Fault-Tolerance Techniques for SRAM-Based FPGAs / Edition 1by Fernanda Lima Kastensmidt, Ricardo Reis
Pub. Date: 06/28/2006
Publisher: Springer US
Fault-tolerance in integrated circuits is not an exclusive concern regarding space designers or highly-reliable application engineers. Rather, designers of next generation products must cope with reduced margin noises due to technological advances. The continuous evolution of the fabrication technology process of semiconductor components, in terms of transistor… See more details below
Fault-tolerance in integrated circuits is not an exclusive concern regarding space designers or highly-reliable application engineers. Rather, designers of next generation products must cope with reduced margin noises due to technological advances. The continuous evolution of the fabrication technology process of semiconductor components, in terms of transistor geometry shrinking, power supply, speed, and logic density, has significantly reduced the reliability of very deep submicron integrated circuits, in face of the various internal and external sources of noise. The very popular Field Programmable Gate Arrays, customizable by SRAM cells, are a consequence of the integrated circuit evolution with millions of memory cells to implement the logic, embedded memories, routing, and more recently with embedded microprocessors cores. These re-programmable systems-on-chip platforms must be fault-tolerant to cope with present days requirements. This book discusses fault-tolerance techniques for SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). It starts by showing the model of the problem and the upset effects in the programmable architecture. In the sequence, it shows the main fault tolerance techniques used nowadays to protect integrated circuits against errors. A large set of methods for designing fault tolerance systems in SRAM-based FPGAs is described. Some presented techniques are based on developing a new fault-tolerant architecture with new robustness FPGA elements. Other techniques are based on protecting the high-level hardware description before the synthesis in the FPGA. The reader has the flexibility of choosing the most suitable fault-tolerance technique for its project and to compare a set of fault tolerant techniques for programmable logic applications.
Table of Contents
DEDICATION. CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS. PREFACE. 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. RADIATION EFFECTS IN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 2.1 RADIATION ENVIROMENT OVERVIEW. 2.2 RADIATION EFFECTS IN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 2.2.1 SEU Classification. 2.3 PECULIAR EFFECTS IN SRAM-BASED FPGAS. 3. SINGLE EVENT UPSET (SEU) MITIGATION TECHNIQUES. 3.1 DESIGN-BASED TECHNIQUES. 3.1.1 Detection Techniques. 3.1.2 Mitigation Techniques. 126.96.36.199 Full Time and Hardware Redundancy. 188.8.131.52 Error Correction and Detection Codes. 184.108.40.206 Hardened Memory Cells. 3.2 EXAMPLES OF SEU MITIGATION TECHNIQUES IN ASICS. 3.3 EXAMPLES OF SEU MITIGATION TECHNIQUES IN FPGAS. 3.3.1 Antifuse based FPGAs. 3.3.2 SRAM-based FPGAs. 220.127.116.11 SEU Mitigation Solution in high-level description. 18.104.22.168 SEU Mitigation Solutions at the Architectural level. 22.214.171.124 Recovery technique. 4. ARCHITECTURAL SEU MITIGATION TECHNIQUES. 5. HIGH-LEVEL SEU MITIGATION TECHNIQUES. 5.1 TRIPLE MODULAR REDUNDANCY TECHNIQUE FOR FPGAS. 5.2 SCRUBBING. 6. TRIPLE MODULAR REDUNDANCY (TMR) ROBUSTNESS. 6.1 TEST DESIGN METHODOLOGY. 6.2 FAULT INJECTION IN THE FPGA BITSTREAM. 6.3 LOCATING THE UPSET IN THE DESIGN FLOORPLANNING. 6.3.1 Bit column location in the matrix. 6.3.2 Bit row location in the matrix. 6.3.3 Bit location in the CLB. 6.3.4 Bit Classification. 6.4 FAULT INJECTION RESULTS. 6.5 THE 'GOLDEN' CHIP APPROACH. 7. DESIGNING AND TESTING A TMR MICRO-CONTROLLER. 7.1 AREA AND PERFORMANCE RESULTS. 7.2 TMR 8051 MICRO-CONTROLLER RADIATION GROUND TEST RESULTS. 8. REDUCING TMR OVERHEADS: PART I. 8.1 DUPLICATION WITH COMPARISON COMBINED WITH TIME REDUNDANCY. 8.2 FAULT INJECTION IN THE VHDL DESCRIPTION. 8.3 AREA AND PERFORMANCE RESULTS. 9. REDUCING TMR OVERHEADS: PART II. 9.1 DWC-CED TECHNIQUE IN ARITHMETIC-BASED CIRCUITS. 9.1.1 Using CEDbased on hardware redundancy. 9.1.2 Using CED based on time redundancy. 9.1.3 Choosing the most appropriated CED block. 126.96.36.199 Multipliers. 188.8.131.52 Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). 184.108.40.206 Digital FIR Filter. 9.1.4 Fault Coverage Results. 9.1.4 Area and Performance Results. 9.2 DESIGNING DWC-CED TECHNIQUE IN NON-ARITHMETIC-BASED CIRCUITS. 10. FINAL REMARKS. REFERENCES.
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