FAST: Faceted Application of Subject Terminology: Principles and Application

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More About This Textbook

Overview

While The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is perhaps the best known bibliographic control system in existence, it is cumbersome and not always user friendly. Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (or FAST) is designed to rework LCSH's authority rules, so that they are easier to use, understand, and apply. The result is a schema designed to handle a large volume of materials with less effort and cost. To this end, two members of the original design team have put together numerous examples of FAST-driven projects including traditional monographs, special collections (archives, business records), electronic resources, and websites. The result is a prototype designed to be used not just by experienced catalogers but people with minimal training and experience.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781591587224
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 7/26/2010
  • Pages: 354
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Part I Introduction

1 Information Organization: Approaches and Principles 3

Introduction 3

Information Searching Environments 3

The Internet 3

Online Databases 4

Library Catalogs and Bibliographies 4

Subject Access to Information 4

Keyword Searching 5

Controlled Vocabulary Access 5

Keyword and Controlled Vocabulary Search Results 6

Classification 7

Principles of Controlled Vocabulary 7

Uniform and Unique Headings 8

Consistent and Current Terminology 9

Specific Entry 9

Terminological Control and Term Relationships 9

Representation of Complex Subjects 10

Characteristics of Indexing Languages 11

Subdivision Practice 11

Enumerative versus Synthetic Languages 11

Faceting 13

Precoordination versus Postcoordination 14

From Cards to Computers 15

Card Catalogs 15

Online Catalogs and Databases 17

Controlled Vocabulary Systems 17

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) 19

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 20

FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) 21

Selecting an Indexing/Classification Schema 22

Compatibility with Existing Metadata 22

Ease of Assignment 22

Retrieval Effectiveness 22

Cost of Maintenance 22

Conclusion 23

2 Metadata Encoding 25

Bibliographic Data 25

Print Representation 25

Book Catalogs 25

Card Catalogs 26

Digital Representation 26

The MARC Bibliographic Formats 28

MARC 21 28

MARC Record Structure 29

UNIMARC 36

XML (Extensible Markup Language) 36

MARCXML 38

MODS 38

Dublin Core 39

Authority Data 44

Print Representation 44

Digital Representation 44

MARC 21 44

Other MARC Authority Formats 46

SKOS 46

Conclusion 48

Part II FAST Headings

3 Introduction to FAST 53

Impact of the Internet and the World Wide Web 53

The History of FAST 55

Sources of FAST Headings 56

Principles 56

Semantics 56

Common and Current Usage 57

Literary Warrant 57

Uniform Heading 57

Unique Heading 58

Syntax of Headings 59

Faceting 59

Enumeration versus Synthesis 60

Precoordination versus Postcoordination 60

Precoordination 61

Postcoordination 62

Heading Structure 62

Main Headings 62

Subdivisions 63

Qualifiers 63

Modular Approach 64

Conclusion 64

4 Topical Headings 67

Introduction 67

Functions of Topical Headings 67

Forms of Topical Headings 67

Single-Concept Headings 68

Single Word Headings 68

Multiple-Word Headings 69

Adjectival Phrase Headings 69

Prepositional Phrase Headings 70

Multiple - Concept Headings 71

Compound Phrase Headings 71

Prepositional Phrase Headings 72

Headings with Subdivisions 72

Types of Topical Headings 73

Headings Representing Concepts and Objects 73

Form/Genre as Subjects 73

Fictitious, Legendary, and Mythological Characters 73

Named Animals 75

Imaginary Places and Organizations 75

Geologic Periods 75

Other Entities Bearing Proper Names 76

Inverted Headings 76

5 Geographic Headings 77

Introduction 77

Types of Geographic Headings 77

Jurisdictional Headings 77

Nonjurisdictional Headings 78

Changes of Name 78

Linear Name Changes 79

Mergers or Splits 79

Mergers 79

Splits 79

Language and Form of Geographic Headings 80

Language 80

Abbreviations 81

Grammatical Form 81

Qualifiers 81

Place Qualifiers 82

Type Qualifiers 82

Place and Type Qualifiers 83

Levels of Geographic Headings 84

First-Level Geographic Headings 84

Second-Level Geographic Headings 85

Third-Level Geographic Headings 86

City Sections and Neighborhoods 86

New York City Boroughs 87

London Boroughs 87

Areas Associated with Cities 89

Entities within Cities 89

Bridges and Tunnels 90

Special Cases 90

Extinct Cities and Ancient Kingdoms 90

Archaeological Sites 91

Bodies of Water 92

Islands 93

Interstates/Highways/Freeway Interchanges 94

Disputed Territories 94

Language-Based Territories 94

Parks, Reserves, and so Forth 94

Other Man-Made Structures Associated with Places Larger Than a City 95

Extraterrestrial Bodies 95

Latitude, Longitude, and Feature Type 96

6 Chronological Headings 99

Introduction 99

Forms of Chronological Headings 99

B.C./A.D. 100

Geologic Periods 101

Headings for Named Historical Periods 101

Chronological Headings Containing Dates Only 101

7 Headings for Events 103

Introduction 103

Forms of Event Headings 103

Language 103

Qualifiers 104

Types of Event Headings 105

Headings for Military Conflicts 105

Headings for Meetings 106

Headings for Sporting Events 107

Headings for Other Events 108

Chronological and Geographic Headings for Events 109

8 Proper Names as Subject Headings 111

Headings for Persons 111

Principles 111

Names of Individual Persons 111

Names of Families 112

Names of Dynasties, Royal Houses, and so Forth 113

Headings for Corporate Bodies 114

Principles 114

Forms of Headings for Corporate Bodies 114

Language 114

Qualifiers 115

Headings for Main Corporate Bodies 116

Governments 116

Nongovernment Bodies 116

Headings for Subordinate Bodies 117

Corporate Name Changes 118

Headings for Titles 119

Principles 119

Forms of Headings for Titles 119

Language 119

Qualifiers 120

Types of Headings for Titles 121

Anonymous Works 121

Works of Known Authorship 121

Works from Corporate Bodies, Conferences, Meetings, Etc. 122

9 Form and Genre Headings 123

Introduction 123

Principles 123

Forms of Form and Genre Headings 124

Main Heading 124

Subdivision 124

Examples of FAST Form and Genre Headings 125

General Form Headings 125

Audiovisual Materials 126

Art 126

Cartography 126

Law 127

Literature 127

Music 127

Religion 128

10 Cross-References 129

Introduction 129

Equivalence Relationship 130

Synonymous Terms 130

Variant Spellings 131

Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initials, and so Forth 131

Different Language Terms 132

Popular and Scientific Terms 133

Alternative Forms 133

Different Entry Elements 133

Narrow Terms Not Used as Headings 134

Ambiguous Relationships 134

Hierarchical Relationships 135

Genus/Species (or Class/Class Member) Relationship 136

Instance Relationship 136

Whole/Part Relationship 136

Compound and Complex Relationship 136

Associative Relationships 137

Cross-References for Proper Name Headings 138

Personal Names 138

Names of Individual Persons 138

Family Names 139

Names of Fictitious and Mythological Characters 139

Dynasties 139

Houses of Dukes, Counts, or Earls 140

Corporate Names 140

Geographic Names 140

Jurisdictional Names 140

Nonjurisdictional Names 141

Changes in Geographic Names 141

Headings for Other Named Entities 142

Headings for Events 143

Headings for Titles 144

Conclusion 144

Part III Application of FAST

11 The FAST Database 147

Indexing Overview 147

Queries 149

Searching 150

Keywords in Headings 150

Advanced Searching 152

Phrase Searching 152

Keyword Searching 154

Geographic Indexes 156

Oder Indexes 159

Index View 159

12 Application of FAST Headings 161

Introduction 161

Coding for FAST Headings in Bibliographic Records 162

MARC Records 162

Dublin Core Records 162

Exhaustivity in Cataloging or Indexing 164

Assigning FAST Headings 172

Identifying Concepts and Facets within the Topic 172

Selecting Form/Genre Headings 173

Selecting Subject Headings 173

Topical Headings 173

Works on a Single Topic 173

Works on Multiple Topics 173

Works on Complex Topics 174

Topics with Multiple Concepts 174

Geographic Headings 175

Chronological Headings 176

Name Headings 176

Title Headings 177

Topics with Multiple Facets 177

Subject Relations 179

FAST Application Examples 179

Example 1 People and Predators: from Conflict to Coexistence 180

Example 2 Daily Life in Colonial New England 183

Example 3 Style and the Nineteenth-century British Critic: Sincere Mannerisms 186

Example 4 Fife and Tayside 189

Example 5 Anne Frank: Reflections on Her Life and Legacy 191

Example 6 2005 Hydrographic Survey of South San Francisco Bay, California [Web site] 195

Example 7 Shakespeare in the Victorian Periodicals 198

Example 8 Portrait of an Unknown Woman 200

Example 9 The Pretender 203

Example 10 First Emperor of China [DVD] 206

Example 11 Japan: Economic, Political and Social Issues 209

Example 12 Detours [Audio CD] 211

Part IV Authority Control and Implementation

13 Derivation of FAST Headings 217

Background 217

Topical Headings 217

Enumeration of Assigned Headings 217

Validation 218

Recoding of Forms 218

Normalization 219

LCSH Authority File 220

Subdivisions 221

Geographic Headings 222

Event Headings 226

Event Headings Derived from Topical Headings 226

Event Headings Derived from Period Subdivisions 227

Event Headings Derived from LCSH Conferences and Meetings Names 229

Headings for Names of Persons and Families 229

Headings for Names of Corporate Bodies 230

Headings for Titles 230

Works of Anonymous Authorship 230

Works of Personal Authorship 231

Works of Corporate Bodies 231

Works from Conferences and Meetings 232

Chronological Headings 232

Form Headings 232

14 FAST Authority Records 235

Introduction 235

Authority Data 235

Authority Records 235

MARC Record Structure for Authorities 236

Creation of FAST Authority Records 236

Example 1 Vestischer Kunstlerbund Recklinghausen 238

Example 2 David D. Smyers 239

Example 3 Battle of Agincourt 240

Example 4 Ferryboat Captains 241

Example 5 Columbus Dispatch 242

Example 6 McConnelsville 243

Example 7 Infants---Diseases---Patients 244

Additional Examples of FAST Authority Records 246

Topical Headings 246

Geographic Headings 247

Chronological Headings 248

Personal Name Headings 249

Corporate Headings 250

Event Headings 251

Title Headings 253

Form/Genre Headings 254

Normalization 254

Conflicts 256

Additional Validation 257

Obsolete Authority Records 257

15 Authority Control 261

Definition 261

Need for Authority Control 262

Validation 262

Correction 264

Stylistic 264

Tagging and Subfield Coding 264

Cross-References 264

Typographical Errors 265

Obsolete Headings 265

Conclusion 266

16 Faceting LCSH into FAST 267

Introduction 267

Identification and Recoding of Form Subdivisions 267

Algorithmic Faceting of LCSH to FAST 269

Faceting of Forms 270

Faceting of Titles 270

Titles of Anonymous Works 270

Titles for Works of Known Authorship 271

Faceting of Events 271

Faceting of Geographic Names 272

Main Headings 272

Subdivisions 272

Faceting of Personal Names 273

Faceting of Corporate Names 273

Faceting of Chronologicals 273

Faceting of Topicals 273

Reference Records 274

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