with the aim of offering a better way to introduce students to archaeology’s unique understanding of human societies.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072978148
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 6/21/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 512
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Pam J. Crabtree, who received her Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1982, is an Associate Professor of Anthropology at New York University, where she has worked since 1990. Professor Crabtree was an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Princeton University from 1985 to 1990 and a research fellow at the Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology of the University of Pennsylvania from 1982 to 1984. She has written many scholarly articles on zoo archaeology and animal domestication, co-edited Animal Use and Culture Change (with Kathleen Ryan), and edited Medieval Archaeology: An Encyclopedia.

Douglas V. Campana is a Research Associate in Anthropology at New York University and an archaeologist for the National Park Service at the Valley Forge Center for Cultural Resources. He received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from Columbia University in 1981. Dr. Campana has published scholarly articles on Near Eastern prehistory and bone tool technology, and edited Before Farming: Hunter-Gatherer Society and Subsistence. He has conducted archeological research in Israel, the West Bank, and Europe; his research has been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Wenner-Gren Foundation, the Leakey Foundation, and the National Geographic Society.

As an archaeologist for the federal government, Dr. Campana has directed archaeological excavation throughout the Mid-Atlantic states. He is currently excavating a portion of George Washington’s Revolutionary War encampment at Valley Forge.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Investigating the Past
The Discovery of the Iceman
Cutting Edge Box: Differing Attitudes Toward the Dead
The Issues and Problems of Prehistory
The Historical Growth of Archaeology in Europe
The New Geology
Human Antiquity
The Beginnings of Archaeology in the Americas
The Field of Archaeology Today
Goals of Archaeological Interpretation
Reconstructing Culture History: Archaeology as History Without Writing
The Investigation of Prehistoric Lifeways
Archaeology as the Study of Culture Change
Archaeology as a Science
Contemporary Approaches to Archaeological Interpretation
The Archaeological Record
Sites
Understanding How the Archaeological Record Was Formed
Archaeology in Practice: Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Analysis: How Do Archaeologists Reconstruct the Sequence of Events at an Archaeological Site
Preserving the Past
Conclusion

Chapter 2: Our Earliest Human Ancestors: The
Australopiths and the Earliest Humans
Humans as Primates and Hominins
Australopithecus and the South African Discoveries
The Leakeys and Olduvai Gorge
Australopithecus afarensis: Lucy and the First Family
The Laetoli Footprints
Earliest Ancestors
The Branching Tree of Hominin Evolution
The Earliest Members of Our Genus, Homo
Archaeology in Practice: Dating the Earliest HomininsCase Study: The South African Australopiths: Did They Hunt or Were They Hunted?
Conclusion

Chapter 3: The Earliest Archaeological Sites: The First Stone Tools
The Beginnings of the Archaeological Record
The Earliest Forms of Stone Tools
The Nature of the Early Archaeological Sites
Archaeology in Practice: the Basics of Working Stone
How Were the Olduvai and Koobi Fora Sites Formed?
Who Created the Sites? The Roles of Carnivores and Hominins
Cut Marks on Bone: Butchery at Olduvai and Koobi Fora
Explaining the Sites: Alternative Hypotheses
Successful Scavengers
Case Study: The Interpretation of Early Hominin Behavior: The DK Controversy
Conclusion

Chapter 4: Homo erectus the Lower Paleolithic in Africa and the Near East
The Appearance of Homo ergaster/Homo erectus in Africa
Nariokatome: The Turkana Boy
The Acheulian Industry
Archaeology in Practice: Experimental Archaeology: How
Were Stone Tools Made and Used?
The Control of Fire
When and Why Did Hominins Expand Out of Africa
The Later Acheulian in the Near East: Gesher Benot Ya’aqov
Conclusion

Chapter 5: The Lower Paleolithic in Asia and Europe
The Appearance of Homo erectus in Asia
Sone Industries with and without Handaxes: The Movius Line,
Beyond the Movius Line: The Lower Paleolithic of East Asia,
Dragon Bones, Zhoukoudian, and the Discovery of Peking Man
The Initial Settlement of Europe
The Earliest Inhabitants of Europe: The Grand Dolina Site, Spain
The Later Lower Paleolithic in Europe
Cutting Edge Box: The Human Family “Bush”
The Levallois Technique
Acheulian Lifeways: Elephant Hunters or Scavengers? The
Evidence from Torralba and Ambrona
Terra Amata: A Hunter’s Encampment?
Archaeology in Practice: Dating the Past:
Thermoluminescence (TL) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)
The Distribution of Early Humans in Europe
Conclusion

Chapter 6: The Middle Paleolithic and the Appearance of the Neanderthals
Humans unlike Ourselves: The Discovery of the Neanderthals
Archaeology in Practice: The Pleistocene and Its Chronology
Middle Paleolithic Archaeology: The Mousterian Industry
The Bordes Typology of Middle Paleolithic Stone Tools
Explaining the Variability in Mousterian Assemblages: Tribes, Activities, and Tool Manufacture
The Culture of the Middle Paleolithic
Cast Study: The Excavations in Kebara Cave, Israel
The Issue of Neanderthal Burials
The Middle Paleolithic–Middle Stone Age in Africa
Conclusion

Ch. 7: The Origins of Modern Humans
Archaeology in Practice: Biochemical Evidence of Heredity and the Molecular Clock
The Biochemical Evidence
Fossil Evidence: The Appearance of Modern Humans in Africa
Case Study: Skuhl, Qafzeh and Kebara: Anatomically
Modern Humans and Neanderthals in the Levant
Cutting-Edge Box: The Origin of Modern Human BehaviorFrom Africa to Europe
Saint Césaire and the Last Neanderthals
Conclusion

Chapter 8: Late Paleolithic Cultures of the Near East and Africa
Cutting Edge Box: Ancient and Modern Hunters and Gatherers
The Upper Paleolithic in the Near East
Archaeology in Practice: Animal Remains as Archaeological Evidence
The Late Stone Age in Africa
Conclusion

Chapter 9: The Industries and Cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe
Archaeology in Practice: Radiocarbon Age Determination
Upper Paleolithic Industries: General Characteristics
The Upper Paleolithic Sequence in Europe
Subsistence Strategies in the European Upper Paleolithic
Case Study: Paleolithic Subsistence: La Riera Cave
Upper Paleolithic Settlement Patterns
Northern Europe at the End of the Ice Age
Late Pleistocene Hunters and Fishers in Northern Europe
Conclusions

Chapter 10: Art and Cognition in the Upper Paleolithic
The Art of the Upper Paleolithic
Historical Background: The Discovery of the Painted Caves
Parietal Art: The Images on the Walls
Mobiliary (Portable) Art
Archaeology in Practice: Tools and Art Objects of Bone and Antler
Dating and Chronology
Interpretation of Paleolithic Art
Rock Art from Other Regions of the World
Conclusion

Chapter 11: The Initial Human Colonization of Australia
From Eurasia to Australia
Greater Australia: The Environmental Background
Archaeology in Practice: Changing Sea Levels: Eustacy and Isostacy
The Archaeological Evidence for the Initial Colonization of the Sahul
Cast Study: Lake Mungo
Later Australian Prehistory: A Continent of Hunter-gatherers
Cutting Edge Box: The Tasmanian Paradox: Why Did the Tasmanians Stop Fishing?
Conclusions

Chapter 12: The Peopling of the New World
The Peopling of the Americas
Geological Background
Archaeology in Practice: Causes of Climatic Change
The Early Archaeological Record from Alaska
Climatic Changes: Late Glacial North America
Clovis Hunters in North America
Late Pleistocene Extinctions
The Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis
Alternative Explanations for Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions
Case Study: The Murray Springs Clovis Site
Clovis Settlement and Subsistence in the Eastern United States
Pre-Clovis Occupation of the Americas: The Evidence from Monte Verde
Conclusion

Chapter 13: The Mesolithic Period in Europe
Climatic Changes in Europe in the Early Postglacial Period
Archaeology in Practice: Pollen Analysis
Mesolithic Societies in Europe
Mesolithic Stone Technology
Mesolithic Settlement Patterns
An Example of a Mesolithic Settlement: Mount Sandel in Northern Ireland
Case Study: Star Carr: Interpreting Mesolithic Seasonality
Population Growth and Economic Transformations in the Later Mesolithic
A Late Mesolithic Site: Tybrind Vig in DenmarkSocial Changes in the Later Mesolithic: The Appearance of Cultural Complexity
Conclusion

Chapter 14: Post-Pleistocene Adaptations in the Americas: The Development of the Archaic
Post-glacial changes in North America
The American Great Basin
Archaeology in Practice: The Recalibration of Radiocarbon Dating
Cast Studies in Great Basin Subsistence: Danger Cave and Hogup Cave
Recent Research on Great Basin Adaptations
Eastern North America: The Paleoindian Background
Early Archaic Subsistence in the Eastern Woodlands
Middle Holocene Changes in Subsistence and Settlement
Case Study: The Excavations at the Koster Site in Illinois and the Emergence of Complex Hunter-Gatherers Late Archaic Settlement and Subsistence in the Eastern Woodlands
Conclusions

Chapter 15: The Origins of Agriculture: A Crucial StepSuccessful Foragers
Changing Relationships Between Humans and the
Environment: Climatic Change and Population Growth
The Differences Between Farming and Foraging Societies
Theories of Agricultural Origins: The Pioneering Work of V. Gordon Childe
A Modern View of Post-Pleistocene Climatic Changes in Southwest Asia
Archaeology in Practice: How Do We Reconstruct the Near Eastern Climate at the Close of the Pleistocene?
Where Did Near Eastern Agriculture Originate? Robert
Braidwood’s “Hilly Flanks” Hypothesis
Demographic Changes and Agricultural Origins
Current Approaches
Conclusion

Chapter 16: Last Foragers and First Farmers: The Origins of Agriculture in the Old World
Agriculture: The First Revolution
Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in Southwest Asia
Cast Study: Karim Shahir and the Background to Agriculture in the Zagros
Archaeology in Practice: Archaeological Evidence for Plant Domestication
Archaeological Evidence for Early Plant Domestication in the Near East
The Archaeology of Animal Domestication
Archaeology in Practice: What is a Domestic Animal?Other Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication in the Old World
Conclusions

Chapter 17: Agricultural Origins in the New World
New World Plants in Old World Diets
The Domestication of Maize
Early Studies of Plant Domestication: the Tehuacán Valley Project
Guilá Naquitz
Plant Domestication in Highland South America
Archaeology in Practice: Phytolith Analysis
Animal Domestication in the Americas
Other Centers of Plant Domestication in the AmericasAgricultural Hearths: Similarities and Differences
Conclusions

Chapter 18: The Consequences of the Agricultural Revolution
Introduction
Sedentism and Population Growth
Case Study: “Ain Ghazal, Jordan
Increased Disease Load and Early Farming CommunitiesPopulation Growth and the Expansion of Agricultural Settlements
Early Farming Villages in Turkey
Early Farmers in Greece and Southeast Europe
Early Farmers in Temperate Europe
On the Cutting Edge: Identifying Migration in Neolithic Europe: The Role of Stable Isotope Studies
The Development of New Technologies and CraftsArchaeology in Practice: The Development of Pottery Technology
Trade and Exchange in Early Farming CommunitiesCase Study: Çatal Höyük and the Study of Neolithic Ritual Life
Conclusion

Chapter 19: The Development of Cities and States: Mesopotamia and the Urban Revolution
Complex Societies
The Origin of Complex Society: The Contribution of V. Gordon Childe
The Characteristics of Urban SocietiesContemporary Theoretical Approaches to the Study of Complex Societies
The Evolution of Complex Societies in Mesopotamia
The Settling of the Mesopotamian Lowlands
The Ubaid Period
The Emergence of Cities
Archaeology in Practice: Remote Sensing and Landscape Reconstruction in Archaeology
The Beginning of History
Case Study: The Royal Cemetery at Ur
What Led to the Rise of Early State Societies
On the Cutting Edge: Archaeology and War in Iraq
Conclusions

Chapter 20: Complex Societies in the Indus Valley
Introduction: the Discovery of the Harappans
The Geography and Ecology of the Indus Valley Region
The Beginnings of Farming in the Indis Region
The Early Indus Period
The Emergence of Complex Societies in the Indus Valley
Archaeology in Practice: Deciphering the Indus Valley Script
Case Study: Indus Valley Urbanism: Mohenjo-daro and Harappa
The Post-Urban Phase and the Harappan Eclipse
The Legacy of the Harappan Civilization
Conclusion

Chapter 21: The Rise of Complex Societies in Egypt and Sub-Saharan Africa
The Egypt of Ancient History
Ancient Egypt: The Gift of the Nile
The Egyptian Environment
The Earliest Egyptians
Early Settlements in the Delta
Settlements and Cemeteries in Upper Egypt
Archaeology in Practice: Sequence Dating and Archaeological Seriation
Egyptian Kingdoms and the Unification of Egypt
The Rise of the Pharaohs
On the Cutting Edge: Human Sacrifice in Egypt
The Formation of the Egyptian StateNubia, Egypt’s Neighbor to the South
Complex Societies in Pre-colonial Sub-Saharan Africa
Conclusion

Chapter 22:Early Cities and States in China
Introduction: The Discovery of the Royal Tomb Warriors at Xian
The Yellow River (Huang He) Valley
The Neolithic in the Yellow River Valley
The Late Neolithic Longshan Culture
The Early Bronze Age in North China: The Erlitou Period
The Shang Dynasty: The Appearance of Cities and States in Bronze Age China
Case Study: Excavations at Anyang
Theories to Explain the Rise of Complex Societies in China
Archaeology in Practice: Remote Sensing Closer to Earth: Non-Destructive Archaeology
Conclusions: Social Complexity in China

Chapter 23: Later Prehistoric Europe: A Different
Pattern of Cultural Complexity
Introduction
Changes in Settlement and Subsistence in the Later Neolithic of Temperate Europe
The Beginnings of Metallurgy in Europe
Archaeology in Practice: Analysis of Metal Artifacts
The Beginnings of the Bronze Age in Temperate Europe
Europe’s First Towns: Late Hallstatt Towns and Trade
The Oppida and the Origins of Urbanism in Temperate Europe
Cast Study: Manching and Kelheom
Conclusion

Chapter 24: Complex Societies in Mesoamerica
Introduction
Olmec Beginnings
Early Urbanism in Oaxaca
Teotihuacán and the Valley of Mexico
The Beginnings of the Classic Maya
The Classic Maya
Archaeology in Practice: Archaeology and History: The Evidence from the Maya Inscriptions
Tikal
The Collapse of the Classic Maya
The Postclassic Period and the Rise of the Aztec Empire
The Archaeology of Aztec Daily Life
The End of the Aztec Empire
Conclusion

Chapter 25: Cities, States, and Empires in the Andes
Introduction
Environmental Background
Herding, Farming, and Fishing: The Economic Background to the Emergence of Complex Societies in Peru
Initial Period
The Early Horizon and the Chavín Cult
The Early Intermediate Period
The Nasca of the Southern Coast
Archaeology in Practice: The Preservation of Organic Materials
The Mochica State on the North Coast
The Middle Horizon
The Late Intermediate Period
The Late Horizon
Conclusions

Chapter 26: Eastern North America: An Alternative
Pattern of Cultural Complexity
Introduction
The Early Woodland Period and the Beginning of Cultural Complexity in the Midwest
Complex Societies in the Middle Woodland Period: The Hopewell Interaction Sphere
Archaeology in Practice: The Analysis of Human BurialsThe Late Woodland Period and the Adoption of Maize Agriculture
The Emergence of Mississippian Societies
Mississippian Settlement and Social Organization
Case Study: Cahokia and Moundville
Mississippian Collapse
Conclusions

Chapter 27: The Future of Archaeology
Introduction
The Destruction of Archaeological Sites
The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
On the Cutting Edge: The Kennewick Controversy
Archaeology and Nationalism
Some Final Thoughts on the Future of Archaeology
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