The Fair Sex: White Women and Racial Patriarchy in the Early American Republic

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"Once the egalitarian passions of the American Revolution had dimmed, the new nation settled into a conservative period that saw the legal and social subordination of women and non-white men. Politicians, ministers, writers, husbands, fathers, and brothers entreated Anglo-American women to assume responsibility for the nation's virtue. Thus, although disfranchised, they served an important national function, that of civilizing non-citizen. They were encouraged to consider themselves the moral and intellectual superiors to non-whites, unruly men, and children. These white women were empowered by race and ethnicity and class, but limited by gender. And in seeking to maintain their advantages, they helped perpetuate the system of racial domination." Schloesser examines the lives and writings of three female political intellectuals - Mercy Otis Warren, Abigail Smith Adams, and Judith Sargent Murray - each of whom was acutely aware of her tenuous position in the founding era of the republic. Carefully negotiating the gender and racial hierarchies of the nation, they at varying times asserted their rights and deferred to male governance. In their public and private actions they represented the paradigm of racial patriarchy at its most complex and its most conflicted.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“Pauline Schloesser’s work on racial patriarchy is pathbreaking in its association of concepts that previously have been studied in near-isolation from each other. The book makes compelling use of primary sources, most notably private correspondence, to provide a sense of how women in elite positions saw themselves and their society in the context of both race and gender relations. The book establishes the presence of a social contract in which Anglo-American women were encouraged to accept subordination within an existing conservative order in exchange for a position of moral and intellectual superiority, most notably over non-whites. Schloesser’s innovative concept of racial patriarchy, along with an impressive foundation in research, make The Fair Sex a major work in political theory and American intellectual history.”

-Patrick James,Political Science, University of Missouri Columbia

“Schloesser’s theory of racial patriarchy repositions America's founding mothers —Mercy Warren, Abigail Adams, Judith Murray—at the intersections of racial privilege and gender oppression. Drawing on Habermas’s discourse theory, she reveals the racial contract implicit in their efforts to participate as equal citizens. The Fair Sex offers a new perspective on the intersections of class, gender, and race from the American Founding to the present day.”
-Nancy S. Love,Associate Professor of Political Science

"Combining methodologies from history and political science, Pauline Schloesser has developed a most sophisticated and convincing interpretation of how the founding fathers constructed a theory of racial patriarchy supported by an ‘ideology of the fair sex.’ Her analysis of the political thought of Mercy Warren, Abigail Adams, and Judith Sargent Murray demonstrates that even these three independent thinkers accepted the gender and ethnic hierarchy handed them by the founders in order to protect their own racial and class privilege as white women.”
-Joan Hoff,Professor of History, College of William and Mary

“Provides an excellent theory for understanding the mutual constitution of race and gender in the formation of ‘women’s identity.’”
-Women & Politics


“This book should be viewed as a jumping-off point to examine the theory of racial patriarchy at different times and places throughout American history.”
-The Journal of American History


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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780814797624
  • Publisher: New York University Press
  • Publication date: 10/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 243
  • Product dimensions: 6.02 (w) x 8.98 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Pauline Schloesser is Associate Professor of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University.

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Table of Contents

1 Race, Gender, and Woman Citizenship in the American Founding 1
2 Toward a Theory of Racial Patriarchy 12
3 The Ideology of the "Fair Sex" 53
4 The Philosopher Queen and the U.S. Constitution: Mercy Otis Warren as a Reluctant Signatory 83
5 From Revolution to Racial Patriarchy: The Political Pragmatism of Abigail Adams 114
6 Gleaning a Self between the Lines: Judith Sargent Murray and the American Enlightenment 154
7 Conclusion 187
Epilogue 193
Appendix 199
Notes 203
Bibliography 225
Index 237
About the Author 243
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