Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Application to Design / Edition 1

Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Application to Design / Edition 1

by Claude Bathias
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1848212917

ISBN-13: 9781848212916

Pub. Date: 02/02/2011

Publisher: Wiley

The design of mechanical structures with predictable and improved durability cannot be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue damage and more specifically the relationships between the microstructure of materials and their fatigue properties.
Written by leading researchers in the field, this book, along with the complementary

Overview

The design of mechanical structures with predictable and improved durability cannot be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue damage and more specifically the relationships between the microstructure of materials and their fatigue properties.
Written by leading researchers in the field, this book, along with the complementary books Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Fundamentals and Application to Damage and Design (both also edited by Claude Bathias and André Pineau), provides an authoritative, comprehensive and unified treatment of the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue in metals, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of materials or to different types of fatigue damage, thereby providing overall coverage of the field.

This book deals with multiaxial fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, fretting-fatigue, influence of defects on fatigue life, cumulative damage and damage tolerance, and will be an important and much used reference for students, practicing engineers and researchers studying fracture and fatigue in numerous areas of materials science and engineering, mechanical, nuclear and aerospace engineering.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781848212916
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
02/02/2011
Series:
ISTE Series , #559
Pages:
368
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Foreword Stephen D. Antolovich xi

Chapter 1 Multiaxial Fatigue Marc Blétry Georges Cailletaud 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Variables in a plane 3

1.1.2 Invariants 7

1.1.3 Classification of the cracking modes 11

1.2 Experimental aspects 12

1.2.1 Multiaxial fatigue experiments 12

1.2.2 Main results 12

1.2.3 Notations 15

1.3 Criteria specific to the unlimited endurance domain 15

1.3.1 Background 15

1.3.2 Global criteria 17

1.3.3 Critical plane criteria 25

1.3.4 Relationship between energetic and mesoscopic criteria 28

1.4 Low cycle fatigue criteria 30

1.4.1 Brown-Miller 31

1.4.2 SWT criteria 32

1.4.3 Jacquelin criterion 33

1.4.4 Additive criteria under sliding and stress amplitude 33

1.4.5 Onera model 35

1.5 Calculating methods of the lifetime under multiaxial conditions 35

1.5.1 Lifetime at N cycles for a periodic loading 35

1.5.2 Damage cumulation 36

1.5.3 Calculation methods 37

1.6 Conclusion 40

1.7 Bibliography 41

Chapter 2 Cumulative Damage Jean-Louis Chaboche 47

2.1 Introduction 47

2.2 Nonlinear fatigue cumulative damage 49

2.2.1 Main observations 49

2.2.2 Various types of nonlinear cumulative damage models 52

2.2.3 Possible definitions of the damage variable 60

2.3 A nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage model 63

2.3.1 General form 63

2.3.2 Special forms of functions F and G 67

2.3.3 Application under complex loadings 71

2.4 Damage law of incremental type 77

2.4.1 Damage accumulation in strain or energy 77

2.4.2 Lemaitre's formulation 79

2.4.3 Other incremental models 90

2.5 Cumulative damage under fatigue-creep conditions 95

2.5.1 Rabotnov-Kachanov creep damage law 95

2.5.2 Fatigue damage 97

2.5.3 Creep-fatigue interaction 97

2.5.4 Practical application 98

2.5.5 Fatigue-oxidation-creep interaction 100

2.6 Conclusion 103

2.7 Bibliography 104

Chapter 3 Damage Tolerance Design Raphael Cazes 111

3.1 Background 112

3.2 Evolution of the design concept of "fatigue" phenomenon 112

3.2.1 First approach to fatigue resistance 112

3.2.2 The "damage tolerance" concep 113

3.2.3 Consideration of "damage tolerance" 114

3.3 Impact of damage tolerance on design 115

3.3.1 "Structural" impact 115

3.3.2 "Material" impact 116

3.4 Calculation of a "stress intensity factor" 119

3.4.1 Use of the "handbook" (simple cases) 120

3.4.2 Use of the finite element method: simple and complex cases 121

3.4.3 A simple method to get new configurations 122

3.4.4 "Superposition" method 122

3.4.5 Superposition method: applicable examples 125

3.4.6 Numerical application exercise 126

3.5 Performing some "damage tolerance" calculations 127

3.5.1 Complementarity of fatigue and damage tolerance 127

3.5.2 Safety coefficients to understand curve a =f(N) 128

3.5.3 Acquisition of the material parameters 129

3.5.4 Negative parameter: corrosion-"corrosion fatigue" 130

3.6 Application to the residual strength of thin sheets 131

3.6.1 Planar panels: Feddersen diagram 131

3.6.2 Case of stiffened panels 133

3.7 Propagation of cracks subjected to random loading in the aeronautic industry 135

3.7.1 Modeling of the interactions of loading cycles 135

3.7.2 Comparison of predictions with experimental results 139

3.7.3 Rainflow treatment of random loadings 140

3.8 Conclusion 144

3.8.1 Organization of the evolution of "damage tolerance" 144

3.8.2 Structural maintenance program 144

3.8.3 Inspection of structures being used 146

3.9 Damage tolerance within the gigacyclic domain 147

3.9.1 Observations on crack propagation 147

3.9.2 Propagation of a fish-eye with regards to damage tolerance 147

3.9.3 Example of a turbine disk subjected to vibration 148

3.10 Bibliography 149

Chapter 4 Defect Influence on the Fatigue Behavior of Metallic Materials Gilles Baudry 151

4.1 Introduction 151

4.2 Some facts 152

4.2.1 Failure observation 152

4.2.2 Endurance limit level 154

4.2.3 Influence of the rolling reduction ratio and the effect of rolling direction 156

4.2.4 Low cycle fatigue: SN curves 158

4.2.5 Wohler curve: existence of an endurance limit 159

4.2.6 Summary 165

4.3 Approaches 166

4.3.1 First models 166

4.3.2 Kitagawa diagram 166

4.3.3 Murakami model 168

4.4 A few examples 171

4.4.1 Medium-loaded components: example of as-forged parts: connecting rods - effect of the forging skin 171

4.4.2 High-loaded components: relative importance of cleanliness and surface state-example of the valve spring 173

4.4.3 High-loaded components: Bearings-Endurance cleanliness relationship 175

4.5 Prospects 180

4.5.1 Estimation of lifetimes and their dispersions 180

4.5.2 Fiber orientation 181

4.5.3 Prestressing 182

4.5.4 Corrosion 183

4.5.5 Complex loadings: spectra/over-loadings/multiaxial loadings 183

4.5.6 Gigacycle fatigue 183

4.6 Conclusion 185

4.7 Bibliography 186

Chapter 5 Fretting Fatigue: Modeling and Applications Marie-Christine Baietto-Duborg Trevor Lindley 195

5.1 Introduction 195

5.2 Experimental methods 198

5.2.1 Fatigue specimens and contact pads 198

5.2.2 Fatigue S-N data with and without fretting 198

5.2.3 Frictional force measurement 199

5.2.4 Metallography and fractography 200

5.2.5 Mechanisms in fretting fatigue 202

5.3 Fretting fatigue analysis 203

5.3.1 The S-N approach 203

5.3.2 Fretting modeling 205

5.3.3 Two-body contact 206

5.3.4 Fatigue crack initiation 207

5.3.5 Analysis of cracks: the fracture mechanics approach 209

5.3.6 Propagation 213

5.4 Applications under fretting conditions 214

5.4.1 Metallic material: partial slip regime 214

5.4.2 Epoxy polymers: development of cracks under a total slip regime 218

5.5 Palliatives to combat fretting fatigue 224

5.6 Conclusions 225

5.7 Bibliography 226

Chapter 6 Contact Fatigue Ky Dang Van 231

6.1 Introduction 231

6.2 Classification of the main types of contact damage 232

6.2.1 Background 232

6.2.2 Damage induced by rolling contacts with or without sliding effect 232

6.2.3 Fretting 235

6.3 A few results on contact mechanics 239

6.3.1 Hertz solution 240

6.3.2 Case of contact with friction under total sliding conditions 241

6.3.3 Case of contact with partial sliding 241

6.3.4 Elastic contact between two solids of different elastic modules 245

6.3.5 3D elastic contact 247

6.4 Elastic limit 248

6.5 Elastoplastic contact 249

6.5.1 Stationary methods 251

6.5.2 Direct cyclic method 253

6.6 Application to modeling of a few contact fatigue issues 254

6.6.1 General methodology 254

6.6.2 Initiation of fatigue cracks in rails 256

6.6.3 Propagation of initiated cracks 260

6.6.4 Application to fretting fatigue 261

6.7 Conclusion 268

6.8 Bibliography 269

Chapter 7 Thermal Fatigue Eric Charkaluk Luc Rémy 271

7.1 Introduction 271

7.2 Characterization tests 276

7.2.1 Cyclic mechanical behavior 277

7.2.2 Damage 287

7.3 Constitutive and damage models at variable temperatures 294

7.3.1 Constitutive laws 294

7.3.2 Damage process modeling based on fatigue conditions 301

7.3.3 Modeling the damage process in complex cases: towards considering interactions with creep and oxidation phenomena 309

7.4 Applications 314

7.4.1 Exhaust manifolds in automotive industry 314

7.4.2 Cylinder heads made from aluminum alloys in the automotive industry 316

7.4.3 Brake disks in the rail and automotive industries 320

7.4.4 Nuclear industry pipes 322

7.4.5 Simple structures simulating turbine blades 324

7.5 Conclusion 325

7.6 Bibliography 326

List of Authors 339

Index 341

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