Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications

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Each chapter ends with a section of references.

Raw Materials
U.S. Utilization of Edible Fats and Oils
Fats and Oils Characterization
Soybean Oil
Cottonseed Oil
Peanut Oil
Corn Oil
Sunflower Oil
High-Oleic Sunflower Oil
Safflower Oil
High-Oleic Safflower Oil
Canola Oil
Palm Oil
Olive Oil
Coconut Oil
Palm Kernel Oil
Meat Fat

Crude Fats and Oils
Refining Systems
Esterification or Alcoholysis
Finished Fats and Oils Handling
Powdered and Beaded Fats
Salad and Cooking Oils Packaging
Bulk Oil Shipments

Non-Fatty Impurities
Melting, Solidification, and Consistency
Composition Analysis
Flavor, Rancidity, and Stability
Color and Appearance
Refining and Bleaching
Performance Testing
Non-Standardized Methods

Source Oils and Fats Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
Hydrogenated Basestock System
Solids/Liquids Characteristics
Product Development
Source Oils and Fats Interchangeability

Shortening Types
Plasticized Shortening Applications
Liquid Shortening Applications
Flakes, Chips, and Powdered Shortening Applications

Baking Shortenings
All-Purpose Shortenings
Emulsified All-Purpose Shortenings
Retail Cake Mix Shortenings
Specialty Bakery Cake Shortenings
Liquid Cake Shortening
Icing and Filling Shortenings
Icing Stabilizers
Bread Shortenings
Liquid Bread Shortenings
Sweet Yeast-Raised Shortenings
Cookie Shortenings
Cookie Filler Shortenings
Pie Crust Shortenings
Biscuit Shortenings
Danish Pastry Roll-in Shortenings
Puff Paste Roll-in Shortening
Shortening Chips
Cracker Shortenings

Frying Shortenings
Frying Shortening Additives
Frying Shortening Selection
Food Service Deep Fat Applications
Food Service Pan and Grill Shortenings
Bakery Frying Shortening Applications
Snack Frying Shortening Applications

Dairy Analog Shortenings
Non-Dairy Creamer Shortenings
Whipped Topping Shortenings
Cheese Analog Shortening
Frozen Dessert or Mellorine
Sour Cream Analog and Dip Bases
Fluid Milk Analogs
Sweetened Condensed Milk Analogs

Household Shortenings
Household Shortening Product Requirements
Household Shortening Formulation
Household Shortening Plasticization
Household Shortening Packaging

Margarine Formulations
Spread Formulations
Margarine and Spread Preparation

Liquid Oils
Retail Consumer Oils
Industrial Salad Oil Applications
High-Stability Oils

Quality Management
Operating Standards
Process Control

Processing Troubleshooting
Shortening Applications
Other Products Troubleshooting
Quality Control Troubleshooting


Special Troubleshooting Section
Crude Oil Receipts
Crude Oil Storage
Storage Tanks Degumming
Low Yield Caustic Oil Refining-Primary Centrifuge
High Soap Content Oil Refining-Water Wash
High Soap Content Oil Refining-Vacuum Drying
High Moisture Prebleaching
High Impurities in Filtered Oil Hydrogenation
Catalyst Filtration Postbleaching
Poor Bleach Color Winterization
Slow Filtration Rate Dewaxing
Wax Content Esterification
High Color
Low Alpha Monoglyceride Content Blending
AOM Stability
Poor Performance Deodorization
Reverted Oil Flavor Antioxidant Addition
Antioxidant Activity Bulk Railroad Car or Truck Loading
Impurities Oil Filling and Packaging
Weight Control Packaged Liquid Oils-Storage and Transportation
Packaging Liquid Opaque Shortenings
Packaged Shortening-Storage and Transportation
Absorbed Flavors
Oil Separation Control Analytical Laboratory
Faulty Analyses Edible Fats and Oils
Organoleptic Evaluations

Shortening Applications

Baking Shortening:
Poor Creaming Properties

Low-Volume Cakes Frying Shortenings:
Excessive Foaming
Gumming or Polymerization
Chemical Odor
Food Appearance
Immediate Foaming

Other Products
Margarines and Spreads:
High Bacteria Determinations
Margarine Package Problems

Quality Control
Quality Management:
Specification Preparation Mistakes
Specification Enforcement

Tables, Graphs, Flow Charts and Sample Forms

Tables, Graphs:
Typical Characteristics of Corn Oil
Typical Physical Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition for High-Oleic Safflower Oil
Fractionated Palm Oil Characteristics
Hydrogenation Reactants and Reaction Results
Soybean Oil Basestock System
Typical Deodorization Conditions
Shortening Appearance Grading Scale
Fatty Acids Characteristics
Hydrogenation Conditions Comparison
Hydrogenated Soybean and Cottonseed Oils Basestock System
Emulsifier Functions
Solids/Liquids Relationships (fats and oils at temperatures)
All-Purpose Shortening Formulations

Flow Charts:
Fats and Oils Processing
Water Degumming

Caustic Refining Process Flow:
Long vs. Short Mix
Physical Refining Process Flow
Typical Bleaching Processes Flow
Dead-End Batch Hydrogenation Process Flow
Shortening Plasticization Typical Process Flow

Sample Forms:
Universal specification format
Ingredient specification contents
Quality complaint evaluation form
Laboratory methods format and guidelines"
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Editorial Reviews

Examines the development, processing, and quality control of shortening, margarine, liquid oil products, and other edible fats and oils. Specific application, processes, nutritional contributions, and other functionalities for both processor-and user-industries are detailed. Thirteen chapters cover raw materials; fats and oil processing, analysis, and formulation; baking, frying, dairy analog, and household shortenings; margarine; liquid oils; quality management; and troubleshooting. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781566763639
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 12/23/1997
  • Pages: 694
  • Product dimensions: 6.33 (w) x 9.29 (h) x 1.50 (d)

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