Fault Detectability in DWDM: Toward Higher Signal Quality and System Reliability / Edition 1

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Enhance your understanding of the failure mechanisms of optical components, and draft fault detection guidelines to design a robust Dense Wavelength Digital Multiplexing (DWDM) system and network that exhibits and maintains optical signal quality and system reliability.

This valuable reference builds on Dr. Kartalopoulos' seminal book on the subject, Introduction to DWDM Technology: Data in a Rainbow, providing an analytical approach to degradations and 'photonic' faults that affect the quality of the multiwavelength transmission of optical signals.

Organized in six chapters, FAULT DETECTABILITY IN DWDM includes detailed descriptions of the properties of light and optical communications, optical components, interaction of wavelengths and faults affecting the quality of the optical signal and the system, correlation of faults, aspects of fault management, and current issues in DWDM.

This comprehensive book directs practicing electrical engineers, optical systems designers, optical network architects, fault management engineers, technical managers, optical systems technical marketing and optical communications students on how to use DWDM technology efficiently, effectively and reliably.

Organized in six chapters, Fault Detectability in DWDM includes detailed descriptions of the properties of light and optical communications, optical components, interaction of wavelengths and faults affecting the quality of the optical signal and the system, correlation of faults, aspects of fault management, and current issues in DWDM.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780780360440
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/28/2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 156
  • Product dimensions: 6.16 (w) x 9.13 (h) x 0.57 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Stamatios Kartalopoulos' research interests and expertise include DWDM, IP, SONET/SDH, ATM over SONET/SDH, digital cross-connects, local area networks, transmission and access systems, ultrafast pattern recognition, access and enterprise systems, local area networks, satellite systems, high-efficiency scalable protocols, intelligent signal processing, neural networks and fuzzy logic, control architectures, real-time multitasking, and complex VLSI design. He has led and managed teams in these areas. He holds several patents, seven of which (and seven pending) are in communications and optical communications systems. Dr. Kartalopoulos currently works in the Advanced Optical Networking Center of Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs Innovations. For his accomplishments, he has received the President's Award, the Award of Excellence, and numerous certificates of appreciation. He is also a distinguished lecturer and a speaker recognized internationally.
Dr. Kartalopoulos is the author of Introduction to DWDM Technology: Data in a Rainbow (IEEE Press, 2000), Understanding SONET/SDH and ATM (IEEE Press, 1999), and Understanding Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic (IEEE Press, 1996) and has contributed chapters to other books.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 4: Faults Affecting the Optical DWDM Signal

4.1 Introduction

In general, the quality of (a digital) signal is a term related to the amount of altered bits in the signal, that is, 0s that are detected as 1s, and 1s as 0s. This happens either because added power (noise signal) changes the bits or because interactions between light and matter or between light-matter and light affect the integrity of the bits (signal distortion). Thus, in a DWDM system there is a variety of noise sources, such as, for example, laser noise, reflections, ASE, and receiver noise, as well as a variety of distortion sources, such as dispersion, PMD, FWM, and so on. Both types of sources (noise and distortion) add to the amount of errored bits, and the end result is an increase in the bit error rate (BER), cross-talk, or intersymbol interference (ISI). Unfortunately, when excessive BER is detected, it is not quite obvious which mechanism (noise or distortion) influenced the signal integrity and increased BER.

The signal integrity in DWDM systems becomes increasingly complex as DWDM evolves, having more optical channels, higher bit rates, and increasing fiber spans. Unfortunately, the signal quality in the optical domain is very difficult to monitor, and one resorts to monitoring the quality of the signal after it has been converted to an electrical signal. Once this is done, standard methodology and techniques are used to measure the quality of the signal, such as eye diagrams (including threshold levels, triggering points, and amplitude levels) and BER measurements. However, one has to keep in mind that the quality of the electrical signal is not an exact representation of the quality of the optical signal. The former consists of degradations due to photonic interactions and optics that are superimposed with degradations due to optoelectronic conversion (quantum efficiency, diode noise, and temperature) and due to electronic components [capacitors, resistors, temperature, board-layout cross-talk (ground loops), connector cross-talk, sampling clock stability, and electromagnetic interference]. Many of these degradations add to the noise content of the signal, rise- and fall-time distortions, spikes, signal ripple, ground floor noise, temporal shifts, and waveform skew.

The content of errored bits in a signal is a key parameter that must be continuously monitored. We cannot lose sight of the fact that the responsibility of communications systems and networks is to transport in a timely manner to the receiving terminal (the sink end user) the same bits that the transmitting end terminal (the source end user) has sent. To safeguard this, standards define performance parameters pertaining to the frequency of bit errors, such as error seconds (ESs), severe error seconds (SESs), and severely errored period intensity (SEPI), as well as how to measure and report these performance parameters (a task beyond the scope of this book).

In the previous chapter we identified and classified the various parameters that when degrade and/or fail affect the quality of the optical signal. The objective of this chapter is to examine the degradation and failure mechanisms of optical components, which affect the optical signal quality, and their detectability. It examines the observable optical parameters and the predictors that infer (with a high degree of probability/possibility) degradation or failure and the remedial actions to be taken. It adds to the fault management design process in systems and in networks.


A. We identify the observable parameters or predictors based on which component degradation or failure is determined.

B. We identify types of faults of optical components and hint on the action to be triggered. For example, a component may fail (e.g., no laser optical power is de-tected), it is detected, and a unit replacement action (or switch to protection) may be invoked. As another example, a component may be degraded (e.g., laser optical power drops or center wavelength drifts) to a level that may result in increased BER (bit error rate) and/or ISI (intersymbol interference). In this case, a unit replacement action (or switch to protection) may proactively be invoked.

C. We correlate faults to infer conditions that may not be directly observable. Certain degradation and failures are directly and conclusively detected (e.g., laser output power loss), whereas certain others are indirectly detected by fault correlation (e.g., is BER increased due to FWM contribution or due to pulse spreading and increased ASE or to some other photonic error source?).

Correlation and inference may invoke actions to locate a hidden fault and to isolate it within a node. As an example, the malfunction of one or more of the mirrors in MEMS may result either in output power loss of a corresponding channel and/or in excess BER and cross-talk of another channel. Similarly, center wavelength drifts may cause BER and cross-talk in one or more channels or received power degradation if a selective filter or an optical add-drop multiplexer is involved.

4.2 Components

In this section we examine the fault detectability of the following optical compo-nents:
  • Filters (Fabry-Perot, Bragg, chirped Bragg, acousto-optical)
  • Amplifiers: SOA, OFA (EDFA)
  • Optical Mux/Demux
  • Optical switches: LiNbO3 , MEMS, liquid crystal (LC)
  • OADM: LiNbO3 , MEMS-based
  • Transmitters: laser-based
  • Receivers: PIN, APD
  • Fiber (multiwavelength fiber as a component)

The information provided about these components is formatted, as applicable, as follows:

  • The functional entity in which the component may reside
  • Measurable and degradable parameters of the component
  • Potential faults and how they impact system performance
  • Fault observability (symptoms) and fault detectability
  • System action
  • Related comments
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Table of Contents




Chapter 1: Properties of Light and Matter.

1.1: Introduction.

1.2: Nature of Light.

1.3: Reflection, Refraction, and Diffraction.

1.4: Polarization of Light.

1.5: Propagation of Light.

1.6: Fiber Birefringence and Polarization.

1.7: Dispersion.

1.8: Fiber Attenuation and Loss.

1.9: Fiber Spectrum Utilization.

1.10: Nonlinear Phenomena.

1.11: Spectral Broadening.

1.12: Self-Phase Modulation.

1.13: Self-Modulation or Modulation Instability.

1.14: Effects of Temperature on Matter and Light.

1.15: Light Attributes.

1.16: Material Attributes.

1.17: Measurable Parameters.



Chapter 2: Optical Components.

2.1: Introduction.

2.2: Laser Sources.

2.3: Optical Comb Generators.

2.4: Chirped-Pulse Laser Sources.

2.5: Modulators.

2.6: Photodetectors.

2.7: Fixed Optical Filters.

2.8: Tunable Optical Filters.

2.9: Diffraction Gratings.

2.10: Arrayed Waveguide Grating.

2.11: Directional Couplers.

2.12: Optical Isolators.

2.13: Polarizers, Rotators, and Circulators.

2.14: Optical Equalizers.

2.15: Superprisms.

2.16: Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.

2.17: Optical Cross-Connects.

2.18: Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers.

2.19: Optical Amplifiers.

2.20: Classification of Optical Fiber Amplifiers.

2.21: Wavelength Converters.



Chapter 3: Parameters Affecting the Optical DWDM Signal.

3.1: Introduction.

3.2: Component Parameters.



Chapter 4: Faults Affecting the Optical DWDM Signal.

4.1: Introduction.

4.2: Components.

4.3: Filters: Fabry-Perot (Passive, Fixed).

4.4: Filters: Fiber Bragg Grating (Passive, Fixed).

4.5: Filters: Chirped FBG (Passive, Fixed).

4.6: Filters: Acousto-Optic Tunable Ti:LiNbO3.

4.7: SOA: InGaAsP.

4.8: OFA: Factors Affecting Integrity and Quality of Signal.

4.9: OFA: Single Pump.

4.10: OFA: Double Pump.

4.11: Mux/Demux.

4.12: OXC: MEMS.

4.13: OXC: LiNbO3.

4.14: OXC Liquid Crystal.

4.15: OADM: LiNbO3 Based.

4.16: OADM: MEMS with Grating.

4.17: Transmitter: Laser.

4.18: Receiver: PIN Diode.

4.19: Fiber: Single Mode.



Chapter 5: Fault Correlation.

5.1: Introduction.

5.2: Correlation of Faults and Component Parameter Changes.

5.3: Open Issues: Nonlinear Effects.



Chapter 6: Toward DWDM Fault Management and Current Issues.

6.1: Introduction.

6.2: Toward Fault Management.

6.3: Current Issues.

6.4: Engineering DWDM Systems: Conclusion.





About the Author.

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