FACTS: Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution

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More About This Textbook


The emerging technology of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) enables planning and operation of power systems at minimum costs, without compromising security. This is based on modern high power electronic systems that provide fast controllability to ensure 'flexible' operation under changing system conditions. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject by discussing the operating principles, mathematical models, control design and issues that affect the applications. The concepts are explained often with illustrative examples and case studies. In particular, the book presents an in-depth coverage of:

Applications of SVC, TCSC, GCSC, SPST, STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC, IPFC and IPC for voltage/power control in transmission systems.

Application of DSTATCOM, DVR and UPQC for improving power quality in distribution systems.

Design of Power Oscillation Damping (POD) controllers.

Discrete control of FACTS for improving transient stability.

Mitigation of SSR using series FACTS Controllers.

Issues affecting control design such as electromagnetic and harmonic interactions.

The book can serve as a text or reference for a course on FACTS Controllers. It will also benefit researchers and practicing engineers who wish to understand and apply FACTS technology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848290105
  • Publisher: Anshan Publishing
  • Publication date: 11/15/2008
  • Pages: 532
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface vii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 General 1

1.2 Basics of Power Transmission Networks 1

1.3 Control of Power Flow in AC Transmission Line 4

1.4 Flexible AC Transmission System Controllers 7

1.5 Application of FACTS Controllers in Distribution Systems 16

2 AC Transmission Line and Reactive Power Compensation 19

2.1 Analysis of Uncompensated AC Line 19

2.2 Passive Reactive Power Compensation 29

2.3 Compensation by a Series Capacitor Connected at the Mid-point of the Line 32

2.4 Shunt Compensation Connected at the Midpoint of the Line 34

2.5 Comparison between Series and Shunt Capacitor 36

2.6 Compensation by STATCOM and SSSC 38

2.7 Some Representative Examples 42

3 Static Var Compensator 51

3.1 Analysis of SVC 51

3.2 Configuration of SVC 58

3.3 SVC Controller 68

3.4 Voltage Regulator Design-Some Issues 75

3.5 Harmonics and Filtering 83

3.6 Protection Aspects 91

3.7 Modelling of SVC 96

3.8 Applications of SVC 99

4 Thyristor and GTO Controlled Series Capacitor 105

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Basic Concepts of Controlled Series Compensation 106

4.3 Operation of TCSC 110

4.4 Analysis of TCSC 112

4.5 Control of TCSC 118

4.6 Modelling of TCSC for Stability Studies 122

4.7 GTO Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC) 125

4.8 Mitigation of Subsynchronous Resonance with TCSC and GCSC 128

4.9 Applications of TCSC 150

5 Static Phase Shifting Transformer 157

5.1 General 157

5.2 Basic Principle of a PST 157

5.3 Configurations of SPST 161

5.4 Improvement of Transient Stability Using SPST 166

5.5 Damping of Low Frequency Power Oscillations 168

5.6 Applications of SPST 170

6 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) 173

6.1 Introduction 173

6.2 Principle of Operation of STATCOM 174

6.3 A Simplified Analysis of a Three Phase Six Pulse STATCOM 177

6.4 Analysis of a Six Pulse VSC Using Switching Functions 184

6.5 Multi-pulse Converters 188

6.6 Control of Type 2 Converters 192

6.7 Control of Type 1 Converter 197

6.8 Multilevel Voltage Source Converters 200

6.9 Harmonic Transfer and Resonance in VSC 209

6.10 Applications of STATCOM 213

7 Static Synchronous Series Compensator 217

7.1 Introduction 217

7.2 Operation of SSSC and the Control of Power Flow 217

7.3 Modelling and Control of SSSC 225

7.4 SSSC with an Energy Source 229

7.5 Analysis of SSR with a SSSC 237

7.6 Applications of SSSC 240

8 Unified Power Flow Controller and other Multi-Converter Devices 243

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Operation of a UPFC 246

8.3 Control of UPFC 257

8.4 Protection of UPFC 262

8.5 Interline Power Flow Controller 263

8.6 Convertible Static Compensator 265

8.7 Modelling of UPFC, IPFC and other Multi-Converter FACTS 266

8.8 SSR Characteristics of UPFC 269

8.9 Applications of UPFC 269

9 Interphase Power Controller and other FACTS Devices 273

9.1 Interphase Power Controller (IPC) 273

9.2 NGH SSR Damping Scheme 286

9.3 Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor (TCBR) 291

9.4 Fault Current Limiter (FCL) 293

9.5 Thyristor Controlled Voltage Limiter (TCVL) 296

10 Power Oscillation Damping 301

10.1 Introduction 301

10.2 Basic Issues in the Damping of Low Frequency Oscillations in Large Power Systems 302

10.3 System Modelling for Small Signal Stability 305

10.4 Design of Damping Controllers 316

10.5 Modal Transformation of Swing Equations 322

10.6 Damping of Power Oscillations Using Series FACTS Controllers 325

10.7 Damping of Power Oscillations Using Shunt FACTS Controllers 334

10.8 A Case Study of Damping Controllers in UPFC 340

11 Improvement of Transient Stability 349

11.1 Introduction 349

11.2 Transient Stability of a Two Machine System 350

11.3 Extension to Multimachine Power Systems 352

11.4 Potential Energy Function for SVC, SSSC and UPFC 361

11.5 A New Control Algorithm for Improving Transient Stability and Damping of Oscillations 366

11.6 Case Studies of Discrete Control for Stability Improvement 374

12 Power Quality and Introduction to Custom Power Devices 383

12.1 General 383

12.2 Electromagnetic Phenomena and Power Quality 384

12.3 Custom Power Devices 394

12.4 Definitions of Reactive Power 403

12.5 Reactive Power Compensation in Single Phase Circuits 412

12.6 Reactive Power Compensation in Three Phase Circuits 420

13 Load Compensation and Distribution STATCOM 433

13.1 Introduction 433

13.2 Three Phase Three Wire Systems 434

13.3 Three Phase Four Wire Systems 443

13.4 A Case Study 448

13.5 Synchronous Reference Frame Based Extraction of Reference Currents 450

13.6 Instantaneous Active and Reactive Current Based Extraction of Reference Currents 453

13.7 Application of DSTATCOM for Reactive Power Compensation and Voltage Regulation 460

13.8 Current Control Techniques for PWM Converters 461

13.9 Application of Composite Compensation 464

14 Dynamic Voltage Restorer and Unified Power Quality Conditioner 467

14.1 Introduction 467

14.2 Dynamic Voltage Restoration 468

14.3 Series Active Filtering 473

14.4 A Case Study on DVR 477

14.5 Unified Power Quality Conditioner 484

14.6 A Case Study on UPQC 487

A Modelling of Synchronous Generator 495

A.1 Synchronous Machine Model 495

A.2 Modelling of Turbine Generator Mechanical Systems 501

A.3 Relationship between Park and Kron Transformation 504

B Pulse Width Modulation for Voltage Source Converters 507

B.1 Introduction 507

B.2 Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) 509

B.3 Sinusoidal PWM 511

B.4 Space Vector Modulation (SVM) 515

C Per Unit System for STATCOM 523

D Abbreviations 527

Index 529

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