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Overview

Master All the Techniques You Need to Succeed with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the Workplace

You’re studying Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux with a single goal: to succeed with these state-of-the-art operating systems in real workplace environments. In this book, one of the world’s leading Linux experts brings together all the knowledge you’ll need to achieve that goal. Writing in plain English, best-selling author Mark Sobell explains Linux clearly and effectively, focusing on the skills you will actually use as a professional administrator, user, or programmer. Sobell assumes no prior Linux knowledge: He starts at the very beginning and walks you through every topic and skill that matters.

Step by step, you’ll learn how to install and configure Linux from the accompanying DVD, navigate its graphical user interfaces, set up Linux to provide file/print sharing and Internet services, make sure Linux desktops and networks are as secure as possible, work with the powerful command line, and administer Linux in real business environments.

Mark Sobell has taught hundreds of thousands of Linux and UNIX professionals. He knows every Linux nook and cranny–and he never forgets what it’s like to be new to Linux. Whatever your Linux-related career goals, this book gives you all you need–and more.

Compared with the other Linux books out there, A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, delivers

  • Complete, up-to-the-minute coverage of Fedora 8 and Enterprise Linux 5
  • Deeper coverage of the command line and the GNOME and KDE GUIs, including customizing the desktop
  • More practical coverage of file sharing using Samba, NFS, and FTP
  • More usable, realistic coverage of Internet server configuration, including Apache, sendmail, NFS, DNS/BIND, and LDAP
  • More state-of-the-art security techniques, including SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), ACLs (Access Control Lists), firewall setup using both the Red Hat GUI and iptables, and a full chapter on OpenSSH
  • More and better coverage of “meat-and-potatoes” system/network administration tasks
  • A more practical introduction to writing bash shell scripts
  • Complete instructions on keeping Linux systems up-to-date using yum
  • And much more...including a 500+ term glossary and a comprehensive index to help you find what you need fast!

Includes DVD! Get the full version of the Fedora 8 release!

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137060887
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 2/25/2010
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 1224
  • Sales rank: 1,407,974
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark G. Sobell is President of Sobell Associates Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in UNIX/Linux training, support, and custom software development. He has more than twenty-five years of experience working with UNIX and Linux systems and is the author of many best-selling books, including A Practical Guide to Red Hat® Linux®, Third Edition; A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming; and A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux®, all from Prentice Hall, and A Practical Guide to the UNIX System from Addison-Wesley.

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Read an Excerpt

The Book

Whether you are an end user, a system administrator, or a little of each, this book explains with step-by-step examples how to get the most out of a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) system. In 28 chapters, this book takes you from installing a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux system through understanding its inner workings to setting up secure servers that run on the system.

The Audience

This book is designed for a wide range of readers. It does not require you to have programming experience, but having some experience using a general-purpose computer is helpful. This book is appropriate for

  • Students who are taking a class in which they use Linux
  • Home users who want to set up and/or run Linux
  • Professionals who use Linux at work
  • System administrators who need an understanding of Linux and the tools that are available to them
  • Computer science students who are studying the Linux operating system
  • Programmers who need to understand the Linux programming environment
  • Technical executives who want to get a grounding in Linux
Benefits

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, gives you a broad understanding of many facets of Linux, from installing Fedora/RHEL through using and customizing it. No matter what your background, this book gives you the knowledge you need to get on with your work. You will come away from this book understanding how to use Linux, and this book will remain a valuable reference for years to come.

Overlap

If you read A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, you will notice some overlap between that book and the one you are reading now. The first chapter, and the chapters on the utilities, the filesystem, programming tools, and the appendix on regular expressions are very similar in the two books, as are the three chapters on the Bourne Again Shell (

bash). Chapters that appear in this book but not in A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming include Chapters 2 and 3 (installation), Chapters 4 and 8 (Fedora/RHEL and the GUI), Chapter 10 (networking), all of the chapters in Part IV (system administration) and Part V (servers), and Appendix C (security).

This Book Includes Fedora 8 on a DVD

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, includes a DVD that you can use to install or upgrade to Fedora 8. Chapter 2 helps you get ready to install Fedora. Chapter 3 provides step-by-step instructions for installing Fedora from this DVD. This book guides you through learning about, using, and administrating Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

What Is New in This Edition?

The college edition of A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® covers Fedora 8 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5. There is a new section on LDAP in Chapter 21. Chapters 2 and 3 cover booting into a live session and installing from live media. All the changes, large and small, that have been made to Fedora/RHEL since the previous edition of this book have been incorporated into the explanations and examples.

Features of This Book

This book is designed and organized so you can get the most out of it in the shortest amount of time. You do not have to read this book straight through in page order. Once you are comfortable using Linux, you can use this book as a reference: Look up a topic of interest in the table of contents or index and read about it. Or think of the book as a catalog of Linux topics: Flip through the pages until a topic catches your eye. The book includes many pointers to Web sites where you can get additional information: Consider the Internet an extension of this book.

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, is structured with the following features:

  • In this book, the term Fedora/RHEL refers to both Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Features that apply to only one operating system or the other are marked as such using these indicators:

    FEDORA or

    RHEL.

  • Optional sections enable you to read the book at different levels, returning to more difficult material when you are ready to delve into it.
  • Caution boxes highlight procedures that can easily go wrong, giving you guidance before you run into trouble.
  • Tip boxes highlight ways that you can save time by doing something differently or situations when it may be useful or just interesting to have additional information.
  • Security boxes point out places where you can make a system more secure. The security appendix presents a quick background in system security issues.
  • Concepts are illustrated by practical examples throughout the book.
  • Chapter summaries review the important points covered in each chapter.
  • Review exercises are included at the end of each chapter for readers who want to further hone their skills. Answers to even-numbered exercises are at www.sobell.com.
  • This book provides resources for finding software on the Internet. It also explains how download and install software using

    yum, BitTorrent, and, for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Network (RHN).

  • The glossary defines more than 500 common terms.
  • The book describes in detail many important GNU tools, including the

    gcc C compiler, the

    gdb debugger, the GNU Configure and Build System,

    make, and

    gzip.

  • Pointers throughout the text provide help in obtaining online documentation from many sources including the local system, the Red Hat Web site, the Fedora Project Web site, and other locations on the Internet.
  • Many useful URLs (Internet addresses) point to sites where you can obtain software, security programs and information, and more.
  • The comprehensive index helps you locate topics quickly and easily.
Key Topics Covered in This Book

This book contains a lot of information. This section distills and summarizes its contents. You may want to review the table of contents for more detail. This book covers the following.

Installation

  • Describes how to download from the Internet and burn both Fedora Desktop Live Media CD/DVDs and Fedora Install Media DVDs.
  • Helps you plan the layout of the system’s hard disk and assists you in using Disk Druid or the GNOME graphical partition editor (

    gparted) to partition the hard disk.

  • Explains how to use the Logical Volume Manager (LVM2) to set up, grow, and migrate logical volumes, which are similar in function to traditional disk partitions.
  • Discusses booting into a live Fedora session and installing Fedora from that session.
  • Describes in detail how to install Fedora/RHEL from a DVD, CD, a hard disk, or over a network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP.
  • Covers boot command line parameters (

    FEDORA), responses to the boot: prompt (

    RHEL), and explains how to work with Anaconda, Fedora/RHEL’s installation program.

  • Covers the details of customizing the X.org version of the X Window System.
Working with Fedora/RHEL
  • Introduces the graphical desktop (GUI) and explains how to use desktop tools including the panel, Panel menu, Main menu, Window Operations menu, Desktop menu, Desktop switcher, and terminal emulator.
  • Presents the KDE desktop and covers using Konqueror to manage files, start programs, and browse the Web.
  • Covers the GNOME desktop and the Nautilus file manager.
  • Explains how to customize your desktop to please your senses and help you work more efficiently.
  • Covers the Bourne Again Shell (

    bash) in three chapters, including an entire chapter on shell programming that includes many sample shell scripts.

  • Explains the command line interface (CLI) and introduces more than 30 command line utilities.
  • Presents a tutorial on the

    vim (

    vi work-alike) textual editor.

  • Covers types of networks, network protocols, and network utilities.
  • Explains hostnames, IP addresses, and subnets, and explores how to use

    host and

    dig to look up domain names and IP addresses on the Internet.

  • Covers distributed computing and the client/server model.
System Administration
  • Explains how to use the Fedora/RHEL

    system-config-* tools to configure the display, DNS, Apache, a network interface, and more. You can also use these tools to add users and manage local and remote printers. (See page 429 for a list of these tools.)

  • Describes how to use the following tools to download software and keep a system current:
    • yum—Downloads and installs software packages from the Internet, keeping a system up-to-date and resolving dependencies as it processes the packages. You can run

      yum manually or set it up to run automatically every night.

    • BitTorrent—Good for distributing large amounts of data such as the Fedora installation DVD and the live media CD/DVD. The more people who use BitTorrent to download a file, the faster it works.
    • up2date—The Red Hat Enterprise Linux tool for keeping system software current.

  • Covers graphical system administration tools, including the Main menu, GNOME and KDE menu systems, KDE Control Center, and KDE Control panel.
  • Explains system operation, including the boot process, init scripts, emergency mode, rescue mode, single-user and multiuser modes, and steps to take if the system crashes.
  • Describes files, directories, and filesystems, including types of files and filesystems,

    fstab (the filesystem table), automatically mounted filesystems, filesystem integrity checks, filesystem utilities, and fine-tuning of filesystems.

  • Covers backup utilities including

    tar,

    cpio,

    dump, and

    restore.

  • Explains how to customize and build a Linux kernel.
Security
  • Helps you manage basic system security issues using

    ssh (secure shell), vsftpd (secure FTP server), Apache (the httpd Web server),

    iptables (firewall), and more.

  • Presents a complete section on SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), including instructions for using

    system-config-selinux to configure SELinux.

  • Covers using

    system-config-firewall to set up a basic firewall to protect the system.

  • Provides instructions on using

    iptables to share an Internet connection over a LAN and to build advanced firewalls.

  • Describes how to set up a

    chroot jail to protect a server system.

  • Explains how to use TCP wrappers to control who can access a server.
  • Covers controlling servers using the xinetd superserver.
Clients and Servers
  • Explains how to set up and use the most popular Linux servers, providing a chapter on each: Apache, Samba, OpenSSH, sendmail, DNS, NFS, FTP, NIS and LDAP,

    iptables (all of which are included with Fedora/RHEL).

  • Describes how to set up a CUPS printer server.
  • Describes how to set up and use a DHCP server.
Programming
  • Covers programming tools including the GNU

    gcc compiler, the

    gdb debugger,

    make, and CVS for managing source code.

  • Explains how to debug a C program.
  • Describes how to work with shared libraries.
  • Provides a complete chapter on shell programming using

    bash, including many examples.

Details

Chapter 1 presents a brief history of Linux and explains some of the features that make it a cutting-edge operating system. The “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16) section details the typefaces and terminology this book uses.

Part I, “Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” discusses how to install Fedora/RHEL. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the process of installing Fedora/RHEL, including hardware requirements, downloading and burning a CD/DVD, and planning the layout of the hard disk. Chapter 3 is a step-by-step guide to installing either Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux and covers installing from a CD/DVD, a live session, a local hard disk, and installing over the network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP. It also shows how to set up the X Window System and customize your graphical user interface (GUI).

Part II, “Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” familiarizes you with Fedora/RHEL, covering logging in, the GUI, utilities, the filesystem, and the shell. Chapter 4 introduces desktop features, including the panel and the Main menu; explains how to use Konqueror to manage files, run programs, and browse the Web; and covers finding documentation, dealing with login problems, and using the window manager. Chapter 5 introduces the shell command line interface, describes more than 30 useful utilities, and presents a tutorial on the

vim text editor. Chapter 6 discusses the Linux hierarchical filesystem, covering files, filenames, pathnames, working with directories, access permissions, and hard and symbolic links. Chapter 7 introduces the Bourne Again Shell (

bash) and discusses command line arguments and options, redirecting input to and output from commands, running programs in the background, and using the shell to generate and expand filenames.

TIP: Experienced users may want to skim Part II
If you have used a UNIX or Linux system before, you may want to skim over or skip some or all of the chapters in Part II. All readers should take a look at “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16), which explains the typographic and layout conventions that this book uses, and “Getting the Facts: Where to Find Documentation” (page 114), which points out both local and remote sources of Linux/Fedora/RHEL documentation.

Part III, “Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” goes into more detail about working with the system. Chapter 8 discusses the GUI and includes a section on how to run a graphical program on a remote system and have the display appear locally. The section on GNOME describes GNOME utilities and explains how to use the Nautilus file manager, including its spatial view, while the section on KDE explains more about Konqueror and KDE utilities. Chapter 9 extends the

bash coverage from Chapter 7, explaining how to redirect error output, avoid overwriting files, and work with job control, processes, startup files, important shell builtin commands, parameters, shell variables, and aliases. Chapter 10 explains networks, network security, and the Internet and discusses types of networks, subnets, protocols, addresses, hostnames, and various network utilities. The section on distributed computing describes the client/server model and some of the servers you can use on a network. Details of setting up and using clients and servers are reserved until Part V.

Part IV covers system administration. Chapter 11 discusses core concepts such as Superuser, SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), system operation, general information about how to set up a server, DHCP, and PAM. Chapter 12 explains the Linux filesystem, going into detail about types of files, including special and device files, the use of

fsck to verify the integrity of and repair filesystems, and the use of

tune2fs to change filesystem parameters. Chapter 13 explains how to keep a system up-todate by downloading software from the Internet and installing it, including examples of using yum, BitTorrent, and RHEL’s

up2date utility. Chapter 14 explains how to set up the CUPS printing system so you can print on the local system as well as on remote systems. Chapter 15 details customizing and building a Linux kernel. Chapter 16 covers additional administration tasks, including setting up user accounts, backing up files, scheduling automated tasks, tracking disk usage, and solving general problems. Chapter 17 explains how to set up a local area network (LAN), including both hardware (including wireless) and software setup.

Part V goes into detail about setting up and running servers and connecting to them with clients. The chapters in this part of the book cover the following clients/servers:

  • OpenSSH—Set up an OpenSSH server and use

    sh,

    scp, and

    sftp to communicate securely over the Internet.

  • FTP—Set up a vsftpd secure FTP server and use any of several FTP clients to exchange files with the server.
  • Mail—Configure sendmail and use Webmail, POP3, or IMAP to retrieve email; use SpamAssassin to combat spam.
  • NIS and LDAP—Set up NIS to facilitate system administration of a LAN and LDAP to distribute information and authenticate users over a network.
  • NFS—Share filesystems between systems on a network.
  • Samba—Share filesystems and printers between Windows and Linux systems.
  • DNS/BIND—Set up a domain nameserver to let other systems on the Internet know the names and IP addresses of local systems they may need to contact.
  • iptables—Share a single Internet connection between systems on a LAN and set up a firewall to protect local systems.
  • Apache—Set up an HTTP server that serves Web pages that browsers can display.

Part VI covers programming. Chapter 27 discusses programming tools and environments available under Fedora/RHEL, including the C programming language and debugger,

make, shared libraries, and source code management using CVS. Chapter 28 goes into greater depth about shell programming using

bash, with the discussion being enhanced by extensive examples.

Part VII includes appendixes on regular expressions, helpful Web sites, system security, and free software. This part also includes an extensive glossary with more than 500 entries and a comprehensive index.

Supplements

The author’s home page (www.sobell.com) contains downloadable listings of the longer programs from this book as well as pointers to many interesting and useful Linux sites on the World Wide Web, a list of corrections to the book, answers to even-numbered exercises, and a solicitation for corrections, comments, and suggestions.

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Table of Contents

Preface xxxi

Chapter 1: Welcome to Linux 1

The GNU—Linux Connection 2

The Linux 2.6 Kernel 5

The Heritage of Linux: UNIX 5

What Is So Good About Linux? 6

Overview of Linux 10

Additional Features of Linux 14

Conventions Used in This Book 16

Chapter Summary 19

Exercises 19

Part I: Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 21

Chapter 2: Installation Overview 23

The Desktop Live Media CD and the Install Media DVD 24

Planning the Installation 24

The Installation Process 36

The Medium: Where Is the Source Data? 36

Downloading a CD/DVD (FEDORA) 37

Checking and Burning the CD/DVD 41

Rescue CD 42

Gathering Information About the System 43

Finding the Installation Manual 44

More Information 44

Chapter Summary 45

Exercises 46

Advanced Exercises 46

Chapter 3: Step-by-Step Installation 47

Running a Fedora Live Session 48

Installing Fedora/RHEL Linux 50

Installation Tasks 63

The X Window System 80

Chapter Summary 88

Exercises 89

Advanced Exercises 89

Part II: Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 91

Chapter 4: Introduction to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 93

Curbing Your Power: Superuser/root Access 94

A Tour of the Fedora/RHEL Desktop 94

Getting the Facts: Where to Find Documentation 114

More About Logging In 123

Controlling Windows: Advanced Operations 131

Chapter Summary 134

Exercises 135

Advanced Exercises 136

Chapter 5: The Linux Utilities 137

Special Characters 138

Basic Utilities 139

Working with Files 141

(Pipe): Communicates Between Processes 148

Four More Utilities 149

Compressing and Archiving Files 151

Locating Commands 156

Obtaining User and System Information 158

Communicating with Other Users 162

Email 164

Tutorial: Creating and Editing a File with vim 164

Chapter Summary 171

Exercises 174

Advanced Exercises 175

Chapter 6: The Linux Filesystem 177

The Hierarchical Filesystem 178

Directory Files and Ordinary Files 178

Pathnames 183

Directory Commands 185

Working with Directories 190

Access Permissions 192

ACLs: Access Control Lists 197

Links 202

Chapter Summary 208

Exercises 210

Advanced Exercises 212

Chapter 7: The Shell 213

The Command Line 214

Standard Input and Standard Output 220

Running a Program in the Background 231

Filename Generation/Pathname Expansion 233

Builtins 237

Chapter Summary 238

Exercises 239

Advanced Exercises 241

Part III: Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 243

Chapter 8: Linux GUIs: X, GNOME, and KDE 245

X Window System 246

Using GNOME 255

Using KDE 266

Chapter Summary 276

Exercises 277

Advanced Exercises 277

Chapter 9: The Bourne Again Shell 279

Background 280

Shell Basics 281

Parameters and Variables 299

Special Characters 313

Processes 314

History 316

Aliases 332

Functions 335

Controlling bash Features and Options 338

Processing the Command Line 342

Chapter Summary 351

Exercises 353

Advanced Exercises 355

Chapter 10: Networking and the Internet 357

Types of Networks and How They Work 359

Communicate Over a Network 374

Network Utilities 376

Distributed Computing 383

Usenet 392

WWW: World Wide Web 395

Chapter Summary 397

Exercises 398

Advanced Exercises 399

Part IV: System Administration 401

Chapter 11: System Administration: Core Concepts 403

System Administrator and Superuser 405

Rescue Mode 411

SELinux 414

System Operation 417

System Administration Utilities 429

Setting Up a Server 435

nsswitch.conf: Which Service to Look at First 449

PAM 452

Chapter Summary 457

Exercises 458

Advanced Exercises 459

Chapter 12: Files, Directories, and Filesystems 461

Important Files and Directories 462

File Types 473

Filesystems 478

Chapter Summary 487

Exercises 488

Advanced Exercises 488

Chapter 13: Downloading and Installing Software 489

yum: Keeps the System Up-to-Date 490

pirut: Adds and Removes Software Packages 497

BitTorrent 498

rpm: Red Hat Package Manager 501

Installing Non-rpm Software 504

Keeping Software Up-to-Date 506

wget: Downloads Files Noninteractively 508

Chapter Summary 509

Exercises 509

Advanced Exercises 509

Chapter 14: Printing with CUPS 511

Introduction 512

JumpStart I: Configuring a Local Printer 513

system-config-printer: Configuring a Printer 514

JumpStart II: Configuring a Remote Printer Using the CUPS Web Interface 518

Traditional UNIX Printing 523

Configuring Printers 524

The KDE Printing Manager 531

Printing from Windows 532

Printing to Windows 534

Chapter Summary 534

Exercises 535

Advanced Exercises 535

Chapter 15: Rebuilding the Linux Kernel 537

Preparing the Source Code 538

Read the Documentation 540

Configuring and Compiling the Linux Kernel 541

Installing the Kernel and Associated Files 544

Rebooting 544

Boot Loader 545

dmesg: Displays Kernel Messages 547

Chapter Summary 547

Exercises 548

Advanced Exercises 548

Chapter 16: Administration Tasks 549

Configuring User and Group Accounts 550

Backing Up Files 552

Scheduling Tasks 559

System Reports 560

Keeping Users Informed 563

Creating Problems 564

Solving Problems 565

Chapter Summary 576

Exercises 576

Advanced Exercises 577

Chapter 17: Configuring a LAN 579

Setting Up the Hardware 580

Configuring the Systems 582

Setting Up Servers 586

More Information 587

Chapter Summary 587

Exercises 588

Advanced Exercises 588

Part V: Using Clients and Setting Up Servers 589

Chapter 18: OpenSSH: Secure Network Communication 591

Introduction 592

About OpenSSH 592

OpenSSH Clients 595

sshd: OpenSSH Server 603

Troubleshooting 607

Tunneling/Port Forwarding 608

Chapter Summary 610

Exercises 610

Advanced Exercises 611

Chapter 19: FTP: Transferring Files Across a Network 613

Introduction 614

More Information 615

FTP Client 615

FTP Server (vsftpd) 624

Chapter Summary 636

Exercises 637

Advanced Exercises 637

Chapter 20: sendmail: Setting Up Mail Clients, Servers, and More 639

Introduction 640

JumpStart I: Configuring sendmail on a Client 642

JumpStart II: Configuring sendmail on a Server 643

How sendmail Works 644

Configuring sendmail 647

Additional Email Tools 652

Authenticated Relaying 662

Alternatives to sendmail 664

Chapter Summary 664

Exercises 665

Advanced Exercises 665

Chapter 21: NIS and LDAP 667

Introduction to NIS 668

How NIS Works 668

Setting Up an NIS Client 671

Setting Up an NIS Server 675

LDAP 682

Setting Up an LDAP Server 685

Chapter Summary 693

Exercises 694

Advanced Exercises 694

Chapter 22: NFS: Sharing Filesystems 697

Introduction 698

More Information 700

Setting Up an NFS Client 700

Setting Up an NFS Server 706

automount: Automatically Mounts Directory Hierarchies 714

Chapter Summary 716

Exercises 716

Advanced Exercises 717

Chapter 23: Samba: Integrating Linux and Windows 719

Introduction 720

About Samba 721

JumpStart: Configuring a Samba Server Using system-config-samba 723

swat: Configures a Samba Server 725

Manually Configuring a Samba Server 729

Accessing Linux Shares from Windows 735

Accessing Windows Shares from Linux 736

Troubleshooting 738

Chapter Summary 740

Exercises 741

Advanced Exercises 741

Chapter 24: DNS/BIND: Tracking Domain Names and Addresses 743

Introduction to DNS 744

About DNS 755

JumpStart I: Setting Up a DNS Cache 757

JumpStart II: Setting Up a Domain Using system-config-bind 759

Setting Up BIND 763

Troubleshooting 775

A Full-Functioned Nameserver 777

A Slave Server 780

A Split Horizon Server 781

Chapter Summary 786

Exercises 786

Advanced Exercises 787

Chapter 25: iptables: Setting Up a Firewall 789

How iptables Works 790

About iptables 792

JumpStart: Building a Firewall Using system-config-firewall 794

Anatomy of an iptables Command 795

Building a Set of Rules 796

system-config-firewall: Generates a Set of Rules 803

Sharing an Internet Connection Using NAT 805

Chapter Summary 809

Exercises 809

Advanced Exercises 809

Chapter 26: Apache (httpd): Setting Up a Web Server 811

Introduction 812

About Apache 812

JumpStart I: Getting Apache Up and Running 814

JumpStart II: Setting Up Apache Using system-config-httpd 816

Filesystem Layout 818

Configuration Directives 820

The Fedora/RHEL httpd.conf File 840

Redirects 843

Multiviews 844

Server-Generated Directory Listings (Indexing) 844

Virtual Hosts 844

Troubleshooting 845

Modules 846

webalizer: Analyzes Web Traffic 851

MRTG: Monitors Traffic Loads 852

Error Codes 852

Chapter Summary 853

Exercises 854

Advanced Exercises 854

Part VI: Programming 855

Chapter 27: Programming Tools 857

Programming in C 858

Using Shared Libraries 866

make: Keeps a Set of Programs Current 868

Debugging C Programs 876

Threads 886

System Calls 887

Source Code Management 889

Chapter Summary 899

Exercises 900

Advanced Exercises 901

Chapter 28: Programming the Bourne Again Shell 903

Control Structures 904

File Descriptors 937

Parameters and Variables 940

Builtin Commands 952

Expressions 966

Shell Programs 974

Chapter Summary 984

Exercises 986

Advanced Exercises 988

Part VII: Appendixes 991

Appendix A: Regular Expressions 993

Characters 994

Delimiters 994

Simple Strings 994

Special Characters 994

Rules 997

Bracketing Expressions 998

The Replacement String 998

Extended Regular Expressions 999

Appendix Summary 1001

Appendix B: Help 1003

Solving a Problem 1004

Finding Linux-Related Information 1005

Specifying a Terminal 1010

Appendix C: Security 1013

Encryption 1014

File Security 1019

Email Security 1019

Network Security 1020

Host Security 1023

Security Resources 1028

Appendix Summary 1031

Appendix D: The Free Software Definition 1033

Appendix E: The Linux 2.6 Kernel 1037

Native Posix Thread Library (NPTL) 1038

IPSecurity (IPSec) 1038

Asynchronous I/O (AIO) 1038

O(1) Scheduler 1039

OProfile 1039

kksymoops 1039

Reverse Map Virtual Memory (rmap VM) 1039

HugeTLBFS: Translation Look-Aside Buffer Filesystem 1040

remap_file_pages 1040

2.6 Network Stack Features (IGMPv3, IPv6, and Others) 1040

Internet Protocol Virtual Server (IPVS) 1040

Access Control Lists (ACLs) 1041

4GB-4GB Memory Split: Physical Address Extension (PAE) 1041

Scheduler Support for HyperThreaded CPUs 1041

Block I/O (BIO) Block Layer 1041

Support for Filesystems Larger Than 2 Terabytes 1042

New I/O Elevators 1042

Interactive Scheduler Response Tuning 1042

Glossary 1043

Index 1091

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Preface

The Book

Whether you are an end user, a system administrator, or a little of each, this book explains with step-by-step examples how to get the most out of a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) system. In 28 chapters, this book takes you from installing a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux system through understanding its inner workings to setting up secure servers that run on the system.

The Audience

This book is designed for a wide range of readers. It does not require you to have programming experience, but having some experience using a general-purpose computer is helpful. This book is appropriate for

  • Students who are taking a class in which they use Linux
  • Home users who want to set up and/or run Linux
  • Professionals who use Linux at work
  • System administrators who need an understanding of Linux and the tools that are available to them
  • Computer science students who are studying the Linux operating system
  • Programmers who need to understand the Linux programming environment
  • Technical executives who want to get a grounding in Linux

Benefits

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat ® Enterprise Linux ® , College Edition, gives you a broad understanding of many facets of Linux, from installing Fedora/RHEL through using and customizing it. No matter what your background, this book gives you the knowledge you need to get on with your work. You will come away from this book understanding how to use Linux, and this book will remain a valuable reference for years to come.

Overlap

If you read A Practical Guide to Linux ® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, you will notice some overlap between that book and the one you are reading now. The first chapter, and the chapters on the utilities, the filesystem, programming tools, and the appendix on regular expressions are very similar in the two books, as are the three chapters on the Bourne Again Shell (bash). Chapters that appear in this book but not in A Practical Guide to Linux ® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming include Chapters 2 and 3 (installation), Chapters 4 and 8 (Fedora/RHEL and the GUI), Chapter 10 (networking), all of the chapters in Part IV (system administration) and Part V (servers), and Appendix C (security).

This Book Includes Fedora 8 on a DVD

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat ® Enterprise Linux ® , College Edition, includes a DVD that you can use to install or upgrade to Fedora 8. Chapter 2 helps you get ready to install Fedora. Chapter 3 provides step-by-step instructions for installing Fedora from this DVD. This book guides you through learning about, using, and administrating Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

What Is New in This Edition?

The college edition of A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat ® Enterprise Linux ® covers Fedora 8 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5. There is a new section on LDAP in Chapter 21. Chapters 2 and 3 cover booting into a live session and installing from live media. All the changes, large and small, that have been made to Fedora/RHEL since the previous edition of this book have been incorporated into the explanations and examples.

Features of This Book

This book is designed and organized so you can get the most out of it in the shortest amount of time. You do not have to read this book straight through in page order. Once you are comfortable using Linux, you can use this book as a reference: Look up a topic of interest in the table of contents or index and read about it. Or think of the book as a catalog of Linux topics: Flip through the pages until a topic catches your eye. The book includes many pointers to Web sites where you can get additional information: Consider the Internet an extension of this book.

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat ® Enterprise Linux ® , College Edition, is structured with the following features:

  • In this book, the term Fedora/RHEL refers to both Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Features that apply to only one operating system or the other are marked as such using these indicators: FEDORA or RHEL .
  • Optional sections enable you to read the book at different levels, returning to more difficult material when you are ready to delve into it.
  • Caution boxes highlight procedures that can easily go wrong, giving you guidance before you run into trouble.
  • Tip boxes highlight ways that you can save time by doing something differently or situations when it may be useful or just interesting to have additional information.
  • Security boxes point out places where you can make a system more secure. The security appendix presents a quick background in system security issues.
  • Concepts are illustrated by practical examples throughout the book.
  • Chapter summaries review the important points covered in each chapter.
  • Review exercises are included at the end of each chapter for readers who want to further hone their skills. Answers to even-numbered exercises are at www.sobell.com.
  • This book provides resources for finding software on the Internet. It also explains how download and install software using yum, BitTorrent, and, for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Network (RHN).
  • The glossary defines more than 500 common terms.
  • The book describes in detail many important GNU tools, including the gcc C compiler, the gdb debugger, the GNU Configure and Build System, make, and gzip.
  • Pointers throughout the text provide help in obtaining online documentation from many sources including the local system, the Red Hat Web site, the Fedora Project Web site, and other locations on the Internet.
  • Many useful URLs (Internet addresses) point to sites where you can obtain software, security programs and information, and more.
  • The comprehensive index helps you locate topics quickly and easily.

Key Topics Covered in This Book

This book contains a lot of information. This section distills and summarizes its contents. You may want to review the table of contents for more detail. This book covers the following.

Installation

  • Describes how to download from the Internet and burn both Fedora Desktop Live Media CD/DVDs and Fedora Install Media DVDs.
  • Helps you plan the layout of the system’s hard disk and assists you in using Disk Druid or the GNOME graphical partition editor (gparted) to partition the hard disk.
  • Explains how to use the Logical Volume Manager (LVM2) to set up, grow, and migrate logical volumes, which are similar in function to traditional disk partitions.
  • Discusses booting into a live Fedora session and installing Fedora from that session.
  • Describes in detail how to install Fedora/RHEL from a DVD, CD, a hard disk, or over a network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP.
  • Covers boot command line parameters ( FEDORA ), responses to the boot: prompt ( RHEL ), and explains how to work with Anaconda, Fedora/RHEL’s installation program.
  • Covers the details of customizing the X.org version of the X Window System.

Working with Fedora/RHEL

  • Introduces the graphical desktop (GUI) and explains how to use desktop tools including the panel, Panel menu, Main menu, Window Operations menu, Desktop menu, Desktop switcher, and terminal emulator.
  • Presents the KDE desktop and covers using Konqueror to manage files, start programs, and browse the Web.
  • Covers the GNOME desktop and the Nautilus file manager.
  • Explains how to customize your desktop to please your senses and help you work more efficiently.
  • Covers the Bourne Again Shell (bash) in three chapters, including an entire chapter on shell programming that includes many sample shell scripts.
  • Explains the command line interface (CLI) and introduces more than 30 command line utilities.
  • Presents a tutorial on the vim (vi work-alike) textual editor.
  • Covers types of networks, network protocols, and network utilities.
  • Explains hostnames, IP addresses, and subnets, and explores how to use host and dig to look up domain names and IP addresses on the Internet.
  • Covers distributed computing and the client/server model.

System Administration

  • Explains how to use the Fedora/RHEL system-config-* tools to configure the display, DNS, Apache, a network interface, and more. You can also use these tools to add users and manage local and remote printers. (See page 429 for a list of these tools.)
  • Describes how to use the following tools to download software and keep a system current:
    • yum—Downloads and installs software packages from the Internet, keeping a system up-to-date and resolving dependencies as it processes the packages. You can run yum manually or set it up to run automatically every night.
    • BitTorrent—Good for distributing large amounts of data such as the Fedora installation DVD and the live media CD/DVD. The more people who use BitTorrent to download a file, the faster it works.
    • up2date—The Red Hat Enterprise Linux tool for keeping system software current.
  • Covers graphical system administration tools, including the Main menu, GNOME and KDE menu systems, KDE Control Center, and KDE Control panel.
  • Explains system operation, including the boot process, init scripts, emergency mode, rescue mode, single-user and multiuser modes, and steps to take if the system crashes.
  • Describes files, directories, and filesystems, including types of files and filesystems, fstab (the filesystem table), automatically mounted filesystems, filesystem integrity checks, filesystem utilities, and fine-tuning of filesystems.
  • Covers backup utilities including tar, cpio, dump, and restore.
  • Explains how to customize and build a Linux kernel.

Security

  • Helps you manage basic system security issues using ssh (secure shell), vsftpd (secure FTP server), Apache (the httpd Web server), iptables (firewall), and more.
  • Presents a complete section on SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), including instructions for using system-config-selinux to configure SELinux.
  • Covers using system-config-firewall to set up a basic firewall to protect the system.
  • Provides instructions on using iptables to share an Internet connection over a LAN and to build advanced firewalls.
  • Describes how to set up a chroot jail to protect a server system.
  • Explains how to use TCP wrappers to control who can access a server.
  • Covers controlling servers using the xinetd superserver.

Clients and Servers

  • Explains how to set up and use the most popular Linux servers, providing a chapter on each: Apache, Samba, OpenSSH, sendmail, DNS, NFS, FTP, NIS and LDAP, iptables (all of which are included with Fedora/RHEL).
  • Describes how to set up a CUPS printer server.
  • Describes how to set up and use a DHCP server.

Programming

  • Covers programming tools including the GNU gcc compiler, the gdb debugger, make, and CVS for managing source code.
  • Explains how to debug a C program.
  • Describes how to work with shared libraries.
  • Provides a complete chapter on shell programming using bash, including many examples.

Details

Chapter 1 presents a brief history of Linux and explains some of the features that make it a cutting-edge operating system. The “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16) section details the typefaces and terminology this book uses.

Part I, “Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” discusses how to install Fedora/RHEL. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the process of installing Fedora/RHEL, including hardware requirements, downloading and burning a CD/DVD, and planning the layout of the hard disk. Chapter 3 is a step-by-step guide to installing either Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux and covers installing from a CD/DVD, a live session, a local hard disk, and installing over the network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP. It also shows how to set up the X Window System and customize your graphical user interface (GUI).

Part II, “Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” familiarizes you with Fedora/RHEL, covering logging in, the GUI, utilities, the filesystem, and the shell. Chapter 4 introduces desktop features, including the panel and the Main menu; explains how to use Konqueror to manage files, run programs, and browse the Web; and covers finding documentation, dealing with login problems, and using the window manager. Chapter 5 introduces the shell command line interface, describes more than 30 useful utilities, and presents a tutorial on the vim text editor. Chapter 6 discusses the Linux hierarchical filesystem, covering files, filenames, pathnames, working with directories, access permissions, and hard and symbolic links. Chapter 7 introduces the Bourne Again Shell (bash) and discusses command line arguments and options, redirecting input to and output from commands, running programs in the background, and using the shell to generate and expand filenames.

TIP: Experienced users may want to skim Part II
If you have used a UNIX or Linux system before, you may want to skim over or skip some or all of the chapters in Part II. All readers should take a look at “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16), which explains the typographic and layout conventions that this book uses, and “Getting the Facts: Where to Find Documentation” (page 114), which points out both local and remote sources of Linux/Fedora/RHEL documentation.

Part III, “Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” goes into more detail about working with the system. Chapter 8 discusses the GUI and includes a section on how to run a graphical program on a remote system and have the display appear locally. The section on GNOME describes GNOME utilities and explains how to use the Nautilus file manager, including its spatial view, while the section on KDE explains more about Konqueror and KDE utilities. Chapter 9 extends the bash coverage from Chapter 7, explaining how to redirect error output, avoid overwriting files, and work with job control, processes, startup files, important shell builtin commands, parameters, shell variables, and aliases. Chapter 10 explains networks, network security, and the Internet and discusses types of networks, subnets, protocols, addresses, hostnames, and various network utilities. The section on distributed computing describes the client/server model and some of the servers you can use on a network. Details of setting up and using clients and servers are reserved until Part V.

Part IV covers system administration. Chapter 11 discusses core concepts such as Superuser, SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), system operation, general information about how to set up a server, DHCP, and PAM. Chapter 12 explains the Linux filesystem, going into detail about types of files, including special and device files, the use of fsck to verify the integrity of and repair filesystems, and the use of tune2fs to change filesystem parameters. Chapter 13 explains how to keep a system up-todate by downloading software from the Internet and installing it, including examples of using yum, BitTorrent, and RHEL’s up2date utility. Chapter 14 explains how to set up the CUPS printing system so you can print on the local system as well as on remote systems. Chapter 15 details customizing and building a Linux kernel. Chapter 16 covers additional administration tasks, including setting up user accounts, backing up files, scheduling automated tasks, tracking disk usage, and solving general problems. Chapter 17 explains how to set up a local area network (LAN), including both hardware (including wireless) and software setup.

Part V goes into detail about setting up and running servers and connecting to them with clients. The chapters in this part of the book cover the following clients/servers:

  • OpenSSH—Set up an OpenSSH server and use sh, scp, and sftp to communicate securely over the Internet.
  • FTP—Set up a vsftpd secure FTP server and use any of several FTP clients to exchange files with the server.
  • Mail—Configure sendmail and use Webmail, POP3, or IMAP to retrieve email; use SpamAssassin to combat spam.
  • NIS and LDAP—Set up NIS to facilitate system administration of a LAN and LDAP to distribute information and authenticate users over a network.
  • NFS—Share filesystems between systems on a network.
  • Samba—Share filesystems and printers between Windows and Linux systems.
  • DNS/BIND—Set up a domain nameserver to let other systems on the Internet know the names and IP addresses of local systems they may need to contact.
  • iptables—Share a single Internet connection between systems on a LAN and set up a firewall to protect local systems.
  • Apache—Set up an HTTP server that serves Web pages that browsers can display.

Part VI covers programming. Chapter 27 discusses programming tools and environments available under Fedora/RHEL, including the C programming language and debugger, make, shared libraries, and source code management using CVS. Chapter 28 goes into greater depth about shell programming using bash, with the discussion being enhanced by extensive examples.

Part VII includes appendixes on regular expressions, helpful Web sites, system security, and free software. This part also includes an extensive glossary with more than 500 entries and a comprehensive index.

Supplements

The author’s home page (www.sobell.com) contains downloadable listings of the longer programs from this book as well as pointers to many interesting and useful Linux sites on the World Wide Web, a list of corrections to the book, answers to even-numbered exercises, and a solicitation for corrections, comments, and suggestions.

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