Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology: An Introduction / Edition 1

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Overview

Starting with the description of our home galaxy the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution. Then, from the extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the text turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early universe.

In particular, Peter Schneider's Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology has the goal of imparting the fundamental knowledge of this fascinating subfield of astronomy, while leading readers to the forefront of astronomical research. But it seeks to accomplish this not only with extensive textual information and insights. In addition, the author's evident admiration for the workings of the universe that shines through the lines and the many supporting color illustrations will deeply inspire the reader. While this book has grown out of introductory university courses on astronomy and astrophysics, it will not only be appreciated by undergraduate students and lecturers. Through the comprehensive coverage of the field, even graduate students and researchers specializing in related fields will appreciate it as reliable reference.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

Review of the German Edition:
This book fills an important gap in astronomy lecture courses. It summarizes the most modern achievements in cosmology, in particular Dark Matter and Dark Energy. I started using it for my introductory astrophysics lectures on the day it appeared.

Prof. Günther Hasinger, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

During the past years extragalactic astrophysics has made rapid progress. An up-to-date, didactically written summary was not available so far. With its coherent description of the underlying physical principles and the attractive presentation of both the vast observational material and computer simulations, using colorful images throughout, Peter Schneider’s textbook fills that gap in an excellent way.

Prof. M. Steinmetz, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam

Pre-Publication Review of the English Edition:
I think this could be a superb textbook for courses on galaxies and cosmology, where, alas, there are not many, and certainly none that are up-to-date in the field.

Prof. John Huchra, Harvard University

From the reviews:

"Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology traces the development of our understanding of the structures in the universe from both a theoretical and an observational standpoint. … A particularly important and attractive aspect of the presentation is the inclusion of well-reasoned descriptions of the fundamental physical principles that underlie the equations. The book is current even though the field is one of rapid development. … Masterful blending of observation and theory; lucid exposition. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Graduate students through professionals." (D. E. Hogg, CHOICE, Vol. 44 (10), June, 2007)

"Through the richness of the color illustrations and through the deep insight of the content, the book will most certainly lead the reader to the forefront of astronomical research in this very interesting and fascinating domain of astronomy. … will not only be highly appreciated by undergraduate students in astronomy but also by graduate students and researchers involved in the field who will certainly appreciate its comprehensive coverage. Teachers and lecturers will also consider it as a mine of information and as a reliable reference." (Emile Biémont, Physicalia Magazine, Vol. 29 (4), 2007)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540331742
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 11/14/2006
  • Edition description: 2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 459
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Peter Schneider is a Full Professor for Astrophysics at the University of Bonn and Founding Director of the Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Bonn. He is one of the internationally most respected German astrophysicists, well known for his research on gravitational lensing (strong and weak) and cosmology, and author of 3 successful Springer books.

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Table of Contents


Introduction and Overview
Introduction     1
Overview     4
Our Milky Way as a Galaxy     4
The World of Galaxies     7
The Hubble Expansion of the Universe     8
Active Galaxies and Starburst Galaxies     10
Voids, Clusters of Galaxies, and Dark Matter     12
World Models and the Thermal History of the Universe     14
Structure Formation and Galaxy Evolution     17
Cosmology as a Triumph of the Human Mind     17
The Tools of Extragalactic Astronomy     18
Radio Telescopes     19
Infrared Telescopes     22
Optical Telescopes     25
UV Telescopes     30
X-Ray Telescopes     31
Gamma-Ray Telescopes     32
The Milky Way as a Galaxy
Galactic Coordinates     35
Determination of Distances Within Our Galaxy     36
Trigonometric Parallax     37
Proper Motions     38
Moving Cluster Parallax     38
Photometric Distance; Extinction and Reddening     39
Spectroscopic Distance     43
Distances of Visual Binary Stars     43
Distances of Pulsating Stars     43
The Structure of theGalaxy     44
The Galactic Disk: Distribution of Stars     46
The Galactic Disk: Chemical Composition and Age     47
The Galactic Disk: Dust and Gas     50
Cosmic Rays     51
The Galactic Bulge     54
The Visible Halo     55
The Distance to the Galactic Center     56
Kinematics of the Galaxy     57
Determination of the Velocity of the Sun     57
The Rotation Curve of the Galaxy     59
The Galactic Microlensing Effect: The Quest for Compact Dark Matter     64
The Gravitational Lensing Effect I     64
Galactic Microlensing Effect     69
Surveys and Results     72
Variations and Extensions     75
The Galactic Center     77
Where is the Galactic Center?     78
The Central Star Cluster     78
A Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way     80
Flares from the Galactic Center     82
The Proper Motion of Sgr A     83
Hypervelocity Stars in the Galaxy     84
The World of Galaxies
Classification     88
Morphological Classification: The Hubble Sequence     88
Other Types of Galaxies      89
Elliptical Galaxies     90
Classification     90
Brightness Profile     90
Composition of Elliptical Galaxies     92
Dynamics of Elliptical Galaxies     93
Indicators of a Complex Evolution     95
Spiral Galaxies     98
Trends in the Sequence of Spirals     98
Brightness Profile     98
Rotation Curves and Dark Matter     100
Stellar Populations and Gas Fraction     102
Spiral Structure     103
Corona in Spirals?     103
Scaling Relations     104
The Tully-Fisher Relation     104
The Faber-Jackson Relation     107
The Fundamental Plane     107
The D[subscript n]-[sigma] Relation     108
Black Holes in the Centers of Galaxies     109
The Search for Supermassive Black Holes     109
Examples for SMBHs in Galaxies     110
Correlation Between SMBH Mass and Galaxy Properties     111
Extragalactic Distance Determination     114
Distance of the LMC     115
The Cepheid Distance     115
Secondary Distance Indicators     116
Luminosity Function of Galaxies      117
The Schechter Luminosity Function     118
The Bimodal Color Distribution of Galaxies     119
Galaxies as Gravitational Lenses     121
The Gravitational Lensing Effect - Part II     121
Simple Models     123
Examples for Gravitational Lenses     125
Applications of the Lens Effect     130
Population Synthesis     132
Model Assumptions     132
Evolutionary Tracks in the HRD; Integrated Spectrum     133
Color Evolution     135
Star Formation History and Galaxy Colors     136
Metallicity, Dust, and HII Regions     136
Summary     136
The Spectra of Galaxies     137
Chemical Evolution of Galaxies     138
Cosmology I: Homogeneous Isotropic World Models
Introduction and Fundamental Observations     141
Fundamental Cosmological Observations     142
Simple Conclusions     142
An Expanding Universe     145
Newtonian Cosmology     146
Kinematics of the Universe     146
Dynamics of the Expansion     147
Modifications due to General Relativity     148
The Components of Matter in the Universe     149
"Derivation" of the Expansion Equation     150
Discussion of the Expansion Equations     150
Consequences of the Friedmann Expansion     152
The Necessity of a Big Bang     152
Redshift     155
Distances in Cosmology     157
Special Case: The Einstein-de Sitter Model     159
Summary     160
Thermal History of the Universe     160
Expansion in the Radiation-Dominated Phase     161
Decoupling of Neutrinos     161
Pair Annihilation     162
Primordial Nucleosynthesis     163
Recombination     166
Summary     169
Achievements and Problems of the Standard Model     169
Achievements     169
Problems of the Standard Model     170
Extension of the Standard Model: Inflation     173
Active Galactic Nuclei
Introduction     177
Brief History of AGNs     177
Fundamental Properties of Quasars     178
Quasars as Radio Sources: Synchrotron Radiation     178
Broad Emission Lines     181
AGN Zoology     182
Quasi-Stellar Objects     183
Seyfert Galaxies     183
Radio Galaxies      183
Optically Violently Variables     184
BL Lac Objects     185
The Central Engine: A Black Hole     185
Why a Black Hole?     186
Accretion     186
Superluminal Motion     188
Further Arguments for SMBHs     191
A First Mass Estimate for the SMBH: The Eddington Luminosity     193
Components of an AGN     195
The IR, Optical, and UV Continuum     195
The Broad Emission Lines     196
Narrow Emission Lines     201
X-Ray Emission     201
The Host Galaxy     202
The Black Hole Mass in AGNs     204
Family Relations of AGNs     207
Unified Models     207
Beaming     210
Beaming on Large Scales     211
Jets at Higher Frequencies     212
AGNs and Cosmology     215
The K-Correction     215
The Luminosity Function of Quasars     216
Quasar Absorption Lines     219
Clusters and Groups of Galaxies
The Local Group     224
Phenomenology     224
Mass Estimate     225
Other Components of the Local Group     227
Galaxies in Clusters and Groups     228
The Abell Catalog     228
Luminosity Function of Cluster Galaxies     230
Morphological Classification of Clusters     231
Spatial Distribution of Galaxies     231
Dynamical Mass of Clusters     233
Additional Remarks on Cluster Dynamics     234
Intergalactic Stars in Clusters of Galaxies     236
Galaxy Groups     237
The Morphology-Density Relation     239
X-Ray Radiation from Clusters of Galaxies     242
General Properties of the X-Ray Radiation     242
Models of the X-Ray Emission     246
Cooling Flows     248
The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect     252
X-Ray Catalogs of Clusters     255
Scaling Relations for Clusters of Galaxies     256
Mass-Temperature Relation     256
Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relation     257
Mass-Luminosity Relation     258
Near-Infrared Luminosity as Mass Indicator     259
Clusters of Galaxies as Gravitational Lenses     260
Luminous Arcs     260
The Weak Gravitational Lens Effect     264
Evolutionary Effects     270
Cosmology II: Inhomogeneities in the Universe
Introduction     277
Gravitational Instability     278
Overview     278
Linear Perturbation Theory     279
Description of Density Fluctuations     282
Correlation Functions     283
The Power Spectrum     284
Evolution of Density Fluctuations     285
The Initial Power Spectrum     285
Growth of Density Perturbations     286
Non-Linear Structure Evolution     289
Model of Spherical Collapse     289
Number Density of Dark Matter Halos     291
Numerical Simulations of Structure Formation     293
Profile of Dark Matter Halos     298
The Substructure Problem     302
Peculiar Velocities     306
Origin of the Density Fluctuations     307
Cosmology III: The Cosmological Parameters
Redshift Surveys of Galaxies     309
Introduction     309
Redshift Surveys     310
Determination of the Power Spectrum     313
Effect of Peculiar Velocities     316
Angular Correlations of Galaxies     318
Cosmic Peculiar Velocities     319
Cosmological Parameters from Clusters of Galaxies      321
Number Density     322
Mass-to-Light Ratio     322
Baryon Content     323
The LSS of Clusters of Galaxies     323
High-Redshift Supernovae and the Cosmological Constant     324
Are SN Ia Standard Candles?     324
Observing SNe Ia at High Redshifts     325
Results     326
Discussion     328
Cosmic Shear     329
Origin of the Lyman-[alpha] Forest     331
The Homogeneous Intergalactic Medium     331
Phenomenology of the Lyman-[alpha] Forest     332
Models of the Lyman-[alpha] Forest     333
The Ly[alpha] Forest as Cosmological Tool     335
Angular Fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background     336
Origin of the Anisotropy: Overview     336
Description of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy     338
The Fluctuation Spectrum     339
Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy     341
WMAP: Precision Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy     345
Cosmological Parameters     349
Cosmological Parameters with WMAP     349
Cosmic Harmony     352
The Universe at High Redshift
Galaxies at High Redshift     356
Lyman-Break Galaxies (LBGs)     356
Photometric Redshift     362
Hubble Deep Field(s)     364
Natural Telescopes     367
New Types of Galaxies     369
Starburst Galaxies     369
Extremely Red Objects (EROs)     371
Submillimeter Sources: A View Through Thick Dust     374
Damped Lyman-Alpha Systems     377
Lyman-Alpha Blobs     378
Background Radiation at Smaller Wavelengths     379
The IR Background     380
The X-Ray Background     380
Reionization of the Universe     382
The First Stars     383
The Reionization Process     385
The Cosmic Star-Formation History     387
Indicators of Star Formation     387
Redshift Dependence of the Star Formation: The Madau Diagram     389
Galaxy Formation and Evolution     390
Expectations from Structure Formation     391
Formation of Elliptical Galaxies     392
Semi-Analytic Models     395
Cosmic Downsizing     400
Gamma-Ray Bursts     402
Outlook     407
Appendix
The Electromagnetic Radiation Field
Parameters of the Radiation Field     417
Radiative Transfer     417
Blackbody Radiation     418
The Magnitude Scale     420
Apparent Magnitude     420
Filters and Colors     420
Absolute Magnitude     422
Bolometric Parameters     422
Properties of Stars
The Parameters of Stars     425
Spectral Class, Luminosity Class, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram     425
Structure and Evolution of Stars     427
Units and Constants     431
Recommended Literature
General Textbooks     433
More Specific Literature     433
Review Articles, Current Literature, and Journals     434
Acronyms Used     437
Figure Credits     441
Subject Index     453
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