Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the Worldby Greg Critser
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In this astonishing expose, journalist Greg Critser looks beyond the sensational headlines to reveal why nearly 60 percent of Americans are now overweight. Critser's sharp-eyed reportage and sharp-tongued analysis make for a disarmingly funny and truly alarming book. Critser investigates the many factors of American life -- from supersize to Super Mario, from high-fructose corn syrup to the high cost of physical education in schools -- that have converged and conspired to make us some of the fattest people on the planet. He also explains why pediatricians are treating conditions rarely before noticed in children, why Type 2 diabetes is on the rise, and how agribusiness has unwittingly altered the American diet.
"An in-depth, well-researched, and thoughtful exploration of the 'fat boom' in America."Boston Globe Boston Globe
Greg Critser shows how obesity has become the United States' leading social issue." -San Francisco Chronicle The San Francisco Chronicle
"Reading this book will take ten pounds right off you."Vanity Fair Vanity Fair
"[An] absorbing volume, of living large."Michiko Kakutani, New York Times The New York Times
"A fluidly written, riveting tale . . .[an] impassioned, graphic account."Heller McAlpin, Newsday Newsday
"Interesting and provocative . . . A lively book . . . Critser is rightly incensed."Laura Miller, Salon.com
“Just perusing the book, and seeing the [obesity] problem presented in such an articulate and lucid manner, can’t help but make more informed food consumers out of readers.”Los Angeles Times The Los Angeles Times
“One scary book and a good companion to Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation. Consider it Critser’s cry of ‘Watch it, Fatso!’ to our bloated nation.”Seattle Post-Intelligencer Seattle Post-Intelligencer
“Urgent and easily digested . . ..Critser lays out the smorgasbord of cultural and economic ingredients that combine to make fatness as American as a deep-fried apple fritter.”San Diego Union-Tribune The San Diego Union-Tribune
“Incisive . . .The book makes you slightly ill at the notion of an overfed wasteland.”Philadelphia Inquirer Philadelphia Inquirer
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Fat LandHow Americans Became the Fattest People in the World
By Greg Critser
Houghton MifflinCopyright © 2002 Greg Critser
All right reserved.
Obesity is the dominant unmet global health issue, with Western countries topping the list. -World Health Organization
Set the soul of thy son aright, and all the rest will be added hereafter! -Saint John Chrysostom
This book is not a memoir, but it is undeniably grounded in a singular personal experience. My experience was not, for those hoping for something juicy, a moment of childhood drama. Nor was it anything that led to any form of spiritual or true psychological revelation. Compared to the harrowing tribulations that so much of the worlds population endures, it was, when all is said and done, rather mundane and petty. Here it is: Some guy called me fatso. Specifically, he screamed: "Watch it, fatso!"
Here I should note that I deserved the abuse; after all, I had opened my car door into a busy street without looking into my side mirror first, and so had nearly decapitated the poor fellow. I could have killed him. But why . . . fatso? Could it be because I was indeed forty pounds overweight? Or that I could not fit into any of my clothes, even the ones I got at the Gap that were labeled "relaxed" (which, come to think of it, I wasnt), let alone the ones considered "baggy" (which, again come tothink of it, I was)? Could it be because I had to back up ten feet so as to get my entire face into the bathroom mirror to shave every morning? Or that when I dined with friends they hid their small pets and seemed to guard their plates, one arm curled around them, as if I might plunge my fork into their juicy pieces of duck and make off with them? Im obviously joking about the latter, but the point is that the insult hit home. In upwardly mobile, professional America, being fat-and having someone actually notice it and say something about it-is almost as bad as getting caught reading Playboy in your parents bedroom when youre ten. Shame shame shame.
Fatness was hardly a new issue for me. My wife and my physician had been after me for some time to do something about my problem, the former quite gingerly, the latter not so. My doctor, in fact, had recently suggested that I consider a new weight loss medication. At the time, I had promptly brushed the idea aside. Now, the sting still fresh, I reconsidered: Why not?
And so, for the next nine months, I put all of my extra energy into the task of shedding my excess avoirdupois. In modern America, this, I would find, was a rite in itself, replete with its own social institutions (health clubs), tonics (Meridia), taboos (Krispy Kreme), and aspirational totems (Levis 501 regular cuts). I was apparently ready for this rite, for, to my delight, I slowly but surely lost the weight. What followed was encouraging, if somewhat predictable: congratulations from friends for "sticking to it"; enhanced self-esteem; a new wardrobe; a newfound confidence and spring in my step; phone calls from J.Lo. and Julia.
Yet the more I contemplated my success, the more I came to see it not as a triumph of will, but as a triumph of my economic and social class. The weight loss medication Meridia, for example, had been effective not because it is such a good drug; even its purveyors freely admit it is far from effective for most people. What had made the drug work for me was the upper- middle-class support system that I had brought to it: a good physician who insisted on seeing me every two weeks, access to a safe park where I would walk and jog, friends who shared the value of becoming slender, healthy home-cooked food consumed with my wife, books about health, and medical journals about the latest nutritional breakthroughs. And money. And time.
I wrote about these insights, first for a local magazine, then in my column in USA Today, where I write about the politics of health. I then moved on to other topics. As is the case with most subject matter, fatness had remained, at least for me, somewhat abstract, distant-intellectual rather than emotional. It was certainly nothing one could view as a matter of national urgency.
Then, two things happened which would change that.
For one, I met a man named James O. Hill. Hill is a physiologist at the University of Colorados Health Sciences Center. Curly-haired, a bit provocative, Hill is a vigorous, intellectually engaged fellow with an agile debating style and a wide-ranging presence in his field. Hills field is the study of obesity, everything from its epidemiology to its causes to its treatment. It was Hill who, only a few years ago, coined what may be the single most quoted line in regard to todays soaring obesity rates. "If obesity is left unchecked," he told the Associated Press, "almost all Americans will be overweight by 2050." Becoming obese, he went on, "is a normal response to the American environment." With a presence on all of the leading public health committees charged with doing something about the nations expanding waistline, Hill is the dean of obesity studies. It was my fortune to meet him at just the right time.
Hill spelled out the problem more clearly than anyone else. "See, for decades, most of us believed that the rate of overweight in this country was relatively static-somewhere around 25 percent of the population would be always overweight," he recalled one day. "But then, beginning in the late eighties, we started seeing that rate spike upward, 30, 35, 40 percent. And that started freaking a lot of us out. Where were the gains coming from? We know that obesity has a strong genetic component, but twenty years- anyone knows that is a laughingly small amount of time for genetics to change so much. So for the guys like myself, the question has become, basically, what has changed in the environment to allow the inclination toward overweight and obesity to express itself? What changed around us to allow us to get so big?"
Big, of course, is putting it mildly. Today Americans are the fattest people on the face of the earth (save for the inhabitants of a few South Seas islands). About 61 percent of Americans are overweight-overweight enough to begin experiencing health problems as a direct result of that weight. About 20 percent of us are obese-so fat that our lives will likely be cut short by excess fat. More than 5 million Americans now meet the definition of morbid obesity; they are so obese that they qualify for a radical surgical technique known as gastroplasty, wherein the stomach is surgically altered so as to keep food from being digested. (The American Bariatric Society, whose members perform gastroplasty, reports that its waiting lists are months long and that its surgeons "cant keep up.")
Children are most at risk from obesity. About 25 percent of all Americans under age nineteen are overweight or obese, a figure that, Hill points out, has doubled in thirty years. That one figure recently moved U.S. Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher to declare obesity to be a national epidemic. "Today," he told a group of federal bureaucrats and health policy officers, "we see a nation of young people seriously at risk of starting out obese and dooming themselves to the difficult task of overcoming a tough illness."
Obesity itself is slowly moving into the middle and upper classes, but the condition disproportionately plagues the poor and the working poor. Mexican American women aged 20 to 74, for example, have an obesity rate about 13 percent higher for those living below the poverty line versus those above the poverty line. Diabetes occurs at a rate of 16 to 26 percent in both Hispanic and black Americans aged 45 to 74, compared to 12 percent in non-Hispanic whites of the same age.
Yet most of America-particularly the America of the Me Generation-seems to be in deep denial about the class and age aspects of obesity. Get a group of boomers together and, within minutes, the topic of obesity shifts not to medical issues but, rather, to aesthetic and gender issues, to the notion-widely held in the urban upper middle class-that "talking too much about obesity just ends up making kids have low self-esteem." Or that it "might lead to anorexia."
Those attitudes also permeate the medical sphere; doctors and other health care providers remain either in ignorance or outright denial about the health danger to the poor and the young. In a rare moment of industry scrutiny a few years ago, the Centers for Disease Control surveyed twelve thousand obese adults to find out what, exactly, their doctors were telling them. The results were arresting. Fewer than half reported being advised to lose weight. A separate study sharpened the indictment: Patients with incomes above $50,000 were more likely to receive such advice than were those with incomes below. As the Journal of the American Medical Association noted, "The lower rates of counseling among respondents with lower education and income levels . . . are particularly worrisome, because members of lower socioeconomic groups have poorer health outcomes."
Yes, worrisome. Yet we Americans are inured to such dirges, which daily seem to well up from the pages of our newspapers. Certainly I was. Until, that is, the unexpected intruded.
It happened in the Intensive Care Unit of Los Angeles County/USC Medical Center, one of the nations busiest hospitals. I was there visiting an ailing relative when, suddenly, a gaggle of interns, nurses, and orderlies pushed a gurney through the ward. On it lay a very large young man, perhaps 450 pounds, hooked to the ganglia of modern medicine. He had just undergone an emergency gastroplasty repair, and it did not look good. As I came to learn, first through bits and pieces exchanged by the ward nurses, then through comments by the patients parents, it was not the first emergency for this man. As his mother, a modestly dressed woman in her forties, moaned at one point, "Second time in three months . . . his stomach keeps coming unstapled" (not all forms of gastroplasty actually involve stapling, as did older forms of obesity surgery, but many still refer to it that way). The woman then leaned on the shoulder of her weary husband. "My . . . boy." Her boy was dying from his own fat.
Yes, he was dying, and yes, the more I looked, the more I could see: Here was someones boy, one plagued, I imagined, by years of bad health, discomfort, self-loathing, and, of course, countless insults and snickers by passersby and friends alike. But someones little boy nonetheless. Watching him as he gasped for air-respiratory function is one of the first things that can go when one gets so big-I could not help think: There but for the grace of God go I. And, to hear Jim Hill and Dr. Satcher tell it, a large number of other decent Americans.
Driving home that night, through the barrio of East L.A., then up the chilly black Pasadena Freeway to the town where I live, I wondered just how a boy becomes so disabled. Genes certainly played a role, but as Jim Hill had lucidly pointed out, genes have always played a role in obesity. The question was, why are we seeing so many more people like the one I just saw? How-exactly-had they been made? And if it is true that, in America, every man is his own author, that every man, as Ivan Illich once wrote, "is responsible for what has been made of him," then what, as a nation, is being made of us by the obese?
I decided to find out: How is it that we better-off Americans, perhaps the most health-conscious of any generation in the history of the world, have come to preside over the deadly fattening of our youth and their future? That is the story you will read on the following pages, and that is why we must now turn to the strange career of one Earl L. Butz . . .
Excerpted from Fat Land by Greg Critser Copyright © 2002 by Greg Critser
Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Meet the Author
GREG CRITSER is a longtime chronicler of the modern pharmaceutical industry and the politics of medicine. His columns and essays on the subject have appeared in Harper’s Magazine, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, the L.A. Times, and elsewhere. Critser is the author of Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World (Houghton Mifflin), which the American Diabetes Association called “the definitive journalistic account of the modern obesity epidemic.” He lives in Pasadena, California, with his wife, Antoinette Mongelli.
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The book Fat Land by Greg Critser is a great insight into the origins of obesity in the United States of America. However, the great thing about this book is that it not only tells people why obesity is so out of control due to poor diet and lack of exercise, a fact which most people are already familiar with. It goes into depth about when and why unhealthy foods were introduced to the everyday American in the first place. Also where this fatty food came from, and why Americans have been gobbling it up by the plateful. Critser illustrates the beginnings of the obesity epidemic from both an economical and social standpoint really painting a picture as to why things were able to get out of control so fast. He presents his readers with interesting side by side facts whether it be the growing size of fast food portions or the increase of the average caloric intake of a person from the early 1980’s to current day that really force readers to open up their eyes and see the unhealthy food choices that have only recently begun to be made. The facts found in Fat Land have simply never been presented together so perfectly. A person would have to read through thousands of medical studies and journals, diet books, and historical records to gain as much knowledge as that to which is luckily, readily available to them in this book. The only unpleasant thing about this book is that is very wordy and can also be dry at some points. I just do not see people who really are not interested in personal health, diet, and exercise being able to stomach all the hard nutritional facts and continue reading. But to those who are interested in such topics Fat Land is extremely interesting and thought provoking.
In the nonfiction novel, “Fat Land; How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World,” by Greg Critser, it argues the specific explanations for America’s obesity issues. Critser’s book offers a look at the various causes of why the energy balance in America has grown to be so lopsided. Critser conveys a complete assessment of the farming, governmental, societal, and financial specifics that have funded America’s obesity epidemic. Although most believe that the weight problem in America has increased due to the amount of fast food and burger joints, Critser clarifies the real issues that occurred before the fast food industry epidemic. In one of the main chapters in his book, Critser shows his audience that the real trouble came from the economy. Businesses and food manufacturers had been continuously losing money and assumed that “corn syrup” was no different than the sugar used in most food products. This supposition lead to high fructose levels in the majority of our nation’s foods. Critser did a remarkable job clarifying the thought process of the food producers and how they presumed that this new type of sweetener was appropriate for America. He also described how this modification of ingredients soon backfired. The high fructose corn syrup in America’s food was exceptionally harmful and caused the obesity rate to increase. Along with Critser’s well-studied proofs on the economic mistakes of America’s government, he also pointed out the other main error of our countries decisions which lead towards an obese country. The food manufacturers learned “value meals” and “supersizing”. Fast food restaurants observed the profitability- if they served high profit drinks and low profit burgers- was immense and was the greatest thing that could happen for their business. Besides that, “supersizing” became particularly popular among the residents of our country; tripling the serving size of a standard McDonald’s meal saved companies money and presented the consumers more for their dollar. Soon America was supersized and businesses attempted to compete with McDonalds marketing tricks to receive more business. Due to this entire theory of supersizing, our country has from then on had an exceptionally challenging time consuming healthy and well portioned meals. Critser’s in-depth justification for America’s faults indicated to his readers the very real epidemic our country is in and the steps America needs to take to repair this problem are significant.
Fat Land was an exceptional book giving us the detailed reasons why america is the obese and sick nation that it is today. Apparently we need the wake up call to become realistic to what choices we are making for both or futures and to our children. Unfortunaltely only we can decide to take what this book has said to heart and change things beginning now
Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World is the type of book that everyone should read. Not only is it an inside look at the food advertisement industry, but also is and depiction of the American attitude of ¿I want it now, I want it fast¿. This book tackles the tough questions concerning type two diabetes, heart disease, and other health related problems. These problems also have been monitored in children as young as age 5. Why is that? This is not just any old diet book telling you to eat right and exercise. Actually, its not one at all. It will make you think about what you are putting into your body. Even though it is hard to eat anything healthily anymore (since even fruits and vegetables have been pumped with preservatives) at least this book is a real eye opener. Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World is the only good read that has made me think about what I am eating before it even enters my mouth.
Fat Land is everything a good piece of non-fiction should be: Thoroughly researched, tightly written, pointed yet compassionate and-here's the bonus-executed with a wonderful sense of humor. Even those not interested in America's fat epidemic will not be able to put this book down. As one friend observed, "You'll lose ten pounds just by reading it!"
Hi im 11 and i weigh 342 pounds. This book made me feel offended im not sure yall sound buy it
I thought this book was exciting since it's less than 200 pages, which is about equal to my interest in the topic. Turns out to be 176 pages that feel like 1760 pages. Reading this book is a lot like reading a report in a medical journal. It was dry, stuffy, long, and boring. Recommended only for people who are VERY into this topic; I was disappointed.
I really enjoyed this book. I have recently started to make an effort to become a fit person. This book went beyond the obvious to point out why america is so overweight. The book looks at the psyche, legislation, and even religion as to why americans feel it is ok to be so large.
I enjoyed Fat Land from beginning to end. It is a book jammed with outstanding journalism, wise and humorous asides, and compassion for those who suffer from obesity, one of the nation's top health problems. Too bad some people cannot seperate their own thin skins from a fine account of an important health issue for us all.
loved this book!!! used it multiple times for research papers and definitely a must read!
Very detailed about obesity in America but also very boring. This book constantly repeats itself and becomes a real bore.
Oh my gosh,thats so sad. The mother is feeding the baby fat food. DONT EAT IT BABY!!!!!!
Mr. Critser focuses on the 'obestiy epidemic' but dismisses concerns about anorexia and other eating disorders. In addition, he says that 'there are several safe, effective drugs in the anti-anorexia arsenal'. This statement is untrue. There are no medications specific to anorexia. Anorexia often starts out as appropriate dieting and studies have shown that, despite what Critser says implying anorexia is no big deal, huge percentages of children in elementary school think they are fat when they are not. Most of them are girls. The obesity epidemic in kids has to be approached from a child development point of view. I think the book is too full of liberal biases about Republicans as well.