Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America / Edition 1

Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America / Edition 1

by Robert G. Williams
     
 

Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central AmericaSee more details below

Overview

Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780807841549
Publisher:
The University of North Carolina Press
Publication date:
05/30/1986
Edition description:
1
Pages:
273
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsxiii
List of Abbreviationsxv
Introduction3
Part 1Cotton
Chapter 1The Cotton Boom and Its Primary Causes13
Demand for Cotton by Central American Manufacturing14
World Demand for Cotton after World War II16
The Insecticide Revolution17
Chemical Fertilizers18
Tractors18
Modern Technology and Cotton Yields19
Government Road-building Programs20
Cotton and Credit24
Government Promotion of Cotton Finance25
Summary27
Chapter 2The Cotton Boom and Its Primary Beneficiaries28
The Cotton Growers31
The Cotton Landlords35
Cotton Gins37
The Cotton-Export Houses38
The Suppliers of the Cotton Boom40
Banks and the Cotton Boom42
Vegetable-Oil Factories and Textile Mills43
Cotton and the Cotton Elite44
Ecological Consequences of Cotton48
Summary51
Chapter 3Cotton and the Common Man52
The Cotton Boom and the Opening of Fresh Cropland52
Cornfields to Cotton54
Cotton and Peasant Access to Land55
Cotton and the Creation of a Wage-Labor Force60
The Irreversibility of Cotton66
Cotton to Cattle67
Cotton to Sugar67
Cotton to Basic Grains69
Cotton and the Social Fabric70
Summary73
Part 2Cattle
Chapter 4The Beef-Export Boom and Its Primary Causes77
Practices before the Export Boom78
The Demand for Beef in the U.S. Market84
The Vital Supply Link: The Modern Packing Plant87
Refrigerator Transport90
Roads and the Beef Trade91
State Promotion of the Beef Business92
Road Finance92
Direct Promotional Finance to the Beef Sector93
The Beef-Export Boom and Technology on the Ranch95
Summary98
Chapter 5The Beneficiaries of Beef99
The Source of the Beef Bonanza99
The Packing Plants' Share of the Beef Bonanza102
The Impact of the Boom on Slaughter Sheds, Vendors, and Consumers105
Private Investment in Cattle Raising105
The Collapse of the Small Holder108
Profits from the Sale of Modern Inputs109
Vertical Integration in the Beef-Export Business110
Summary110
Chapter 6Cattle and the Campesino113
Forest to Pasture113
Forest to Corn to Pasture114
Ecological Consequences of Forest-to-Pasture Transformation115
Impact of Forest-to-Pasture Transformation on Peasants117
The Cattle Boom and Rights to Land Use118
The Cattle Boom and Rural Conflict: The Pacific Coastal Plain of Honduras and Costa Rica124
Olancho, Honduras: The Cattle Boom, the Peasant Movement, and Rancher Violence126
The Cattle Boom, Rural Guerrillas, and Counterinsurgency in Nicaragua (1967-1972)129
The First Phase of the Guatemalan Cattle Boom (1960s)134
The Second Phase of the Guatemalan Cattle Boom (1970s)139
The Cattle Boom and the Repression of Cooperatives in Quiche and Huehuetenango (mid-1970s)142
The Cattle Boom, the Massacre at Panzos, and the Guatemalan Civil War147
Summary151
Part 3The Crisis
Chapter 7Cotton, Cattle, and the Crisis155
Cotton and the Buildup to Crisis155
Cattle and the Buildup to Crisis158
U.S. Policy and the Buildup to Crisis160
World-System Shocks: Impact on Elites161
World-System Shocks: Impact on the Poor163
Summary165
Chapter 8Governments and the Crisis166
The Unfolding of the Crisis in Nicaragua166
The Unfolding of the Crisis in El Salvador170
The Unfolding of the Crisis in Guatemala174
Reform and Repression in Honduras: Responses to Shocks179
Government Responses to the Crisis in Costa Rica183
Summary188
Chapter 9Challenge for a New U.S. Policy190
Statistical Appendix197
Notes209
Bibliography239
Index249

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